MCL GENERAL STUDIES

(studies listed here are of a general nature, not focussing on specific writers, which are listed under Author Studies)

Period: Histories / Late Qing / May Fourth / Post-May Fourth / War Period / 1950s-1960s / Cultural Revolution / Post-Mao / Post-1989
Region: Taiwan / Hong Kong / Diaspora, Exile, Transnational
Theme: General / Lit Societies / Print Culture / Modernism / Postmodernism / Gender / Same-Sex / Minority, Aboriginal / Eco-literature / Science Fiction / Nativist-Roots / Popular Lit / Realism / Children's Lit / Translation Studies / The Field
Genre: Poetry / Drama / Prose and Reportage / Literary Criticism

Histories

Bady, Paul. La littérature chinoise moderne. Paris: Press Universitaire de France (PUF), 1993.

Birch, Cyril. "Literature under Communism." In Roderick MacFarquhar and John K. Fairbank, eds., The Cambridge History of China, vol 15: The People's Republic of China, pt. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991, 270-328.

Chen Sihe. Zhongguo dangdai wenxue shi jiaocheng (Lecturers on contemporary Chinese literature). Shanghai: Fudan daxue, 1999.

Chen, Yu-chin. "Writers and 50 Years of Chinese Communism." The Chinese Pen (Autumn 1972): 21-41.

Dolezalova, Anna. "Periodization of Modern Chinese Literature." Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 27-32.

-----. "Suggestions Regarding Periodization of Liteature in the People's Republic of China." Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 16 (1980): 153-59.

The Giants Within: A Portrait of Chinese Writers. 13 part video tapes. Taibei: Spring International, 1998.

Giafferri-Huang, Xiaomin. Le roman chinois depuis 1949. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1991.

Guo Tingli. Zhongguo jindai wenxue fazhan shi (History of the development of modern Chinese literature). 3 vols. Ji'nan: Shandong jiaoyu, 1990. [vol. 1, 1840-1873; vol 2, 1873-1905; vol. 3, 1905-1919]

Herdan, Innes. The Pen and the Sword: Literature and Revolution in Modern China. London: Red Books, 1992.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael Day. Brill, 2007. [Brill blurb]

Hsia, C. T. A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971.

Lai, Ming. A History of Chinese Literature. W/preface by Lin Yutang. NY: Capricorn Books, 1964. [pp. 346-400 deal with modern literature]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "Literary Trends I: The Quest for Modernity, 1895-1927." In The Cambridge History of China. Fairbank and Feuerwerker, eds. Cambridge UP, 1989, 12: 452-504

-----. "Literary Trends II: The Road to Revolution, 1927-1949." In Same as above. 13: 421-491.

Louie, Kam and Bonnie McDougall. The Literature of China in the Twentieth Century. NY: Columbia UP, 1997.

McDougall, Bonnie S. "Chinese Literature, 1900 to the Present." The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company, 2007.

Monsterleet, Jean. Sommets de la litterature chinoise contemporaine. Paris: Editions Domat, 1953. [includes a general overview of the literary renaissance from 1917-1950, as well as sections on Novel (with chapters on Ba Jin, Mao Dun, Lao She and Shen Congwen), Stories and Essays (with chapters on Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, Bing Xin, and Su Xuelin), Theater (Cao Yu, Guo Moruo), and Poetry (Xu Zhimo, Wen Yiduo, Bian Zhilin, Feng Zhi, and Ai Qing).

Nienhauser, William and Howard Goldblatt. "Modern Chinese Literature." Britannica.com.

Scott, A.C. Literature and the Arts in Twentieth Century China. NY: Doubleday, 1963.

Spence, Jonathan. 1981. The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution 1895-1980. New York: The Viking Press.

Su, Hsueh-lin. "Present Day Fiction and Drama in China." In Joseph Schyns, ed., 1500 Modern Chinese Novels and Plays. Beiping (Peiping): 1948.

Tang, Tao. History of Modern Chinese Literature. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1993.

Ting, Yi. A Short History of Modern Chinese Literature. Peking: FLP, 1959.

Yang Yi. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo shi (History of modern Chinese fiction). 3 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1986-98.

Zhang, Yinde. Le roman chinois moderne 1918-1949. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1992.


Late Qing (1895-1911)

A Ying. WanQing wenxue congchao (Compendium of late Qing literature). Beijing Zhonghua shuju, 1962.

-----. WanQing xiaoshou shi (History of late Qing fiction). Nanjing: Jiangsu wenyi, 2009.

Andrs, Dusan. Formulation of Fictionality: Discourse on Fiction in China between 1904 and 1915. Ph.d. Diss. Prague: Charles University, 2000.

Anonymous. “The New Novel Before the New Novel: John Fryer’s Fiction Contest.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 317-40.

Chan, Leo Tak-hung. "Liberal Versions: Late Qing Approaches to Translating Aesop's Fables." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 57-78.

Chang, Hao. Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for Order and Meaning, 1890-1911. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Chen, Dakeng. "The Price of Novels in the Late Qing Dynasty." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 1 (Feb. 2007): 125-34.

Chen, Jianhua. "The Late Qing Poetry Revolution: Liang Qichao, Huang Zunxian, and Chinese Literary Modernity." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 333-40.

-----. "Zhou Shoujuan's Love Stories and Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly Fiction." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 354-63.

Chen, Liana. "The Empress Dowager as Dramaturg: Reinventing Late-Qing Court Theatre." Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 21-46.

Chen, Pingyuan. "The Modern Transition of Chinese Novel." Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 2, 1 (Feb. 2002): 44- 67.

-----. Zhongguo xiandai xiaoshuo de qidian: Qingmo Minchu xiaoshuo yanjiu (The starting point for modern Chinese fiction: studies in late Qing and early Republican fiction). Beijing: Beijing daxue, 2005.

Cheng, Stephen. Flowers of Shanghai and the Late Qing Courtesan Novel. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1979.

Chin, Carol C. "Translating the New Woman: Chinese Feminists View of the West, 1905-1915." Gender and History 18, 5 (Nov. 2006): 490-518.

Chow, Kai-wing. "Imagining Boundaries of Blood: Zhang Binglin and the Invention of the Han 'Race' in Modern China." In Frank Dikotter, ed., The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. London: Hurst, 1997, 34-52.

Denton, Kirk A. "Introduction." In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Des Forges, Alexander. Street Talk and Alley Stories: Tangled Narratives of Shanghai from Lives of Shanghai Flowers (1892) to Midnight (1933). Ph.D. diss. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.

-----. "From Source Texts to 'Reality Observed': The Creation of the 'Author' in Nineteenth-Century Vernacular Fiction." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 22 (2000): 67-84.

-----. "The Uses of Fiction: Liang Qichao and His Contemporaries." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 341-47.

-----. "Building Shanghai, One Page at a Time: The Aesthetics of Installment Fiction at the Turn of the Century." The Journal of Asian Studies 62, 3 (Aug. 2003): 781-810.

-----. Mediasphere Shanghai: The Aesthetics of Cultural Production. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Chris Berry]

-----. "Professional Anxiety, Brand Names, and Wild Chickens: From 1909." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 40-53.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. "The Origins of Modern Chinese Literature." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

-----, ed. The Chinese Novel at the Turn of the Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.

-----. "Literary Historiography in Early Twentieth-Century China (1904-1928): Construction of Cultural Memory." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 123-66.

-----. "Fiction from the End of the Empire to the Beginning of the Republic (1897-1916)." In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 697-731.

Drunken Whiskers. That Chinese Woman: The Life of Sai-Chin-Hua. Tr. Henry McAleavy. London: Allen and Unwin, 1959; New York: Crowell 1959.

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004. ["Introduction to The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction." Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal 6, 4 (Dec. 2004).]

-----. "The Great (Surrogate) Mother of the West: The Genealogy of Masculinity in Yung Wing's My Life in China and America." Tamkang Review XXXV, 1 (Autumn 2004): 57-78.

Fogel, Joshua and Peter Zarrow, eds. Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

Fong, Grace S., Nanxiu Qian, and Harriet Zurndorfer, eds., "Beyond Tradition and Modernity: Gender, Genre, and Cosmopolitanism in Late Qing China." Speciall issue of Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Furth, Charlotte . "Intellectual Change: From the Reform Movement to the May Fourth Movement, 1895-1920." In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 13-96.

Gimpel, Denise. "A Neglected Medium: The Literary Journal and the Case of The Short Story Magazine (Xiaoshuo yuebao), 1910-1914." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 53-106.

-----. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Guan, Aihe. "The Traditional and Modern Conflicts of the Literary Innovation at the Threshold of the 20th Century." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 583-98.

Guo, Yanli. "An Introduction to Modern Chinese Female Literature." Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 3, 2 (2003): 109-22.

Hamm, John Christopher. "Reading the Swordsman's Tale: Shisanmei and Ernu yingxiong zhuan." T'oung Pao 84 (1998): 328-55.

Hanan, Patrick. "The Missionary Novels of Nineteenth-Century China." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies LX, 2 (2000): 413-44.

-----. "A Study in Acculturation--The First Novels Translated into Chinese." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles and Reviews 23 (2002): 55-80.

-----. Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

[Abstract: It has often been said that the nineteenth century was a relatively stagnant period for Chinese fiction, but preeminent scholar Patrick Hanan shows that the opposite is true: the finest novels of the nineteenth century show a constant experimentation and evolution. In this collection of detailed and insightful essays, Hanan examines Chinese fiction before and during the period in which Chinese writers first came into contact with western fiction. Hanan explores the uses made of fiction by westerners in China; the adaptation and integration of western methods in Chinese fiction; and the continued vitality of the Chinese fictional tradition. Some western missionaries, for example, wrote religious novels in Chinese, almost always with the aid of native assistants who tended to change aspects of the work to "fit" Chinese taste. Later, such works as Washington Irving’s "Rip Van Winkle," Jonathan Swift’s "A Voyage to Lilliput," the novels of Jules Verne, and French detective stories were translated into Chinese. These interventions and their effects are explored here for virtually the first time. Contents: (1) The Narrator’s Voice Before the "Fiction Revolution"; (2) Illusion of Romance and the Courtesan Novel; (3) The Missionary Novels of the Nineteenth Century; (4) The First Novel Translated Into Chinese; (5) The Translated Fiction in the Early Shen Bao; (6) The New Novel Before the New Novel—John Fryer’s Fiction Contest; (7) The Second Stage of Vernacular Translation; (8) Wu Jianren and the Narrator; (9) Specific Literary Relations of Sea of Regret; (10) The Autobiographical Romance of Chen Diexian; (11) The Technique of Lu Xun’s Fiction]

Harrell, Paula. Sowing the Seeds of Change: Chinese Students, Japanese Teachers, 1895-1905. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992.

Heroldova, Helena. "Glass Submarines and Electric Balloons: Creating Scientific and Technical Vocabulary in Chinese Science Fiction." In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 537-554.

Hon, Tze-ki. "National Essence, National Learning, and Culture: Historical Writings in Guocui xuebao, Xueheng, and Guoxue jikan." Historiography East and West 1, 2 (2003): 241-86.

-----. Revolution as Restoration: Guocui xuebao and China's Path to Modernity, 1905-1911. Leiden: Brill, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Peter Zarrow]

[Abstract: Revolution as Restoration examines the journal Guocui xuebao (1905-1911) to elucidate the momentous political and social changes in early twentieth-century China. Rather than viewing the journal as a collection of documents for studying a thinker (e.g., Zhang Taiyan), a concept (e.g., national essence), or an intellectual movement (e.g., cultural conservatism), this book focuses on the global network of commerce and communication that allowed independent publications to appear in the Chinese print market. As such, this book offers a different perspective on the Chinese quest for modernity. It shows that, from the start, the Chinese quest for modernity was never completely orchestrated by the central government, nor was it static and monolithic as the teleology of revolution describes.]

Hsia, C.T. "Yen Fu and Liang Ch'i-ch'ao as Advocates of New Fiction." In A. Rickett, ed., Chinese Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch'i-ch'ao. Princeton: PUP, 1978, 221-57.

Hu, Ying. "Reconfiguring Nei/Wai: Writing the Woman Traverler in the Late Qing." Late Imperial China 18, 1 (1997): 72-99.

-----. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

-----. "Naming the First New Woman: The Case of Kang Aide." NAN NÜ: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 3, 2 (2001).

-----. "Naming the First 'New Woman.'" In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

-----. "Late Qing Fiction." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 348-54.

-----. "'How Can a Daughter Glorify the Family Name?' Filiality and Women's Rights in the Late Qing." Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 11, 2 (2009): 234-69.

[Abstract: This paper examines married daughters' filiality toward their natal families through three case studies. The protagonists are Qiu Jin (1875?-1907), Wu Zhiying (1868-1934) and Xu Zihua (1873-1935). Using the lens of filiality, we are able to observe the finer nuances of their gendered self-conception within the context of the rapidly changing world at the end of China's imperial era. I argue that the language and sentiment of filiality facilitated a substantial broadening of women's rights: in expanding what a literati daughter can claim as her intellectual inheritance, in providing the basis of a legal argument for a daughter's inheritance rights, and in offering a conduit for the experience of women's participation in political changes.]

Hung, Eva. "Giving Texts a Context: Chinese Translations of Classical English Detective Stories, 1896-1916." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 25-36.

Huntington, Rania. “The Weird in the Newspaper.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 341-97. [deals mostly with the Dianshizhai huabao]

Huters, Theodore. "From Writing to Literature: The Development of Late Qing Theories of Prose." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 47, 1 (1987): 50-96.

-----. "A New Way of Writing: The Possibility for Literature in Late Qing China, 1895-1908." Modern China 14, 3 (1988): 243-76.

-----. "Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution." In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

-----. Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Bonnie S. McDougall]

Jin, Yuan. "The Influence of Translated Fiction on Chinese Romantic Ficiton." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 283-302.

Judge, Joan. “Reforming the Feminine: Female Literacy and the Legacy of 1898.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

-----. "Key Words in the Late Qing Reform Discourse: Classical and Contemporary Sources of Authority." Indiana East Asian Working Paper Series on Language and Politics in Modern China.

Karl, Rebecca E.. "'Slavery,' Citizenship, and Gender in Late Qing China's Global Contexts." In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002, 212-44.

Karl, Rebecca E. and Peter Zarrow, eds. Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

Kaske, Elisabeth. "Mandarin, Vernacular and National Language--China's Emerging Concept of a National Language in the Early Twentieth Century." In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 265-304.

-----. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895-1919. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: The study examines the origins of the "literary revolution" proclaimed in 1917 which laid the foundation for the replacement of the classical language by the vernacular as China's national language and medium of national literature. A unique, multifaceted approach is used to explain the political significance of the classical/vernacular divide against the backdrop of social change that followed the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5. Seeing education as the central battleground for all debates on language, the study in six thoroughly documented chapters investigates the language policy of the Qing and Republican governments, vernacular journalism of the revolutionaries, the activities of urban script reformers, the linguistic thought of the national essence advocates, and the emergence of a scholarly interest in the vernacular in academic circles.]

Keulemans, Paize. "Recreating the Storyteller Image: Publishing Martial Arts Fiction to Renew the Public in the Late Qing." Twentieth-Century China 29, 2 (April 2004): 7-38.

-----. "Printing the Sound of Cosmopolitan Beijing: Dialect Accents in Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 159-84.

-----. Sound Rising from the Paper: Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction and the Chinese Acoustic Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2014.

Knight, Sabina. "Predicaments of Modernity in Late-Qing Novels, 1895-1911." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 51-72.

Kockum, Keiko. Japanese Acheivement, Chinese Inspiration: A Study of the Japanese Influence on the Modernisation of the Late Qing Novel. Stockholm: Orientaliska Studier, 1990.

Kowallis, Jon. "Melancholy in Late Qing and Early Republican Verse." In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 289-314.

-----. The Subtle Revolution: Poets of the "Old Schoos" during Late Qing and Early Republican China. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 2006.

Kwong, S.K. A Mosaic of the Hundred Days: Personalities, Politics and Ideas of 1898. Cambridge, MA: Counicil on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1984.

Lackner, Michael, Iwo Amelung, and Joachim Kurtz, eds. New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001.

Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

Larson, Wendy. "Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China." In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Lee, Haiyan. "All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918." Modern China 27, no. 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

-----. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Lee, Mabel. "Chinese Women and Social Change: A Theme in Late Ch'ing Fiction and Its Subsequent Development." In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 123-38.

Li, Danke. "Popular Culture in the Making of Anti-Imperialist and Nationalist Sentiments in Sichuan." Modern China 30, 4 (Oct. 2004): 470-505.

Abstract: Existing Western scholarship on the rights recovery movement in Sichuan mainly focuses on the role played by elites. This article argues that popular culture, in the form of folk stories, songs, and children's primers, also contributed to that movement by shaping and expressing popular anti-imperialist attitudes. Its analysis of primers available in late Qing Sichuan and popular stories about the activities of foreigners prevalent in the early 1900s serves to reveal a rich local cultural milieu of time-nurtured anti-imperialist sentiment among common people, which broadly influenced local political action. The protests over the Jiangbei mining concession encompassed both elite and ordinary people, although each group understood the issue differently.

Li, Hsiao-t'i. Opera, Society, and Politics: Chinese Intellectuals and Popular Culture, 1901-1937. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1996.

-----. "Making a Name and a Culture for the Masses in China." positions: east asia cultures critique 9, 1 (Spring 2001): 29-68.

Li, Yuhang. "Oneself as a Female Deity: Representations of Empress Dowager Cixi as Guanyin." Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 75-118.

Liang, Samuel Y. Mapping Modernity in Shanghai: Space, Gender, and Visual Culture in the Sojourners' City, 1853-98. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: This book argues that modernity first arrived in late nineteenth-century Shanghai via a new spatial configuration. This city’s colonial capitalist development ruptured the traditional configuration of self-contained households, towns, and natural landscapes in a continuous spread, producing a new set of fragmented as well as fluid spaces. In this process, Chinese sojourners actively appropriated new concepts and technology rather than passively responding to Western influences. Liang maps the spatial and material existence of these transient people and reconstructs a cultural geography that spreads from the interior to the neighbourhood and public spaces.]

Liu, Jen-Peng. "The Disposition of Hierarchy and the Late Qing Discourse of Gender Equality." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, 1 (April 2001): 69-79.

Liu, Jianmei. "Nation, Women, and Gender in the Late Qing." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 71-92.

Liu, Lydia, ed. Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

-----. "The Translator's Turn: The Birth of Modern Chinese Language and Fiction." In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 1055-1066.

Liu, Lydia, Rebecca Karl, and Dorothy Ko, eds. The Birth of Chinese Feminism: Essential Texts in Transnational Theory. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: He-Yin Zhen (ca. 1884-1920?) was a theorist who figured centrally in the birth of Chinese feminism. Unlike her contemporaries, she was concerned less with China's fate as a nation and more with the relationship among patriarchy, imperialism, capitalism, and gender subjugation as global historical problems. This volume, the first translation and study of He-Yin's work in English, critically reconstructs early twentieth-century Chinese feminist thought in a transnational context by juxtaposing He-Yin Zhen's writing against works by two better-known male interlocutors of her time. The editors begin with a detailed analysis of He-Yin Zhen's life and thought. They then present annotated translations of six of her major essays, as well as two foundational tracts by her male contemporaries, Jin Tianhe (1874-1947) and Liang Qichao (1873¡V1929), to which He-Yin's work responds and with which it engages. Jin, a poet and educator, and Liang, a philosopher and journalist, understood feminism as a paternalistic cause that liberals like themselves should defend. He-Yin presents an alternative conception that draws upon anarchism and other radical trends. Ahead of her time, He-Yin Zhen complicates conventional accounts of feminism and China's history, offering original perspectives on sex, gender, labor, and power that remain relevant today.]

Liu, Siyuan. Performing Hybridity in Colonial-Modern China. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[Abstract: n Shanghai during the early portion of the twentieth century, a hybrid theatrical form emerged that was based on Western spoken theatre, classical Chinese theatre, and a Japanese hybrid form of kabuki and Western-style spoken theatre called shinpa (new school drama). Known as wenmingxi (civilized drama), this form has, until recently, largely been ignored by scholars in China and the West as it does not fit into the current binary "traditional/modern" model in non-Western theatre and performance studies. This book places wenmingxi in the context of its hybridized literary and performance elements, giving it a definitive place in modern Chinese theatre.]

Liu, Wei-p'ing. "The Poetry Revolution of the Late Ch'ing Period: A Reevaluation." In A.R. Davis and A.D. Stefanowska, eds. Austrina Marricksville: Oriental Society of Australia, 1982, 188-99.

Martin, Helmut. "A Transitional Concept of Chinese Literature 1897-1917: Liang Qichao on Poetry Reform, Historical Drama and the Political Novel." Oriens Extremus 20, 2 (1973): 175-217.

Ming, Feng-ying. “Baoyu in Wonderland: Technological Utopia in the Early Modern Chinese Science Fiction Novel.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 152-72.

Murthy, Viren. "The Politics of Fengjian in Late Qing and Early Republican China." In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon and Hung-yok Ip eds., Modernities as Local Practices, Nationalism, and Cultural Production: Deconstructing the May-Fourth Paradigm on Modern China. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008.

Pan, Jianguo. "Metal Typography, Stone Lithography, and the Dissemination of Ming-Qing Popular Fictions in Shanghai between 1874-1911. Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 561-582

Pollard, David E., ed. Translation and Creation: Reading of Western Literature in Early Modern China, 1840-1918. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998.

Qian, Nanxiu. "Revitalizing the Xianyuan (Worthy Ladies) Tradition: Women in the 1898 Reforms." Modern China 29, 4 (Oct. 2003): 399-454.

Rankin, Mary. Early Chinese Revolutionaries: Radical Intellectuals in Shanghai and Chekiang, 1902-1911. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1971.

Saari, Hon L. Legacies of Childhood: Growing Up Chinese in a Time of Crisis, 1890-1920. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1990.

Starr, Chloë F. "Shifting Boundaries: Gender in Pinhua Baojian." Nan nü 1, 2 (1999): 268-302.

-----. "Narrating the Passage of Text: Reading Multiple Editions of the Nineteenth-century novel Huayue hen (Traces of Flowers and the Moon)."
In Daria Berg, ed., Reading China. Leiden: Brill, 2006.

-----. Red-light Novels of the Late Qing. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by John Christopher Hamm]

[Abstract: Chinese literature has traditionally been divided by both theorists and university course providers into 'classical' and 'modern.' This has left nineteenth-century fiction in limbo, and allowed negative assessments of its quality to persist unchecked. The popularity of Qing dynasty red-light fiction – works whose primary focus is the relationship between clients and courtesans, set in tea-houses, pleasure gardens, and later, brothels – has endured throughout the twentieth century. This volume explores why, arguing that these novels are far from the 'low' work of 'frustrated scholars' but in their provocative play on the nature of relations between client, courtesan and text, provide an insight into wider changes in understandings of self and literary value in the nineteenth century.]

Song, Gang. "A Paradox In-Between: The Dianshizhai Pictorial and Late 19th Century Chinese Literature." The International Journal of the Humanities 2, 1 (n.d.).

Swislocki, Mark. "Imagining Irreconcilability: Cultural Differentiation through Human-Animal Relations in Late Qing Shanghai." positions: asia critique 20, 4 (Fall 2012): 1159-1189.

Tang, Xiaobing. “’Poetic Revolution,’ Colonization, and Form at the Beginning of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

Teruo, Tarumoto. "A Statistical Survey of Translated Fiction, 1840-1920." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 37-42.

Tschanz, Dietrich. "The New Drama before the New Drama: Drama Journals and Drama Reform in Shanghai before the May Fourth Movement." Theatre InSight 10, 1 (1999): 49-59.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford UP, 2005. [Stanford UP blurb]

Tu, Wei-ming. "The Enlightenment Mentality and the Chinese Intellectual Dilemma." In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 103-18.

Wang, Cheng-hua. "'Going Public': Portraits of the Empress Dowager Cixi, Circa 1904." Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 14, 1 (2012): 119-76.

Wang, David Der-wei. Fin-de-siecle Splendor: Repressed Modernities of Late Qing Fiction, 1848-1911. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997.

[Abstract: The reigning view of literary historians has been that the May Fourth movement of 1919 marks the division between the traditional and the modern in Chinese literature. This book argues that signs of reform and innovation can be discerned long before May Fourth, and that as China entered the arena of modern, international history in the late Qing, it was already developing its own complex matrix of incipient modernities. It demonstrates that late Qing fiction nurtured a creative, innovative poetics, one that was spurned by the reformers of the May Fourth generation in favor of Western-style realism. The author recognizes that a full account of modern Chinese fiction needs to ask why so many genres, styles, themes, and figures found in late imperial fiction were repressed by "modern" Chinese literary discourse. He focuses on four genres of late Qing fiction that have been either rudely dismissed in pejorative terms or simply ignored: depravity romances, court-case and chivalric cycles, grotesque expose, and scientific fantasies. The author shows that in spite of the realist orthodoxy that has dominated Chinese literature since the May Fourth movement, these unwelcome genres have continually found their way back into mainstream discourse, their influence being increasingly evident in recent decades. This first comprehensive study of late Qing fiction discusses more than sixty works, at least half of which have rarely or never been dealt with by Western or Chinese scholars. Richly informed by contemporary literary theory, this book constitutes a polemical rethinking of the nature of Chinese literary and cultural modernity.]

-----. "Translating Modernity." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 303-329.

-----. "Return to Go: Fictional Innovation in the Late Qing and the Late Twentieth Century." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 257-97.

----. "Nonconformism as Narrative Strategy: A Reappraisal of Late Ch'ing Fiction." Asian Culture Quarterly 7, 2 (1984): 55-72.

-----. "Storytelling Context in Chinese Fiction: A Preliminary Examination of It as a Mode of Narrative Discourse." Tamkang Review 6, 1 (1984/85): 133-50.

Wang, Dun. "The Late Qing's Other Utopias: China's Science-Fictional Imagination, 1900-1910." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 34, 2 (Sept. 2008).

[Abstract: This research paper examines the genesis and mechanism of China’s imagination of the future at the turn of the 20th century, a time when the country’s current socio-political reality was seen as being in many ways abominable, while the future was seen as a utopian dreamland of possibility and hope. An analysis of Wu Jianren’s the late Qing fiction The New Story of the Stone (1905), especially its second half which depicts the future China as a "Civilized Realm," shows the influence on the young Chinese writers of contemporary Western science fiction and (especially) utopian fiction. It also shows that these late Qing writers wanted to portray their imagined China of the future as being “better” than the contemporary West (and also future West of Western utopian narratives) inasmuch as it will be using (originally Western) technology in a manner which is fundamentally moral and spiritual, as befits China’s traditional culture. Here the key contrast is between, on the one hand, ancient (Confucian, Daoist) Chinese civilization, moral idealism and spirituality, and on the other hand (contemporary and future) Western barbarism, empiricism, materialism, pragmatism, a “non-humanism” which seems to ignore moral and spiritual life. The author points out that Wu Jianren’s future Chinese Civilized Realm has turned Western technology (the X-ray machine) into a "spiritual technology" (the Moral Nature Inspection Lens) which justifies China’s own cultural and philosophical past while simultaneously placing this past in a distant future which seems to go even "beyond" the one imagined by Western writers. That is, finally China will be technologically superior to the West on account of its age-old moral and spiritual superiority.

Wang, Hui. "The Fate of 'Mr. Science' in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought." positions 3, 1 (1995): 1-68.

-----. "How to Explain 'China" and Its 'Modernity': Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought." Tr. Wang Yang. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 63-94. Previously published as "The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking the Rise of Modern China." Modern China 4, 1 (Jan. 2008): 114-40.

-----. "Weber and the Question of Chinese Modernity." Tr. Theodore Huters. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 264-305.

Wang, Xiaoming. "From Petitions to Fiction: Visions of the Future Propagated in Early Modern China." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 43-56.

Wong, Wang-chi. "An Act of Violence: Translation of Western Fiction in the late Qing and early Republican Period." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 21-39.

Wright, David. “Yan Fu and the Tasks of the Translator.” In Lackner et al. eds., New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001, 235-256.

Wu, Shengqing. "Gendering the Nation: The Proliferation of Images of Zhen Fei (1876-1900) and Sai Jinhua (1872-1936) in Late Qing and Republican China." Nannu: Men, Women and Gender in China 11, 1 (2009): 1-64.

[Abstract: This paper analyzes the historical trajectories of the images of Zhen Fei and Sai Jinhua, who rose from an obscure royal concubine and an infamous prostitute, respectively, to become androgynous national heroines in wartime China. The study exposes the construction and the fictional elements of these images, thus providing concrete examples for establishing the interconnection between male fantasy and the invention of the modern national subject. It argues that the female body became the contested site for predominantly male-led discourses on eroticism and politics, and emphasizes that erotic desire may inform or enhance expressions and experiences of the formation of modern nationhood.]

Xiong, Yuezhi. "Degrees of Familiarity with the West in Late Qing Society." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 25-36.

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “The Life-Style of Four Wenren in Late Qing Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 57, 1 (1997): 419-70. [deals with Wang Tao, Chen Jitong, Zeng Pu, and Jin Songcen]

-----. “Creating the Urban Beauty: The Shanghai Courtesan in Late Qing Illustrations.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 397-447.

-----. Shanghai Love: Courtesans, Intellectuals, and Entertainment Culture, 1850-1911. Seattle: University of Washington, 2006. [press blurb]

Yu, Chu Chi. "Lord Byron's 'The Isles of Greece: First Translations." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 79-104.

Zamperini, Paola. "Elective Affinities: Literary Soulmates and the Marketplace in late Qing Fiction." Late Imperial China 28, 1 (July 2007): 62-91.

-----. Lost Bodies. Prostitution and Masculinity in late Qing Fiction. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: This important contribution to the study of early modern Chinese fiction and representation of gender relations focuses on literary representations of the prostitute produced in the Ming and Qing periods. Following her heavily symbolic body, the present work maps this fictional heroine's journey from innocence to sex-work and beyond. This crucial angle allows the author to paint a picture of gender identity, sexuality, and desire that is at once unitary and multi-layered, and that comes to illuminate some of the major themes in the construction of Chinese modernity. ]

Zimmer, Thomas. "Selective Outlooks on the World: The Problem of Exoticism in Chinese Novels from the Turn of the 19th and 20th Century." Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 269-78.

Zou, John. "Travel and Translation: An Aspect of China's Cultural Modernity, 1862-1926." In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 133-51.


May Fourth (1915-1925) / Early Republic

Anderson, Marsten. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Biasco, Margherita. “The Crisis of the Family System and the Search for a New Identity of Chinese Youth.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 189-200.

Bing, Sang. "The Vernacular Language During the May Fourth Period." Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 71-93.

[Abstract: The development of the vernacular language during the New Culture Movement was only intended as a transitional stage to the goal of abolishing the Chinese language. Intellectuals such as Qian Xuantong, Lu Xun, Hu Shi, and Chen Duxiu all advocated to varying degrees the Romanization, Latinization, and abolition of the Chinese language. Chen Yinke, however, argued that the adoption of a Europeanized grammatical structure, and the borrowing of neologisms from abroad, such as Japan, altered the fundamental property of Chinese as an independent language. Reassessing the language reform of the May Fourth today, it is evident that the development of the simplified character, the vernacular language, and the pinyin did not achieve the goal of unifying the spoken and written Chinese. Instead by eliminating the classical language, the language reform removed the ability of the vernacular-speaking masses to create a literature of the written words.]

Braester, Yomi. "Dreaming a Cure for History: The Resistance to Historical Consciousness Within the May Fourth Movement." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 31-55.

Button, Peter. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China's unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun's “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi's aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo's Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan's Red Crag.]

Cai, Yuanpei. "The May Fourth Spirit, Now and Then." China Heritage Quarterly 17 (March 2009).

Chan, Adrian. "Towards a Marxist Theory and Sociology of Literature in China, to 1933." In Wang Gungwu, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian Nat. Univ., 1981, 155-171.

Chang, Shuei-May, ed. Casting Off the Shackles of Family : Ibsen's Nora Figure in Modern Chinese Literature, 1918-1942. Peter Lang, 2002.

Chao, Anne. "Introduction: Re-engaging and Re-generating the May Fourth." Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 1-4.

Chen, Jianhua. "Zhou Shoujuan's Love Stories and Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly Fiction." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 354-63.

-----. "Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949." In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

-----. "An Archaeology of Repressed Popularity: Zhou Shoujuan, Mao Dun, and their 1920s Literary Polemics." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 91-114.

-----. "Revolution: From Literary Revolution to Revolutionary Literature." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 15-32.

Chen, Joseph. The May Fourth Movement in Shanghai. Leiden: Brill, 1971.

Chen, Pingyuan. "Literature High and Low: 'Popular Fiction' in Twentieth-Century China." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 113-33.

-----. Touches of History: An Entry into "May Fourth" China. Trs. Michel Hockx, with Maria af Sandelberg, Uganda Sze Pui Kwan, Chistopher Neil Payne and Christopher Rosenmeier. Leiden: Brill, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Tze-ki Hon]

[Abstract: The "May Fourth Movement" of 1919 is generally seen as the central event in China's transformation from the traditional to the modern. It signalled the arrival of effective student activism on the political scene; it heralded the success of outspoken anti-imperialist ideologies; its slogans and pamphlets demonstrated the rhetorical qualities of the new vernacular writing; some of its participants went on to become leading cultural and political figures; it is said to have given birth to the Communist Party. The latter aspect has ensured that a particular narrative of the movement remained enshrined in official Chinese state ideology for many decades, a narrative often opposed by those outside China for similarly ideological reasons. No movement in modern Chinese history and culture has been more researched, yet none has been less understood. This award-winning book, by one of Peking University's most famous professors, represents a groundbreaking attempt to return to a study of "May Fourth" that is solidly grounded in historical fact. Favouring smaller stories over grand narratives, concentrating on unknown, marginal materials rather than familiar key documents, and highlighting "May Fourth"'s indebtedness to the cultural debates of the preceding late Qing period, Chen Pingyuan reconstructs part of the actual historical scenery, demonstrating the great variety of ideas expressed during those tumultuous decades.]

Chen, Sihe. "The Avant-garde Elements in the May Fourth New Literature Movement." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 2 (May 2007): 163-96.

Cheng, Ching-mao. "The Impact of Japanese Literary Trends." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 63-88.

Chow, Tse-tsung. "Anti-Confucianism in Early Republican China." In Arthur Wright, ed., The Confucian Persuasion. Stanford: SUP, 1967.

-----. The May Fourth Movement: Intellectual Revolution in Modern China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1960.

Chow, William C. L. "The Development of Individualism in Modern China." Hanxue yanjiu (Chinese Studies). 13, 2 (1995): 77-98.

Chung, Hilary. “Kristevan (Mis)understandings: Writing in the Feminine.” In Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 72-91. [analyzes fiction by Chen Hengzhe, Lu Yin, Ding Ling, and Feng Yuanjun]

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan, "Images of Women: Exploring Apparent Changes of Attitude Towards Women in the May 4th Era Through Literary Imagery." In Viviane Alleton and Alexeï Volkov eds., Notions et Perceptions du Changement en Chine. Paris: College de France, 1994, 187-198.

Cini, Francesca. "Le 'problem des femmes' dans La nouvelle jeunesse, 1915-1922" (The women's problem in New Youth, 1915-1922). Etudes chinoies 5, 1/2 (Spring/Autumn 1986): 133-56.

Crespi, John. "Form and Reform: New Poetry and the Crescent Moon Society." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 364-70..

Daruvala, Susan. Zhou Zuoren and an Alternative Chinese Response to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000.

Davies, Gloria. "Towards Transcendental Knowledge: The Mapping of the May Fourth Modernity/Spirit." East Asian History 4 (1992): 143-64.

Denton, Kirk A. "Introduction." In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Des Forges, Alexander. Street Talk and Alley Stories: Tangled Narratives of Shanghai from Lives of Shanghai Flowers (1892) to Midnight (1933). Ph.D. diss. Princeton: Princeton University, 1998.

-----. Mediasphere Shanghai: The Aesthetics of Cultural Production. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Chris Berry]

Dirlik, Arif.  "Ideology and Organization in the May Fourth Movement:  Some Problems in the Intellectual Historiography of the May Fourth Period."  Republican China 12, 1 (Nov. 1986): 3-19.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. "Literary Historiography in Early Twentieth-Century China (1904-1928): Construction of Cultural Memory." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 123-66.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena and Oldrich Kral, eds. The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001.

Dooling, Amy D. Feminism and Narrative Strategies in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Women’s Writing. Ph.D. Diss. NY: Columbia University, 1998.

-----. "Reconsidering the Origins of Modern Chinese Women's Writing." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 371-77.

-----. Women's Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman's women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Duara, Prasenjit. Rescuing History from the Nation:Questions and Narratives of Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. [see also "Symposium on Prasenjit Duara's Rescuing History from the Nation." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 29, 4 (Oct.-Dec. 1997)].

Eastman, Lloyd E. "The May Fourth Movement as a Historical Turning Point: Ecological Exhaustion, Militarization, and Other Causes of China's Modern Crisis." In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 123-38.

Eber, Irene. "Images of Oppressed Peoples and Modern Chinese Literature." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 17-36.

Eide, Elizabeth. “The Balad of Kongque dongnan fei as Freudian Feminist Drama during the May Fourth Period.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 129-38.

Elvin, Mark. Self-Liberation and Self-Immolation in Modern Chinese Thought. Canberra: Australian National University, 1978.

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004. ["Introduction to The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction." Comparative Literature and Culture: A WWWeb Journal 6, 4 (Dec. 2004).]

Feng, Liping. "Democracy and Elitism: The May Fourth Ideal of Literature." Critical Inquiry 20, 2 (Winter 1994): 328-56.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. "Reconsidering Xueheng: Neo-Conservatism in Early Republican China." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 137-70.

Fincher, John H. "The Writ of Literature: The Chinese Disciples of Western New Humanism, ca.1919-1933." In Wang Gungwu ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian Nat. Univ., 1981, 139-153.

Findeisen, Raoul David. "From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-Letter Genre." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 79-112.

Fitzgerald, John. Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution. Stanford: SUP, 1996.

Fogel, Joshua A. “Japanese Literary Travelers in Prewar China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49, 2 (1989): 575-602.

Fruehauf, Heinrich. Urban Exoticism in Modern Chinese Literature, 1910-1933. Ph.D. diss. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990.

Furth, Charlotte. "May Fourth in History." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 59-68.

-----. "Intellectual Change: From the Reform Movement to the May Fourth Movement, 1895-1920." In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 13-96.

Galik, Marian. “May Fourth Literature Reconsidered: Musing Over Mythopeia as Creation.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 269-83.

Ge, Baoquan. “The Influence of Russian Classical Literature on Modern Chinese Literature Before and After the May Fourth Movement.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 213-22.

Ge, Hongbin. "Wusi wenhua de neizai maodun" (Inherent contradictions of May Fourth culture). Confucius2000. [in Chinese]

Gimpel, Denise. "Beyond Butterflies: Some Observations on the Early Years of the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 40-60.

-----. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Goldman, Merle, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Boston: Harvard University Press. 1977.

-----. "Left-wing Criticism of the Pai Hua Movement." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 85-94.

Glosser, Susan L. "'The Truths I Have Learned': Nationalism, Family Reform, and Male Identity in China's New Culture Movement, 1915-1923 ." In Susan Brownell and Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, eds. Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, 120-44.

Grieder, Jerome. "The Question of Politics in the May Fourth Era." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 95-102.

Guan, Aihe. "The Traditional and Modern Conflicts of the Literary Innovation at the Threshold of the 20th Century." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 583-98.

Guo, Yanli. "An Introduction to Modern Chinese Female Literature." Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 3, 2 (2003): 109-22.

Hanan, Patrick. Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

[Abstract from: CUP website: It has often been said that the nineteenth century was a relatively stagnant period for Chinese fiction, but preeminent scholar Patrick Hanan shows that the opposite is true: the finest novels of the nineteenth century show a constant experimentation and evolution. In this collection of detailed and insightful essays, Hanan examines Chinese fiction before and during the period in which Chinese writers first came into contact with western fiction. Hanan explores the uses made of fiction by westerners in China; the adaptation and integration of western methods in Chinese fiction; and the continued vitality of the Chinese fictional tradition. Some western missionaries, for example, wrote religious novels in Chinese, almost always with the aid of native assistants who tended to change aspects of the work to "fit" Chinese taste. Later, such works as Washington Irving’s "Rip Van Winkle," Jonathan Swift’s "A Voyage to Lilliput," the novels of Jules Verne, and French detective stories were translated into Chinese. These interventions and their effects are explored here for virtually the first time. Contents: (1) The Narrator’s Voice Before the "Fiction Revolution"; (2) Illusion of Romance and the Courtesan Novel; (3) The Missionary Novels of the Nineteenth Century; (4) The First Novel Translated Into Chinese; (5) The Translated Fiction in the Early Shen Bao; (6) The New Novel Before the New Novel—John Fryer’s Fiction Contest; (7) The Second Stage of Vernacular Translation; (8) Wu Jianren and the Narrator; (9) Specific Literary Relations of Sea of Regret; (10) The Autobiographical Romance of Chen Diexian; (11) The Technique of Lu Xun’s Fiction]

Harbsmeier, Christopher. “May Fourth Linguistic Orthodoxy and Rhetoric: Some Informal Comparative Notes.” In Lackner et al. eds., New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001, 373-410.

Hay, Stephen N. Asian Ideas of East and West: Tagore and His Critics in Japan, China and India. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1970.

Hockx, Michel. "Mad Women and Mad Men: Intraliterary Contact in Early Republican Literature." In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

-----. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward M. Gunn]

-----. “Theory as Practice: Modern Chinese Literature and Bourdieu.” In Michel Hockx and Ivo Smits, eds., Reading East Asian Writing: The Limits of Literary Theory. New York and London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003, 220-39.

-----. "Playing the Field: Aspects of Chinese Literary Life in the 1920s." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 61-78.

-----. "Is There a May Fourth Literature? A Reply to Wang Xiaoming." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 40-52.

-----. "The Chinese Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui)." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 79-102.

Hon, Tze-ki. "National Essence, National Learning, and Culture: Historical Writings in Guocui xuebao, Xueheng, and Guoxue jikan." Historiography East and West 1, 2 (2003): 241-86.

-----. "Cultural Identity and Local Self-Government: A Study of Liu Yizheng's History of Chinese Culture." Modern China 30, 4 (Oct. 2004): 506-542.

Abstract: Until recently, the study of Chinese historical writings of the 1920s and 1930s has centered on the May Fourth approach to history, especially the Doubting Antiquity Movement (yigu yundong) led by Gu Jiegang. By privileging their historical writings as modern or progressive and labeling their opponents' as traditional or regressive, we fail to see the full scope of the modern Chinese historical debate and overlook its social and political underpinnings. In this article, based on a close reading of History of Chinese Culture (Zhongguo wenhua shi) of Liu Yizheng (1880-1956), the author seeks to contextualize the historical debate in terms of the political and social change in post-1911 China. Written in the early 1920s when intellectuals still could express different views of the nation without the fear of state censorship, Liu's History of Chinese Culture gave renewed emphasis to local self-government, thereby challenging the expansion of the state.

Hu, Ying. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1898-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

-----. "Naming the First New Woman." NAN NÜ: Men, Women and Gender in Early and Imperial China 3, 2 2001).

Huang, Sung-k’ang. “The May Fourth Legacy and the Process of Chinese Democracy (1915-1989).” Revue des Pays de l’Est 1/2 (1992).

Hummel, Arthur W. "The New Cultue Movement in China." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 152 (Nov., 1930): 55-62

Hung, Chang-tai. Going to the People: Chinese Intellectuals and Folk Literature, 1918-1937. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1985.

Hunt, Michael H. "The May Fourth Era: China's Place in the World." In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 178-200.

Huters, Theodore. "Critcal Ground: The Transformation of the May Fourth Era." In Bonnie McDougall, ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of China. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 54-80.

-----. "The Paradox of Chinese Iconoclasm," in Nancy Kobrin, ed., The Paradigm Exchange II, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota College of Liberal Arts, 1987, 13- 18.

-----. "Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution." In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

-----. Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Bonnie S. McDougall]

Ip, Hung-Yok, Tze-ki Hon, and Chiu-Chun Lee. "The Plurality of Chinese Modernity: A Review of Recent Scholarship on the May Fourth Movement." Modern China 29, 4 (Oct. 2003): 490-509.

Jenco, Leigh. "Culture as History: Envisioning Change Across and Beyond 'Eastern' and 'Western' Civilizations in the May Fourth Era." Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 34-52.

[Abstract: This essay examines an influential debate that took place during China's May Fourth era (circa 1915-1927) concerning the character of "Eastern" and "Western" civilizations. In this debate, both moderates and radicals wrestle with a growing awareness that cultures have not only a spatial existence but also a historical career, which has encouraged the development of certain institutions and attitudes and discouraged others. Spatial terms mark not only the places where knowledge circulates, but also the particular pasts-and thus futures-toward which Chinese thinkers align themselves. This way of figuring "East" and "West" enables May Fourth thinkers to do more than sort civilizational characteristics into categories of the inevitably universal and the irredeemably particular, as many commentators have assumed. It also facilitates the travel of cultural products and practices across the spatial as well as temporal boundaries originally seen to contain them.]

Jensen, Lionel. "Particular is Universal: Hu Shi, Ru, and the Chinese Transcendence of Nationalism." In Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese Traditions and Universal Civilization. Durham: Duke UP, 1998, 217-64.

Jin, Li. "Theater of Pathos: Sentimental Melodramas in the New Drama Legacy." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 94-128.

Jin, Yuan. "The Influence of Translated Fiction on Chinese Romantic Ficiton." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 283-302.

Jones, Andrew F. Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In 1992 Deng Xiaoping famously declared, "Development is the only hard imperative." What ensued was the transformation of China from a socialist state to a capitalist market economy. The spirit of development has since become the prevailing creed of the People’s Republic, helping to bring about unprecedented modern prosperity, but also creating new forms of poverty, staggering social upheaval, physical dislocation, and environmental destruction. In Developmental Fairy Tales, Andrew F. Jones asserts that the groundwork for this recent transformation was laid in the late nineteenth century, with the translation of the evolutionary works of Lamarck, Darwin, and Spencer into Chinese letters. He traces the ways that the evolutionary narrative itself evolved into a form of vernacular knowledge which dissolved the boundaries between beast and man and reframed childhood development as a recapitulation of civilizational ascent, through which a beleaguered China might struggle for existence and claim a place in the modern world-system. This narrative left an indelible imprint on China’s literature and popular media, from children’s primers to print culture, from fairy tales to filmmaking. Jones’s analysis offers an innovative and interdisciplinary angle of vision on China’s cultural evolution. He focuses especially on China’s foremost modern writer and public intellectual, Lu Xun, in whose work the fierce contradictions of his generation’s developmentalist aspirations became the stuff of pedagogical parable. Developmental Fairy Tales revises our understanding of literature’s role in the making of modern China by revising our understanding of developmentalism’s role in modern Chinese literature.]

Judge, Joan. "Blended Wish Images: Chinese and Western Exemplary Women at the Turn of the Twentieth Century." Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Kaske, Elisabeth. "Mandarin, Vernacular and National Language--China's Emerging Concept of a National Language in the Early Twentieth Century." In Lackner, Michael and Natascha Vittinghoff, eds. Mapping Meanings: The Field of New Learning in Late Qing China. Leiden: Brill, 2004, 265-304.

-----. The Politics of Language in Chinese Education, 1895-1919. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: The study examines the origins of the "literary revolution" proclaimed in 1917 which laid the foundation for the replacement of the classical language by the vernacular as China's national language and medium of national literature. A unique, multifaceted approach is used to explain the political significance of the classical/vernacular divide against the backdrop of social change that followed the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5. Seeing education as the central battleground for all debates on language, the study in six thoroughly documented chapters investigates the language policy of the Qing and Republican governments, vernacular journalism of the revolutionaries, the activities of urban script reformers, the linguistic thought of the national essence advocates, and the emergence of a scholarly interest in the vernacular in academic circles.]

Keaveney, Christopher T. The Subversive Self in Modern Chinese Literature: The Creation Society's Reinvention of the Japanese Shishosetsu. NY: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2004.

Kenley, David L. New Culture in a New World: The May Fourth Movement and the Chinese Diaspora in Singapore, 1919-1932. London: Routledge, 2003.

Kiyama, Hideo. "The 'Literary Renaissance' and the 'Literary Revolution.'" Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 27-60.

Knight, D. Sabina. "Agency Beyond Subjectivity: The Unredeemed Project of May Fourth Fiction." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 1, 2 (Jan. 1998): 1-36.

-----. "The Prison of Self-Consciousness in May Fourth Fiction." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 73-103.

Kowallis, Jon. "Melancholy in Late Qing and Early Republican Verse." In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 289-314.

Kung, Robert Lion. "Metaphysics adn East-West Philosophy: Applying the Chinese T'i-yung Paradigm." Philosophy East and West 29, 1 (Jan. 1979): 551-71.

Kuo, Ya-pei. Debating Culture in Interwar China. NY: Routledge, 2010.

Kwok, D.W.Y. Scientism in Chinese Thought, 1900-1950. New Haven: Yale UP, 1965.

Lanza, Fabio. "The Beijing University Students in the May Fourth in Era: A Collective Biography." In Kenneth J. Hammond and Kristen Stapleton, eds., The Human Tradition in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008, 117-34.

-----. Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijing. NY: Columbia University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Through an investigation of twentieth-century Chinese student protest, Fabio Lanza considers the marriage of the cultural and the political, the intellectual and the quotidian, that occurred during the May Fourth movement, along with its rearticulation in subsequent protest. Lanza returns to the May Fourth period (1917-1923) and the rise of student activism in and around Beijing University. He revisits reform in pedagogical and learning routines, changes in daily campus life, the fluid relationship between the city and its residents, and the actions of allegedly cultural student organizations. Through a careful analysis of everyday life and urban space, Lanza radically reconceptualizes the emergence of political subjectivities (categories such as "worker," "activist," and "student") and how they anchor and inform political action. His research underscores how, during a time of crisis, the lived realities of university and student became unsettled in Beijing, and how political militancy in China arose only when the boundaries of identification were challenged.]

-----. "Of Chronology, Failure, and Fidelity: When Did the May Fourth Movement End?" Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 53-70.

[Abstract: The essay posits the question of the end of May Fourth as a properly political sequence. If we consider May Fourth as a political movement, asking how it ends implies asking what kind of political subjects and political organizations were active then and ceased to be active at a certain point in time. Asking when and how the May Fourth movement ended implies, therefore, asking what ended. The essay analyzes a series of statements and actions signaling the "end" or the "defeat" of May Fourth in order to question whether there were collective practices, locations, and categories proper to the May Fourth period and how they got exhausted. Two elements appear to be crucial: the organizational structure of the xuehui and the category of "student."]

Larson, Wendy. "Women and Revolution in May Fourth Culture." In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

-----. "Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China." In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Lao, Chao-Chih. "Humor versus Huaji." The Journal of Language and Linguistics 2, 1 (2003): 25-46.

Laughlin, Charles. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John A. Crespi]

[Abstract: The Chinese essay is arguably China's most distinctive contribution to modern world literature, and the period of its greatest influence and popularity--the mid-1930s--is the central concern of this book. What Charles Laughlin terms "the literature of leisure" is a modern literary response to the cultural past that manifests itself most conspicuously in the form of short, informal essay writing (xiaopin wen). Laughlin examines the essay both as a widely practiced and influential genre of literary expression and as an important counter-discourse to the revolutionary tradition of New Literature (especially realistic fiction), often viewed as the dominant mode of literature at the time. After articulating the relationship between the premodern traditions of leisure literature and the modern essay, Laughlin treats the various essay styles representing different groups of writers. Each is characterized according to a single defining activity: "wandering" in the case of the Yu si (Threads of Conversation) group surrounding Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren; "learning" with the White Horse Lake group of Zhejiang schoolteachers like Feng Zikai and Xia Mianzun; "enjoying" in the case of Lin Yutang's Analects group; "dreaming" with the Beijing school. The concluding chapter outlines the impact of leisure literature on Chinese culture up to the present day. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity dramatizes the vast importance and unique nature of creative nonfiction prose writing in modern China. It will be eagerly read by those with an interest in twentieth-century Chinese literature, modern China, and East Asian or world literatures.]

Lee, Haiyan. "All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918." Modern China 27, 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

-----. "Sympathy, Hypocrisy, and the Trauma of Chineseness." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 76-122.

-----. "Tears That Crumbled the Great Wall: The Archaeology of Feeling in the May Fourth Folklore Movement." The Journal of Asian Studies 64, 1 (Feb. 2005): 35-65. [Deals chiefly with Gu Jiegang's study of the Meng Jiang Nu legend and briefly with Guo Moruo's translation of ancient poetry] [download from AAS website]

-----. "Governmentality and the Aesthetic State: A Chinese Fantasia." positions: east asia cultures critique 14, no.1 (2006): 99-130 [deals with Zhang Jingsheng's Mei de rensheng guan (Philosophy of a beautiful life), Meide shehui zuzhi fa (How to organize a beautiful society), and, to a lesser extent, Xingshi (Sex histories)].

-----. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

-----. "The Other Chinese: Romancing the Folk in May Fourth Native Soil Fiction." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 33, 2 (Sept. 2007).

[Abstract: Etienne Balibar has argued that no nation possesses a natural ethnic basis. And yet the “people” tends to be the most taken-for-granted entity in nationalist thought and literature. I argue in this paper that the “people” is a fictive category invented in the contested field of literary production in the early 20th century. In particular, I examine the concept of the “folk” in the works of such native soil writers as Yang Zhensheng, Fei Ming, and Shen Congwen. By contrasting the image of the folk in native soil fiction with the more familiar image of the peasants in realist fiction, I call attention to the paradoxical status of the people in the nationalist imagination. If the peasants were ignorant, unfeeling, and parochial under the pen of Lu Xun, the folk were revealed to have preserved a deep reservoir of emotions and humanity beneath the stultifying trappings of Confucianism in native soil fiction. I aim to show that representations of the folk and the native soil were intimately bound up with the production of the modern individual as an affective moral agent and of the nation as a community of sympathy.]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973. [download pdf copy of the entire book from Ohio State University Libraries Knowledge Bank]

-----. "The Romantic Temper in May Fourth Writers." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 69-84.

-----. "Modernity and Its Discontents: The Cultural Agenda of the May Fourth Movement." In Kenneth Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 158-177.

-----. "The Cultural Construction of Modernity in Urban Shanghai: Some Preliminary Investigations." In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 31-61.

-----. "Incomplete Modernity: Rethinking the May Fourth Intellectual Project." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 31-65.

-----. "May Fourth: Some Fin de Siecle Reflections." Harvard Asia Quarterly (Summer 1999).

Lee, Mabel. "May Fourth: Symbol of the Spirit of Bring-It-Here-ism for Chinese Intellectuals." Papers on Far Eastern History 41 (March 1990): 77-96.

Li, Hsiao-t'i. Opera, Society, and Politics: Chinese Intellectuals and Popular Culture, 1901-1937. Ph. D. diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1996.

Lin, Yu-sheng. "Radical Iconoclasm in the May Fourth Period and the Future of Liberalism." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 23-58.

-----. The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Anti-traditionalism in the May Fourth Era. Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press, 1979.

Liu, Jianhui. "The Role of Japan in the Formation of Modern Chinese Culture." Nichibunken Newsletter 56 (Nov. 2004).

Liu, Lydia. Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture and Translated Modernity, 1900-1937. Stanford: SUP, 1995.

-----. "A Folksong Immortal and Official Popular Culture in Twentieth-Century China." In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 553-609. [deals in part with May Fourth folklore movement]

Liu, Lydia, ed. Tokens of Exchange: The Problem of Translation in Global Circulations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

Liu, Siyuan. Performing Hybridity in Colonial-Modern China. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

[Abstract: n Shanghai during the early portion of the twentieth century, a hybrid theatrical form emerged that was based on Western spoken theatre, classical Chinese theatre, and a Japanese hybrid form of kabuki and Western-style spoken theatre called shinpa (new school drama). Known as wenmingxi (civilized drama), this form has, until recently, largely been ignored by scholars in China and the West as it does not fit into the current binary "traditional/modern" model in non-Western theatre and performance studies. This book places wenmingxi in the context of its hybridized literary and performance elements, giving it a definitive place in modern Chinese theatre.]

Liu, Tao Tao. “Perceptions of City and Country in Modern Chinese Fiction in the Early Republican Era.” In Liu and David Faure, eds., Town and Country in China: Identity and Perception. London: Palgrave, 2002, 203-32.

Lu, Ping. "Beyond Mr. Democracy and Mr. Science: The Introduction of Miss Moral and the Trend of Moral Retribution in the New Culture Movement." Frontiers of History in China 2, 2 (2007): 254-86.

Ma, Yuxin. "Women Journalists in the Chinese Enlightenment, 1915-1923." Gender Issues 22, 1 (Dec. 2005): 56-84.

-----. "Male Feminism and Women's Subjectivities: Zhang Xichen, Chen Xuezhao, and the New Woman." Twentieth-Century China 29, no.1 (Nov 2003) 1-37.

Manfredi, Paul. "Great Expectations: Self, Form, and the First Modern Chinese Poem." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 1-29.

Mao, Chen. Between Tradition and Change: The Hermeneutics of May Fourth Literature. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997.

Masini, Federico. The Formation of Modern Chinese Lexicon and Its Evolution Toward a National Language: The Period from 1840-1898. The Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph Series no. 6. Berkeley, 1993.

McDougall, Bonnie. "The Impact of Western Literary Trends." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 37-62.

-----. "Disappearing Women and Disappearing Men in May Fourth Narrative: A Post-Feminist Survey of Short Stories by Mao Dun, Bing Xin, Ling Shuhua and Shen Congwen." In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 133-70.

Mei Sheng, ed. Zhongguo funu wenti taolun ji (Collection of discussion on the Chinese women's question). 6 vols. Shanghai: Xin wenhua, 1934 (originally published in 1923).

Meisner, Maurice. "Cultural Iconoclasm, Nationalism, and Internationalism in the May Fourth Movement." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973, 14-22.

Murthy, Viren. "The Politics of Fengjian in Late Qing and Early Republican China." In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon and Hung-yok Ip eds., Modernities as Local Practices, Nationalism, and Cultural Production: Deconstructing the May-Fourth Paradigm on Modern China. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008.

Ng, Janet. The Experience of Modernity: Chinese Autobiography of the Early Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003. [with treatment of autobiographies by Chen Hengzhe, Lu Xun, Hu Shi, Xie Bingying, Eileen Chang, Yu Dafu, and Shen Congwen]

Ni, Ruiqin. “Tolstoy and the May Fourth Literature.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 223-33.

Odgen, Suzanne P. "The Sage in the Inkpot: Bertrand Russell and Chna's Social Reconstruction in the 1920s." Modern Asian Studies 16, 4 (1982): 529-600.

Owen, Stephen. "The End of the Past: Rewriting Chinese Literary History in the Early Republic." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 167-92.

Pusey, James Reeve. China and Charles Darwin. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1983.

Rawski, Evelyn S. "The Social Agenda of May Fourth." In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 139-57.

Russell, Bertrand. The Problem of China. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1966 (originally published 1922).

Saari, Hon L. Legacies of Childhood: Growing Up Chinese in a Time of Crisis, 1890-1920. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1990.

Sakamoto, Hiroko. "The Cult of 'Love and Eugenics' in May Fourth Movement Discourse." positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 2 (Fall 2004): 329-376.

Schaeffer, Ingo. “Remarks on the Question of Individuality and Subjectivity in the Literature of the May Fourth Period.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 21-43.

Schwarcz, Vera. "Ibsen's Nora: The Promise and the Trap." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (Jan-Mar. 1975).

-----. "Remapping May Fourth:  Between Nationalism and Enlightenment." Republican China 12, 1 (Nov. 1986): 20-35. 

-----. The Chinese Enlightenment: Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919. Berkeley: UCP, 1986.

Schwartz, Benjamin, ed. Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1973. [essays by C. Furth, M. Goldman, Grieder, L. Lee, Yu-sheng Lin, and Meisner]

-----. "Themes in Intellectual History: May Fourth and After." In Merle Goldman an Leo Ou-fan Lee, eds., An Intellectual History of Modern China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002, 97-141.

Shen, Samson C. "Tagore and China." In the Footsteps of Xuanzang: Tan Yun-shan and India. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, 1999.

Sun, Lung-kee. "The Presence of the Fin-de-siecle in the May Fourth Era." In Gail Hershatter, et.al., eds., Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terrain. Stanford: SUP, 1996, 194-209.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi. What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi. Tr. Richard Calichman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. [among others, has essays on Lu Xun and Hu Shi]

Tam, Kwok-kan. “Iconoclasm as Ibsenism: Ibsen in the May Fourth Era.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 119-28.

-----. "Ibsenism and Ideological Constructions of the 'New Woman' in Modern Chinese Fiction." In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 179-86.

-----. "Ibsenism and the Modern Chinese Self." Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 287-98.

Tan, Chung. "Tagore's Inspiration in China's New Poetry." In Tan Chung, ed., Across the Himalayan Gap: An Indian Quest for Understanding China. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, 1998.

Tang, Xiaobing, with Michel Hockx. "The Creation Society (1921-1930)." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 103-36.

Teow, See Heng. Japanese Cultural Policy toward China, 1918-1931: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 1999.

Teruo, Tarumoto. "A Statistical Survey of Translated Fiction, 1840-1920." In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 37-42.

Tschanz, Dietrich. "The New Drama before the New Drama: Drama Journals and Drama Reform in Shanghai before the May Fourth Movement." Theatre InSight 10, 1 (1999): 49-59.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford UP, 2005. [Stanford UP blurb]

Tu, Wei-ming. "Iconoclasm, Holistic Vision, and Patient Watchfulness: a Personal Reflection on the Modern Chinese Intellectual Quest." Daedalus 116, 2 (1987): 75-94.

Veg, Sebastian. Fictions du pouvoir chinois: Littérature, modernisme et démocratie au début du XXe siècle. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2009.

-----. "Democratic Modernism: Rethinking the Politics of Early Twentieth-Century Fiction in China and Europe." boundary 2 38, 3 (2011): 27-65.

Vogel, Ezra. "The Unlikely Heroes: The Social Role of the May Fourth Writers." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 145-60.

Wagner, Rudolf. "The Canonization of May Fourth." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 66-121.

Wang, Bo. Inventing a Discourse of Resistance: Rhetorical Women in Early Twentieth-Century China. Phd diss. Tempe: University of Arizona, 1995.

Wang, C.T. The Youth Movement in China. New York: New Republic, 1927.

Wang, Edward Q. Inventing China Through History: The May Fourth Approach to Historiography. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001.

Wang, Fan-sen. Fu Ssu-nien: A Life in Chinese History and Politics. NY: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Wang, Hui. "The Fate of 'Mr. Science' in China: The Concept of Science and Its Application in Modern Chinese Thought." positions 3, 1 (1995): 1-68.

-----. Wu di panghuang: Wusi ji qi huisheng (No room for wandering: May Fourth and its echoes). Hangzhou: Zhejiang wenyi, 1994.

-----. "The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought.” Modern China 34, 1 (2008).

-----. "How to Explain 'China" and Its 'Modernity': Rethinking The Rise of Modern Chinese Thought." Tr. Wang Yang. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 63-94. Previously published as "The Liberation of the Object and the Interrogation of Modernity: Rethinking the Rise of Modern China." Modern China 4, 1 (Jan. 2008): 114-40.

-----. "The Transformation of Culture and Politics: War, Revolution, and the 'Thought Warfare' of the 1910s." Twentieth-Century China 38, 1 (Jan. 2013): 5-33.

[Abstract: During the May Fourth Culture Movement, Chen Duxiu from New Youth and Du Yaquan of Eastern Miscellany engaged in a series of heated exchanges in their common search for a solution to the Republican crisis and an understanding of World War I. Du argued that nation-states are founded on the cultural and civilizational orientation of its people, therefore the essence of war and the source of political conflict are functions of the thoughts of the people. This insight shifted the debate from the political to the cultural arena, and allowed the May Fourth intellectuals to examine the attributes of Eastern and Western civilizations as a way to counter the threats of Hongxian monarchism, China's political and social fragmentation, as well as the inadequacies of Western nation-statehood. Du predicted that the future master of the twentieth century would be a scientific laborer with a cultural outlook derived from the mediation of the traditional Chinese and twentieth-century European civilizations.]

"Weber and the Question of Chinese Modernity." Tr. Theodore Huters. In Wang Hui, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 264-305.

Wang, Jing M. When "I" Was Born: Women's Autobiography in Modern China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

[Abstract: In the period between the 1920s and 1940s, a genre emerged in Chinese literature that would reveal crucial contradictions in Chinese culture that still exist today. At a time of intense political conflict, Chinese women began to write autobiography, a genre that focused on personal identity and self-exploration rather than the national, collective identity that the country was championing. The author seeks to reclaim the voices of these particular writers, voices that have been misinterpreted and overlooked for decades. Tracing women writers as they move from autobiographical fiction, often self-revelatory and personal, to explicit autobiographies that focused on women’s roles in public life, Jing M. Wang reveals the factors that propelled this literary movement, the roles that liberal translators and their renditions of Western life stories played, and the way in which these women writers redefined writing and gender in the stories they told. But Wang reveals another story as well: the evolving history and identity of women in modern Chinese society. When “I” Was Born adds to a growing body of important work in Chinese history and culture, women’s studies, and autobiography in a global context. Writers discussed include Xie Bingying, Zhang Ailing, Yu Yinzi, Fei Pu, Lu Meiyen, Feng Heyi, Ye Qian, Bai Wei, Shi Wen, Fan Xiulin, Su Xuelin, and LuYin.]

Wang, Xiaoming. "A Journal and a 'Society': On the 'May Fourth' Literary Tradition." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 1-39.

Wang, Xiaoping. "The Problematic of 'High (-Brow) Literature' and 'Low (-Brow) Literature': Some Thoughts on the Origins of Modern Chinese Literature." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 1 (2013): 117-41.

[Abstract: This paper discusses the criteria according to which literature is categorized as "high (-brow) literature" or "low (-brow) literature" in modern China. It suggests that these standards change over time and are intimately tied to the problematics of canonization, legitimization, and cultural hegemony. In modern China, the criteria are also closely related to class differentiation. Furthermore, it contends that, in the Chinese academic world, there is often a tendency to interpret certain forms of middle-brow literature as belletristic literature that breaks though the boundary between "high (-brow) literature" and "low (-brow) literature." In discussing "middle-brow" literature in modern China, this paper takes "Mandarin Ducks and Butterfly" literature as the object of its analysis and proposes that middle-brow literature is essentially the moralization of political and social issues, which serves to displace social-economic and political concerns. This is usually accomplished through the glorification of conservative ethical-moral viewpoints.]

Wang, Young-tsu. "The Intricate Mentality of May Fourth." Modern Asian Studies 10, 2 (April 1976).

Weston, Timothy. "The Formation and Positioning of the New Culture Community, 1913-1917." Modern China 24, 3 (1998): 255-84.

Widmer, Ellen. "The Rhetoric of Retrospection: May Fourth Literary History and the Ming-Qing Woman Writer." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 193-227.

-----. "Inflecting Gender: Zhan Kai/Siqi Zhai's "New Novels" and Courtesan Sketches." Nan Nu: Men, Women, and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

Witke, Roxanne. Transformation of Attitudes towards Women during the May Fourth Era of Modern China. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1970.

Wong, Linda Pui-ling. "The Initial Reception of Oscar Wilde in Modern China: With Special Reference to Salome." Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 52-73.

Wong, Wang-chi. "An Act of Violence: Translation of Western Fiction in the late Qing and early Republican Period." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 21-39.

Wu, Shengqing. "Contested Fengya: Classical-Style Poetry Clubs in Early Republican China." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies of Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wusi yundong huiyilu (Memoirs of the May Fourth movement). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1959.

Xu, Jilin . "Historical Memories of May Fourth: Patriotism, But of What Kind?" Tr. Duncan Campgell. China Heritage Quarterly 17 (March 2009).

-----. "May Fourth: A Patriotic Movement of Cosmopolitanism." Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 9, 1 (April 2009): 29-61.

Xu, Xueqing. "The Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 47-78.

Yan, Jiayan. "The Origin, Features, and Evaluation of the May Fourth New Vernacular." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 2, 4 (Dec. 2008): 599-616.

Ye, Ziming. “Humanism and the May Fourth New Literature.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 201-11.

Yeh, Catherine Vance. "Root Literature of the 1980s as a Double Burden." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 229-56.

Yeh, Michelle. “A New Orientation to Poetry: the Transition from Traditional to Modern Chinese Poetry in the May Fourth Era.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 93-100.

Yeh, Wen-hsin. "Middle County Radicals: The May Fourth Movement in Zhejiang." The China Quarterly 140 (Dec. 1994): 903-925

Yu, Ying-shih. "Neither Renaissance nor Engligtenment: A Historian's Reflections on the May Fourth Movement." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 299-324.

Yue, Ming-bao. "Am I That Name?: Women's Writing as Cultural Translation in Early 1920's China." Comparative Criticism 22 (Fall 2000): 63-89.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhou, Gang. Placing the Modern Chinese Vernacular in Transnational Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: This is the first book to concentrate not only on the triumph of the vernacular in modern China but also on the critical role of the rise of the vernacular in world literature, invoking parallel cases from countries throughout Europe and Asia. Contents: Introduction; The Language of Utopia; The Chinese Renaissance; The Shaky House; 'The Vernacular Only' Writing Mode; Epilogue]

Zou, John. “Travel and Translation: An Aspect of China’s Cultural Modernity, 1862-1926.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 133-51.


Post-May Fourth (1920s-1930s)

Ai, Xiaoming. "Polemics on Literature and Art in Soviet Russia During the 1920s and Debate on Revolutionary Literature in China." Tr. Deng Shiwu. Social Sciences in China 10, 1 (Mar 1989):141-157.

Anderson, Marsten. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Biasco, Margherita. “The Crisis of the Family System and the Search for a New Identity of Chinese Youth.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 189-200.

Button, Peter. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China's unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun's “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi's aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo's Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan's Red Crag.]

Chan, Adrian. "Towards a Marxist Theory and Sociology of Literature in China, to 1933." In Gungwu Wang, ed., Society and the Writer: Essays on Literature in Modern Asia. Canberra: Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, 1981, 155-72.

Chan, Sylvia. "Realism or Socialist Realism?: The 'Proletarian' Episode in Modern Chinese Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 9 (Jan. 1983): 55-74.

Chang, Shuei-May, ed. Casting Off the Shackles of Family: Ibsen's Nora Figure in Modern Chinese Literature, 1918-1942. Peter Lang, 2002.

Chen, Jianhua. "Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949." In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

-----. "The Northern Expedition and Revolution Plus Love Fiction." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 163-78.

-----. "Revolution: From Literary Revolution to Revolutionary Literature." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 15-32.

Chen, Xiaomei. "Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Chu, Samuel. "The New Life Movement, 1934-37." In John Lane, ed., Researches in the Social Sciences on China. NY: 1957, 1-17.

The Common People and the Artist in the 1930s: An Essay in the Cultural and Social Metahistory of China through Visual Sources.

[The present project proposes a new form of “intellectual journey. This would be a journey in which historical knowledge is produced and conveyed by visual materials integrated into an architecture of relational data.2 Our exploration of this approach in the fields of history and China studies has a major purpose: opening the way to comparable applications in all the social sciences. This project will take up the challenge of elaborating a new form of historical writing. The objective is not simply to combine texts and documents but to make these different elements “speak” separately, in parallel and/or together. To achieve these goals, the participants in this project will follow a parallel route on the basis of three distinct corpuses of still pictures (photographs) and moving pictures (films) centered on three groups of individuals (“common people”, “peasant-boatmen”, “actors, actresses and new women” in three different spaces at the same period (the 1920s and the 1930s)]

Daruvala, Susan. Zhou Zuoren and an alternative Chinese Response to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000.

-----. "Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 339-78. Originally published in a different version as "Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 39-97.

Denton, Kirk A. "Introduction." In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

Dirlik, Arif. "The Ideological Foundations of the New Life Movement: A Study in Counterrevolution." Journal of Asian Studies 34, 4 (Aug. 1975): 945-80.

Dooling, Amy D. Feminism and Narrative Strategies in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Women’s Writing. Ph.D. Diss. NY: Columbia University, 1998.

-----. Women's Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman's women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Farquhar, Mary. "Revolutionary Children's Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (July 1980): 61-84.

Ferry, Megan. Chinese Women Writers of the 1930s and Their Critical Reception. Ph.d diss. St. Louis: Washington University, 1998.

Findeisen, Raoul David. "From Literature to Love: Glory and Decline of the Love-Letter Genre." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 79-112.

Fogel, Joshua A. “Japanese Literary Travelers in Prewar China.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 49, 2 (1989): 575-602.

Fried, Daniel. "A Bloody Absence: Communist Narratology and the Literature of May Thirtieth."Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, and Reviews 26 (2004): 23-53.

Furth, Charlotte. "Cultural Politics in Modern Chinese Conservatism." In Furth, ed., The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976, 22-53.

Furth, Charlotte, ed. The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Galik, Marian. "Goethe in China (1932)." Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 14 (1978): 11-25.

-----. "Between the Garden of Gethsemane and Golgotha: The Last Night and Day of Jesus in Modern Chinese Literaturre (1921-1942)." Tamkang Review 31, 4-32,1 (Summer-Autumn 2001): 99-116.

Ge, Baoquan. “The Influence of Russian Classical Literature on Modern Chinese Literature Before and After the May Fourth Movement.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 213-22.

Goldman, Merle. "Left-Wing Criticism of the Pai-Hua Movement." In Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium. Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1973, 85-94.

Gruner, Fritz. "Some Remarks on the Cultural-political Significance of the Chinese League of Left-wing Writers at the Beginning of the 1930's." In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for Identity: Modern Literature and the Creative Arts in Asia: papers presented to the 28 International Congress of Orientalists. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1975, 255-259.

Ho, Dahpon. "Night Thoughts of a Hungry Ghost Writer: Chen Bulei and the Life of Service in Republican China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 1 (Spring 2007): 1-59.

Hockx, Michel. "In Defense of the Censor: Literary Autonomy and State Authority in Shanghai, 1930-1936." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 1-30.

-----. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward M. Gunn]

-----. "Gentility in a Shanghai Literary Salon in the 1930s." In Berg, Daria and Starr, Chloe, eds., The Quest for Gentility in China: Negotiations Beyond Gender and Class. Routledge, 2007, 58-72.

-----. "Perverse Poems and Suspicious Salons: The Friday School in Modern Chinese Literature." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 15-39.

Hsia, T. A. The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement in China. Seattle: U. of Washingtion P, 1968.

-----. "Ch'u Ch'iu-po: The Making and Destruction of a Tenderhearted Communist." In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 3-54.

-----. "Lu Hsun and the Dissolution of the League of Leftist Writers." In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 101-63.

-----. "Enigma of the Five Martyrs." In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 163-233.

-----. "Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum." In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

Hsueh, Daphne."Why Nora? Ibsen's A Doll's House in China and Its Early Imitation." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 16, 3 (1981): 1-18

Hunter, Neale. The League of Left-Wing Writers, Shanghai, 1930-1936. Ph.d. diss. Canberra: Australian National University, 1973.

-----. "Another look at the League of Left-Wing Writers." In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for identity: modern literature and the creative arts in Asia: papers presented to the 28 International Congress of Orientalists. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1975, 260-270.

Huters, Theodore. "Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution." In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

Ip, Hung-yok. Intellectuals in Revolutionary China, 1921-1949: Leaders, Heroes and Sophisticates. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

[Abstract: This book originally examines how prominent communist intellectuals in China during the revolutionary period (1921 to 1940) constructed and presented identities for themselves and how they narrated their place in the revolution. Table of Contents. Part 1: Introduction 1. Perspectives;l Part 2: Leaders: Self-Construction from the Functional Perspective 2. Radical Intellectuals as the Guiding Force of Change: The Beginning of the Political Odyssey 3. Manufacturing Political Leadership I: The Yaqian Intellectuals and Peng Pai 4. Manufacturing Political Leadership II: Mao Zedong Part 3: Heroes: Self-Construction from the Emotional Perspective 5. Narrating Politicized Subjectivity 6. The Nobility of Ambivalence and Devotion Part 4: Sophisticates: Self-Construction from the Aesthetic Perspective 7. Clinging to Refinement in the Revolution Part 5: Epilogue 8. Self-Construction, Politics and Culture: Some General Reflections 9. Conclusion.]

Jin, Siyan. La metamorphose des image poetiques des symbolistes francais aux symbolistes chinois, 1915-1937. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996.

Jones, Andrew F. Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In 1992 Deng Xiaoping famously declared, "Development is the only hard imperative." What ensued was the transformation of China from a socialist state to a capitalist market economy. The spirit of development has since become the prevailing creed of the People’s Republic, helping to bring about unprecedented modern prosperity, but also creating new forms of poverty, staggering social upheaval, physical dislocation, and environmental destruction. In Developmental Fairy Tales, Andrew F. Jones asserts that the groundwork for this recent transformation was laid in the late nineteenth century, with the translation of the evolutionary works of Lamarck, Darwin, and Spencer into Chinese letters. He traces the ways that the evolutionary narrative itself evolved into a form of vernacular knowledge which dissolved the boundaries between beast and man and reframed childhood development as a recapitulation of civilizational ascent, through which a beleaguered China might struggle for existence and claim a place in the modern world-system. This narrative left an indelible imprint on China’s literature and popular media, from children’s primers to print culture, from fairy tales to filmmaking. Jones’s analysis offers an innovative and interdisciplinary angle of vision on China’s cultural evolution. He focuses especially on China’s foremost modern writer and public intellectual, Lu Xun, in whose work the fierce contradictions of his generation’s developmentalist aspirations became the stuff of pedagogical parable. Developmental Fairy Tales revises our understanding of literature’s role in the making of modern China by revising our understanding of developmentalism’s role in modern Chinese literature.]

Kane, Anthony J. The League of Left Wing Writers and Chinese Literary Policy. Ph.D. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1982.

Keaveney, Christopher T. "Uchiyama Kanzô’s Shanghai Bookstore and Its Impact on May Fourth Writers." E-ASPAC 1 (2001).

-----. "Literary Interventions: Yamamoto Sanehiko's Contributions to Sino-Japanese Literary Exchange in the Interwar Period." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 196-230.

Knight, Sabina. "Social Fiction: Must Context Entail Determinism?" In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 104-30.

Kuo, Ya-pei. Debating Culture in Interwar China. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: The May Fourth era (1915-1927) is considered a pivotal point in the history of modern China. This period is usually portrayed as a "Chinese Enlightenment," a period during which total change from the past was sought through the appropriation of Western science and democracy. Conventional narratives concentrate on the dominant intellectual current of the period, the New Culture Movement, as the inspiration for social reform and political revolution. This book challenges that revolution-centered narrative of May Fourth history by showing how the propositions of New Culture were questioned and revised after the initial radical phase. Through a focus on the post-1919 debates on culture, identity, and history, this book argues that Chinese intellectuals reformulated their visions of modernity through critiques of both Occidentalism and totalistic iconoclasm. Importantly, it also argues that the global post-WWI ambivalence towards the idea of Progress in Western civilization impacted significantly on the development of the May Fourth era in its latter stage.]

Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Shanghai Manhua, the Neo-Sensationist School of Literature, and Scenes of Urban Life." MCLC Resource Center (Sept. 2010).

Lao, Chao-Chih. "Humor versus Huaji." The Journal of Language and Linguistics 2, 1 (2003): 25-46.

Larson, Wendy. "The End of 'Funu wenxue': Women's Literature from 1925 to 1935." Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (1988): 39-54. Also in Tani Barlow, ed., Gender Politics in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993, 58-73.

-----. "Psychology and Freudian Sexual Theory in Early 20th Century China." In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 31-76.

Laughlin, Charles A. Chinese Reportage: The Aesthetics of Historical Experience. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

-----. "The Debate on Revolutionary Literature." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 3401-404.

-----. "The Analects Group and the Genre of Xiaopin." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 207-40.

-----. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by John A. Crespi]

[Abstract: The Chinese essay is arguably China's most distinctive contribution to modern world literature, and the period of its greatest influence and popularity--the mid-1930s--is the central concern of this book. What Charles Laughlin terms "the literature of leisure" is a modern literary response to the cultural past that manifests itself most conspicuously in the form of short, informal essay writing (xiaopin wen). Laughlin examines the essay both as a widely practiced and influential genre of literary expression and as an important counter-discourse to the revolutionary tradition of New Literature (especially realistic fiction), often viewed as the dominant mode of literature at the time. After articulating the relationship between the premodern traditions of leisure literature and the modern essay, Laughlin treats the various essay styles representing different groups of writers. Each is characterized according to a single defining activity: "wandering" in the case of the Yu si (Threads of Conversation) group surrounding Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren; "learning" with the White Horse Lake group of Zhejiang schoolteachers like Feng Zikai and Xia Mianzun; "enjoying" in the case of Lin Yutang's Analects group; "dreaming" with the Beijing school. The concluding chapter outlines the impact of leisure literature on Chinese culture up to the present day. The Literature of Leisure and Chinese Modernity dramatizes the vast importance and unique nature of creative nonfiction prose writing in modern China. It will be eagerly read by those with an interest in twentieth-century Chinese literature, modern China, and East Asian or world literatures.]

Laurence, Patricia. Lily Briscoe's Chinese Eyes: Bloomsbury, Modernism and China. Columbia: U of South Carolina Press, 2003.

---."Lily Briscoe's Chinese Eyes," The Kingsman. King's College Cambridge University (Fall 2003).

Lean, Eugenia. "The Making of a Public: Emotions and Media Sensation in 1930s China." Twentieth-Century China 29, 2 (April 2004): 39-62.

Lee, Haiyan. "Governmentality and the Aesthetic State: A Chinese Fantasia." positions: eastasia cultures critique 14, no.1 (2006): 99-130 (deals with Zhang Jingsheng's Mei de rensheng guan [The Philosophy of a Beautiful Life], Meide shehui zuzhi fa [How to Organize a Beautiful Society], and, to a lesser extent, Xingshi [Sex histories]).

-----. "From Abroad, with Love: Transnational Texts, Local Critiques." Tamkang Review 36, 4 (Summer 2006): 189-225. [deals with the Chinese translations and reception of Love and Duty by S. Horose, The Education of Love by Edmondo de Amicis, and "Three Generations" by Alexandra Kollontai]

-----. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973. [download pdf copy of the entire book from Ohio State University Libraries Knowledge Bank]

-----. "Shanghai Modern: Reflections on Urban Culture in China in the 1930s." Public Culture 11, 1 (1999).

-----. Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999.

-----. "The Cultural Construction of Modernity in Urban Shanghai: Some Preliminary Explorations." In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 31-61.

Li, Li. "Female Bodies as Imaginary Signifiers in Chinese Revolutionary Literature." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 93-118.

Liu, Jianmei. "Shanghai Variations on 'Revolution Plus Love.'" Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 51-92. [deals with texts by Shi Zhecun, Liu Na'ou, Mu Shiying, Zhang Ziping, and Ye Lingfeng]

-----. Revolution Plus Love: Literary History, Women's Bodies, and Thematic Repetition in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.

Liu, Ping. "The Left-Wing Drama Movement and Its Relationship to Japan." Tr. Krista van Fleit. positions: east asia cultures critique 14, 2 (2006): 449-66. [Project Muse link]

Macdonald, Sean. "'Modernism' in Modern Chinese Literature: The 'Third Type of Person' as a Figure of Autonomy." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (June-Sept. 2002).

McDougall, Bonnie. "Dominance and Disappearance in Modern Chinese Narrative, 1928-1935." In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Miller, Mark. "The Yusi Society." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 171-206.

Neder, Christina. "Censorship in Republican China." In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. Dandyism and Transcultural Modernity: The Dandy, the Flaneur, and the Translator in 1930s Shanghai, Tokyo, and Paris. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: This book views the Neo-Sensation mode of writing as a traveling genre, or style, that originated in France, moved on to Japan, and then to China. The author contends that modernity is possible only on "the transcultural site"—transcultural in the sense of breaking the divide between past and present, elite and popular, national and regional, male and female, literary and non-literary, inside and outside. To illustrate the concept of transcultural modernity, three icons are highlighted on the transcultural site: the dandy, the flaneur, and the translator. Mere flaneurs and flaneurses simply float with the tide of heterogeneous information on the transcultural site, whereas the dandy/flaneur and the cultural translator, propellers of modernity, manage to bring about transformative creation. Their performance marks the essence of transcultural modernity: the self-consciousness of working on the threshold, always testing the limits of boundaries and tempted to go beyond them. To develop the concept of dandyism—the quintessence of transcultural modernity—the Neo-Sensation gender triad formed by the dandy, the modern girl, and the modern boy is laid out. Writers discussed include Liu Na’ou, a Shanghai dandy par excellence from Taiwan, Paul Morand, who looked upon Coco Chanel the female dandy as his perfect other self, and Yokomitsu Riichi, who developed the theory of Neo-Sensation from Kant’s the-thing-in-itself.]

Pino, Angel. "Haipai et Jingpai: une querelle litteraire dans les annees trente." In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin -- Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 61-90.

Rabut, Isabelle. "Ecole de Pekin, ecole de Shanghai: un parcours critique." In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin -- Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 13-60.

-----. "L'esthetique du jingpai." In Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin -- Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000, 93-122.

Rabut, Isabelle and Angel Pino, eds. Pekin -- Shanghai: Tradition et modernite dans la litterature chinoise des annees trente. Paris: Editions Bleu de Chine, 2000.

Rea, Christopher G. "Comedy and Cultural Entrepreneurship in Xu Zhuodai's Huaji Shanghai." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 40-91.

Riep, Steven L. "Chinese Modernism: The New Sensationists." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 418-24.

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

Smith, Norman. "'I Am an Ordinary Woman': Yang Xu and the Articulation of Chinese Ideals of Womanhood in Japanese Occupied Manchuria." Asian Journal of Women's Studies 8, 3 (2002): 35-54.

[Yang Xu's (1918- ) second volume of collected works, My Diary (Wo de riji; 1944), articulates the key themes that prevailed in Chinese women's literature in the Japanese colonial state of Manzhouguo. In Manzhouguo, literature was a vital domain for the negotiation of Chinese cultural identities in a Japanese colonial context. This paper seeks to reveal how Yang Xu, like other contemporary Chinese women writers in Manzhouguo, was driven by the May Fourth ideals of women's emancipation that dominated social discourse in the Republic of China during the 1920s to defy the conservative cultural aspirations of the Japanese colonial regime.]

Sohigian, Diran John . "Contagion of Laughter: The Rise of the Humor Phenomenon in Shanghai in the 1930s." positions: east asia cultures critique 15, 1 (Spring 2007): 137-63. [Project Muse link]

-----. "Confucius and the Lady in Question: Power Politics, Cultural Production and the Performance of Confucius Saw Nanzi in China in 1929." Twentieth-Century China 36, 1 (Jan. 2011): 23-43.

Tam, Kwok-kan. "Ibsenism and Ideological Constructions of the 'New Woman' in Modern Chinese Fiction." In Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 179-86.

Tsu, Jing. Failure, Nationalism, and Literature: The Making of a Modern Chinese Identity, 1895-1937. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford UP, 2005. [Stanford UP blurb]

Wang, Jing M. When "I" Was Born: Women's Autobiography in Modern China. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008.

[Abstract: In the period between the 1920s and 1940s, a genre emerged in Chinese literature that would reveal crucial contradictions in Chinese culture that still exist today. At a time of intense political conflict, Chinese women began to write autobiography, a genre that focused on personal identity and self-exploration rather than the national, collective identity that the country was championing. The author seeks to reclaim the voices of these particular writers, voices that have been misinterpreted and overlooked for decades. Tracing women writers as they move from autobiographical fiction, often self-revelatory and personal, to explicit autobiographies that focused on women’s roles in public life, Jing M. Wang reveals the factors that propelled this literary movement, the roles that liberal translators and their renditions of Western life stories played, and the way in which these women writers redefined writing and gender in the stories they told. But Wang reveals another story as well: the evolving history and identity of women in modern Chinese society. When “I” Was Born adds to a growing body of important work in Chinese history and culture, women’s studies, and autobiography in a global context. Writers discussed include Xie Bingying, Zhang Ailing, Yu Yinzi, Fei Pu, Lu Meiyen, Feng Heyi, Ye Qian, Bai Wei, Shi Wen, Fan Xiulin, Su Xuelin, and LuYin.]

Wang, Ye. "Narrative Genre and Logical Form of the Revolutionary Novels of the 1920s." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 179- 97.

Wong, Wang-chi. Politics and Literature in Shanghai: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1991.

Y.P.S. "Five Years of Chinese Magazine Literature." China Today 1, 6 (March 1935): 113-15.

Yang, Lianfen. "Women and Revolution in the Context of the 1927 Nationalist Revolution and Literature." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 119-39.

Zanella, William Mark. China's Quest for a Modern Culture: The 1935 Debate on Cultural Construction. Ph.d. diss. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1985.

Zhang, Hong. "Eros and Politics in Revolutionary Literature." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 3-26.

Zhang, Jingyuan. Psychoanalysis in China: Literary Transformations, 1919-1949. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Series, 1992.

Zhang, Yingjin. The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film: Configurations of Space, Time, and Gender. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

-----. "The Texture of the Metropolis: Modernist Inscriptions of Shanghai in the 1930s." In Yingjin Zhang, ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999, 173-88. First published in Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (Spring 1995): 11-30.

Zhang, Yu. "Visual and Theatrical Constructs of a Modern Life in the Countryside: James Yen, Xiong Foxi, and the Rural Reconstruction Movement in Ding County (1920s-1930s)." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 47-95.

Zhou, Xiaoyi. "Beardsley, the Chinese Decadents and Commodity Culture in Shanghai During the 1930s." Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 32/33 (2000/2001): 117-34.


Literature of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45)

Apter, David, and Tony Saich. Revolutionary Discourse in Mao's Republic. Cambridge: HUP, 1994.

Benton, Gregor. "The Yenan Opposition." New Left Review 92 (Aug. 1975): 93-106.

Cheek, Timothy. "The Fading of Wild Lilies: Wang Shiwei and Mao Zedong's Yan'an Talks in the First CCP Rectification Movement." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 11 (1984): 25-58.

Chen, Jianhua. "Canon Formation and Linguistic Turn: Literary Debates in Republican China, 1919-1949." In Kai-Wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don C. Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search for Chinese Modernity. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008, 51-67.

Chen, Xiaomei. "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Literature." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 65-83.

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan. "The 'Command Enjoyment' of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses." In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 1-23. [deals with the Yan'an Forum and the 1979 Fourth Congress of Chinese Writers and Artist and compares them to similar conferences in the Soviet Union]

Chung, Wen. "National Defense Literature and Its Representative Works." Chinese Literature 10 (Oct. 1971): 91-99.

Denton, Kirk A. "Introduction." In Denton, Modern Chinese Literary Thought: Writings on Literature, 1893-1945. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996, 1-61.

-----. "Literature and Politics: Mao Zedong's 'Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Art and Literature.'" In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 463-69.

-----. "Rectification: Party Discipline, Intellectual Remolding, and the Formation of a Political Community." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 51-63.

Dooling, Amy. Women's Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005. [contains the following chapters: (1) National imaginaries : feminist fantasies at the turn of the century; (2) The new woman's women; (3) Love and/or revolution? : fictions of the feminine self in the 1930s cultural left; (4) Outwitting patriarchy : comic narrative strategies in the works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing; (5) A world still to win]

Feng, Jin. The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2003.

FitzGerald, Carolyn. Fragmenting Modernisms: Chinese Wartime Literature, Art, and Film, 1937-49. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

[Abstract: FitzGerald traces the evolution of Chinese modernism during the War of Resistance against Japan (1937-45) and Chinese Civil War (1945-49) through a series of close readings of works of fiction, poetry, film, and visual art, produced in various locations throughout wartime China. Showing that the culture of this period was characterized by a high degree of formal looseness, she argues that such aesthetic fluidity was created in response to historical conditions of violence and widespread displacement. Moreover, she illustrates how the innovative formal experiments of uprooted writers and artists expanded the geographic and aesthetic boundaries of Chinese modernism far beyond the coastal cities of Shanghai and Beijing. TOC: Introduction Out of the Ashes: Towards a Wartime Aesthetics of Dissolution; Chapter 1: A Sonnet in an Air-Raid Shelter: Mu Dan and the New Lyricism; Chapter 2: Intersections between Cartoon and National Art: Ye Qianyu's Search for the Sinicized Cartoon; Chapter 3: Wang Zenqi's Collection of Chance Encounters: The Shifting Essence of the Wartime Short Story; Chapter 4: Between Forgetting and the Repetitions of Memory: Fei Mu's Aesthetics of Desolation in Spring in a Small Town; Chapter 5: Fei Ming's After Mr. Neverwas Rides a Plane: Wartime Autobiography as History; Epilogue: Searching for Roots: Modernist Echoes in the Post-Mao Era]

Fu, Po-shek. Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration: Intellectual Choices in Occupied Shanghai, 1937-1945. Stanford: SUP, 1993.

Galik, Marian. "Between the Garden of Gethsemane and Golgotha: The Last Night and Day of Jesus in Modern Chinese Literaturre (1921-1942)." Tamkang Review 31, 4-32,1 (Summer-Autumn 2001): 99-116.

Gunn, Edward. The Unwelcome Muse: Chinese Literature in Shanghai and Peking, 1937-1945. NY: Columbia UP, 1980.

-----. "Shanghai's 'Orphan Island' and the Development of Modern Drama." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 36-53.

-----. "Literature and Art of the War Period." In James Hsiung et. al., eds., China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937-1945. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1993, 235-74.

Holm, David. "The Literary Rectification in Yan'an." In W. Kubin and R. Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1982, 272-308.

-----. "Folk Art as Propaganda: The Yangge Movement in Yan'an." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 3-35.

-----. Art and Ideology in Revolutionary China. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. [focuses on Yan'an]

Hsia, T. A. "Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum." In Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

Huang, Nicole. Written in the Ruins: War and Domesticity in Shanghai Literature of the 1940s. Ph.d. diss. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1998.

-----. "Fashioning Public Intellectuals: Women's Print Culture in Occupied Shanghai (1941-1945)." In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004, 325-45.

-----. Women, War, Domesticity: Shanghai Literature and Popular Culture of the 1940s. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

[Abstract: In December 1941, the fifth year in an all-scale cataclysmic Sino-Japanese war that devoured much of Eastern China, the city of Shanghai entered into an era of full occupation. This was the moment when a group of young women authors began writing and soon took over the cultural scene of the besieged metropolis.Women, War, Domesticity reconstructs cultures of reading, writing, and publishing in the city of Shanghai during the three years and eight months of Japanese occupation. It specifically depicts the formation of a new cultural arena initiated by a group of women who not only wrote, edited, and published, but also took part in defining and transforming the structure of modern knowledge, discussing it in various public forums surrounding the print media, and, consequently, promoting themselves as authoritative cultural commentators of the era.]

Hung, Chang-tai. "Female Symbols of Resistance in Chinese Wartime Spoken Drama." Modern China 15 (April 1989): 149-177.

-----. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: UCP, 1994.

Huters, Ted . "Between Praxis and Essence: The Search for Cultural Expression in the Chinese Revolution." In Arif Dirlik and Maurice Meisner eds., Marxism and the Chinese Experience. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1989, 316-37.

Ip, Hung-yok. Intellectuals in Revolutionary China, 1921-1949: Leaders, Heroes and Sophoisticates. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2005.

[Abstract: This book originally examines how prominent communist intellectuals in China during the revolutionary period (1921 to 1940) constructed and presented identities for themselves and how they narrated their place in the revolution. Table of Contents. Part 1: Introduction 1. Perspectives;l Part 2: Leaders: Self-Construction from the Functional Perspective 2. Radical Intellectuals as the Guiding Force of Change: The Beginning of the Political Odyssey 3. Manufacturing Political Leadership I: The Yaqian Intellectuals and Peng Pai 4. Manufacturing Political Leadership II: Mao Zedong Part 3: Heroes: Self-Construction from the Emotional Perspective 5. Narrating Politicized Subjectivity 6. The Nobility of Ambivalence and Devotion Part 4: Sophisticates: Self-Construction from the Aesthetic Perspective 7. Clinging to Refinement in the Revolution Part 5: Epilogue 8. Self-Construction, Politics and Culture: Some General Reflections 9. Conclusion.]

Judd, Ellen. "Prelude to the 'Yan'an Talks': Problems in Transforming a Literary Intelligentsia." Modern China 11, 4 (1985): 377-408.

-----. "Cultural Articulation in the Chinese Countryside, 1937-1947." Modern China 16, 3 (July 1990): 269-304.

Kondo, Tatsuya. "The Transmission of the Yenan Talks to Chungking and Hu Feng: Caught Between the Struggle for Democracy in the Great Rear Area and Maoism." Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 81-105.

La litterature chinoise au temps de la Geurre de resistance contre le Japon. Paris: Editions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1982. [collection of essay on literature of the war period]

Laughlin, Charles A. Chinese Reportage: The Aesthetics of Historical Experience. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center Publication review by Susan Daruvala]

-----. "The Battlefield fo Cultural Production: Chinese Literary Mobilization during the War Years." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 83-103.

-----. "The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 379-412.

Lee, Haiyan. Revolution of the Heart: A Genealogy of Love in China, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006. [MCLC Resource Center review by Charles Laughlin]

Liu, Jianmei. "Gender Politics: Social Space and Volatile Bodies, 1937-1945." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 53-82.

Liu, Yu. "Maoist Discourse and the Mobilization of Emotions in Revolutionary China." Modern China 36, 3 (2010): 329-362.

[Abstract: This article focuses on how Maoist discourse engineered revolutionary emotions as a method of political mobilization. Based on personal memoirs and eyewitness accounts, it argues that the Maoist discourse can be disaggregated into three themes, each aimed at provoking one type of emotion: the theme of victimization, which mobilized indignation in struggle campaigns; the theme of redemption, which generated guilt in thought reform campaigns; and the theme of emancipation, which raised euphoria in social transformation campaigns. It also argues that Maoist discourse propagation employed three techniques—personalization, magnification, and moralization—and emphasizes that these techniques of propagation are as important as the content of the three themes in the production of passions.]

Liu, Zhuo. "Wengongtuan and the Rural Literary Popularization Movement in Yan'an." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 39-55.

[Abstract: This paper takes the folk song collection movement in Yan'an as an example to examine the role of the wengongtuan (The League of Literary and Artistic Workers) in organizing the rural literary popularization movement in the 1940s. Dispatched by the Communist Party of China (CPC), wengongtuan members took on the task of mobilizing peasants into cultural production, and realized a self-reconstruction in the process of integrating themselves into the lives of revolutionary peasants. The idea of the wengongtuan derived from the CPC's theory of the mass line--"from the masses and to the masses"--which laid the foundation of New Democratic culture in the 1940s.]

Neder, Christina. "Censorship in Republican China." In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Okada, Hideki. "The Realities of Racial Harmony: The Case of the Translator Ouchi Takao." Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 61-80.

Qian, Kun. "Gendering National Imagination: Heroines and the Return of the Foundational Family in Shanghai during the War of Resistance to Japan." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 78-100.

[Abstract: During the War of Resistance to Japan (1937¡V45), the cultural scene in Japanese-occupied Shanghai took on a "feminine" quality, as female leads dominated stage performance and film screens. This essay seeks to engage this gendered phenomenon through examples of Ouyang Yuqian's wartime play Peach Blossom Fan (Taohua shan) and the film Mulan Joins the Army (Mulan congjun). Borrowing affect theory in conjunction with the gendered perception of modernity, the author argues that these representations of female characters, on the one hand, highlight the subjective projection of male intellectuals motivated by intense feelings of shame and anger, which constitutes a feminized national imagination encountering the colonial Other. On the other hand, such representations continue the May Fourth project of enlightening and liberating woman from the conventional family while reintroducing the concept of the nation in the family setting and proposing the foundational family as the basic unit of the new nation.]

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

Rubin, Kyna. "Writers' Discontent and Party Repsonse in Yan'an Before 'Wild Lily': The Manchurian Writers and Zhou Yang." Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 79-102.

Sakaguchi, Naoki. Shi wu nian zhanzheng qi de Zhongguo wenxue (Chinese literature during the fifteen years of the war period). Tr. Song Yijing. Banqiao: Daoxiang, 2001.

Smith, Norman. "'I Am an Ordinary Woman': Yang Xu and the Articulation of Chinese Ideals of Womanhood in Japanese Occupied Manchuria." Asian Journal of Women's Studies 8, 3 (2002): 35-54.

[Yang Xu's (1918- ) second volume of collected works, My Diary (Wo de riji; 1944), articulates the key themes that prevailed in Chinese women's literature in the Japanese colonial state of Manzhouguo. In Manzhouguo, literature was a vital domain for the negotiation of Chinese cultural identities in a Japanese colonial context. This paper seeks to reveal how Yang Xu, like other contemporary Chinese women writers in Manzhouguo, was driven by the May Fourth ideals of women's emancipation that dominated social discourse in the Republic of China during the 1920s to defy the conservative cultural aspirations of the Japanese colonial regime.]

-----. "Disrupting Narratives: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Cultural Agenda in Manchuria, 1936-1945." Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 295-325.

[This article assesses the lives, careers, and literary legacies of the most prominent Chinese women writers during the latter stage of the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The article reveals how they articulated dissatisfaction with the Japanese cultural agenda while working within Japanese colonial institutions. Empowered by ineffectual state policies and misogynous official neglect, the women embarked on a decade-long quest to describe and expose the reality of Chinese women's lives under Japanese occupation. May Fourth ideals of women's emancipation inspired them to forge careers as critics of Japan's cultural agenda, and they undermined Japanese efforts to sever ties between Manchuria and the rest of China. This study adds to a growing body of recent critical scholarship incorporating Chinese-language sources into received interpretations of Japan's colonial state of Manchukuo.]

-----. "Regulating Chinese Women's Sexuality During the Japanese Occupation of Manchuria: Between the Lines of Wu Ying's "Yu" (Lust) and Yang Xu's Wo de Riji (My Diary)." Journal of the History of Sexuality 13, 1 (Jan. 2004): 49-70.

-----. "The Difficulties of Despair: Dan Di and Chinese Literary Production in Manchukuo." Journal of Women's Studies 18, 1 (2006): 77-100.

-----. Resisting Manchukuo: Chinese Women Writers and the Japanese Occupation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heng hsing Liu]

[This volume reveals the literary world of Japanese-occupied Manchuria (Manchukuo, 1932-45) and examines the lives, careers, and literary legacies of seven prolific Chinese women writers during the period: Dan Di, Lan Ling, Mei Niang, Wu Ying, Yang Xu, Zhu Ti, and Zuo Di. Smith shows how a complex blend of fear and freedom produced an environment in which Chinese women writers could articulate dissatisfaction with the overtly patriarchal and imperialist nature of the Japanese cultural agenda while working in close association with colonial institutions.]

Sorokin, V. F. "Chinese Literature at the End of the 1940's (On the Problem of the Development of Realism)." In Understanding Modern China: Problems and Methods. European Association of Chinese Studies, 26th Conference of Chinese Studies. Rome: Ismeo, 1979, 133-42.

Thornber, Karen Laura. Empire of Texts in Motion: Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese Transculturations of Japanese Literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009.

[Abstract: By the turn of the twentieth century, Japan’s military and economic successes made it the dominant power in East Asia, drawing hundreds of thousands of Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese students to the metropole and sending thousands of Japanese to other parts of East Asia. The constant movement of peoples, ideas, and texts in the Japanese empire created numerous literary contact nebulae, fluid spaces of diminished hierarchies where writers grapple with and transculturate one another’s creative output. Drawing extensively on vernacular sources in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, this book analyzes the most active of these contact nebulae: semicolonial Chinese, occupied Manchurian, and colonial Korean and Taiwanese transculturations of Japanese literature. It explores how colonial and semicolonial writers discussed, adapted, translated, and recast thousands of Japanese creative works, both affirming and challenging Japan’s cultural authority. Such efforts not only blurred distinctions among resistance, acquiescence, and collaboration but also shattered cultural and national barriers central to the discourse of empire. In this context, twentieth-century East Asian literatures can no longer be understood in isolation from one another, linked only by their encounters with the West, but instead must be seen in constant interaction throughout the Japanese empire and beyond.]

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan "Farewell to Revolution" that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wang, Hui. "Local Forms, Vernacular Dialects, and the War of Resistance against Japan: The National Forms Debate." Tr. Chris Berry. In Wang, The Politics of Imagining Asia. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011, 95-135.

Wang, Minmin. "Mao Zedong's Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art." In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 179-96.

Wang, Xiaoping. "From 'Use of Old Forms' to "Establishment of a National Form: A Reevaluation of Mao's Agenda of Forging a Cultural-Political Nation." International Critical Thought 2, 2 (2013): 183-96.

[Abstract; This paper aims to re-examine the important debates about ‘use of old forms’ and ‘establishment of a national form’ in Chinese intellectual circles of the 1940s. It discusses the contemporary referents of the ‘form’ and ‘content’ in the term ‘(national) form’ and explores the intricate relationship among literary language use, class consciousness, and a national culture. As a conclusion, it suggests that Mao's agenda of creating a ‘national form’ was not merely a means of achieving popularization but an end aimed at creating a revolutionary culture to facilitate the establishment of a homogenized and egalitarian society, or to forge a powerful cultural–political nation. This effort merits reappraisal in contemporary China, when differing interests and newly divided classes make the national consensus highly vulnerable.]

Xie, Zhixi. "The Historical Tragedy and the Human Tragedy--The Depiction and the Discussion of the Historical Plays During the War of Resistance Against Japan." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 3, 1 (March 2009): 64-96.

Xu, Zhenglin. "Modern Chinese Writers' Thoughts on Religion During the Sino-Japanese War." Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 355-62.

Yan, Haiping. "War, Death, and the Art of Existence: Mobile Women in the 1940s." In Yan, Chinese Women Writers and the Feminist Imagination, 1905-1948. London: Routledge, 2006, 135-67.

Yeh, Wen-hsin, ed. Wartime Shanghai. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Zhou, Xiaoyi and Q. S. Tong. "The Problem of the Subject and Literary Modernity: Mao Zedong's Theory of Art Revisited." Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 32/33 (2000/2001): 135-56.


1950s-1960s

Arkush, David. "Introduction." In Hua-ling Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, xiii-xxxviii.

Birch, Cyril. "The Dragon and the Pen." Soviet Survey 14 (April/June 1958): 22-26.

-----, ed. Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963.

-----. "Chinese Communist Literature: The Persistence of Traditional Forms." China Quarterly 13 (Jan/March 1963): 74-91.

-----. "The Particle of Art." China Quarterly 13 (Jan/March 1963): 3-14.

-----. "Literature Under Communism." In Roderick MacFarquhar and John King Fairbank, ed., Cambrigdge History of China. Vol. 15, The People's Republic of China, Pt.2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986, 743-812.

Boorman, Howard. Literature and Politics in Contemporary China. Jamaica, NY: St John's UP, 1960.

-----. "The Literary World of Mao Tse-tung." China Quarterly 13 (1963): 15-38. Rpt in Cyril Birch, ed., Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 15-38.

Borowitz, Albert. Fiction in Communist China. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1954.

Braester, Yomi. "The Political Campaign as Genre: Ideology and Iconography during the Seventeen Years Period." Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (March 2008): 119-40.

[Abstract: The essay examines films produced during the Seventeen Years period (1949-66) and suggests that political campaigns may be akin to film genres. Insofar as generic distinctions of theme and style are produced according to the shifting interests of critics and producers, campaigns have produced a politically motivated typology. The examination of campaigns as genrelike offers an opportunity to rethink the connection not only between Maoism and its cultural manifestations but also between ideology and form in general.]

Button, Peter. Aesthetic Formation and the Image of Modern China: The Philosophical Aesthetics of Cai Yi. Ph.d. diss. Ithaca: Cornell Univerity, 2000.

-----. Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

[Abstract: The emergence of the Chinese socialist realist novel can best be understoodin light of the half-century long formation of the modern concept ofliterature in China. Globalized in the wake of modern capitalism, literary modernity configures the literary text in a relationship to both modern philosophy and literary theory. This book traces China's unique, complex, and creative articulation of literary modernity beginning with Lu Xun's “The True Story of Ah Q.” Cai Yi's aesthetic theory of the type (dianxing) and the image (xingxiang) is then explored in relation to global currents in literary thought and philosophy, making possible a fundamental rethinking of Chinese socialist realist novels like Yang Mo's Song of Youth and Luo Guangbin and Yan Yiyan's Red Crag.]

Chan, Shau-wing. "Literature in Communist China." Problems of Communism 7, 1 (Jan/Feb 1958): 44-51.

Chan, Sylvia. "The Image of a 'Capitalist Roader': Some Dissident Short Stories in the Hundred Flowers Period." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 2 (July 1979): 72-102.

-----. "The Blooming of the 'Hundred Flowers' and the Literature of the 'Wounded Generation.'" In Bill Brugger, ed., China Since the 'Gang of Four'. London: Croom Helm, 1980, 174-201.

Chao, Ts'ung. The Communist Program for Literature and Art in China. HK: Union Research Institute, 1955.

-----. "Literature and Art." In Communist China: 1956. HK: Union Research Institute, 1957, 149-59.

Cheek, Timothy. Propaganda and Culture in Mao's China: Deng Tuo and the Intelligentsia. NY: Oxford UP, 1997.

Chen, A.S. "The Ideal Local Party Secretary and the 'Model' Man." The China Quarterly 17 (Jan-Mar. 1964): 229-40.

Chen, Helen H. "Irony, Satire and (Un)reliability: Parodying the Genre of the Rightist Fiction." American Journal of Chinese Studies 6, 1 (April 1999): 1-20.

Chen, S. H. (Shih-hsiang). "Metaphor and the Conscious in Chinese Poetry under Communism." In Cyril Birch, ed. Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 39-59.

-----. "Multiplicity in Uniformity: Poetry and the Great Leap Forward." In R. MacFarquhar, ed., China Under Mao: Politics Takes Command. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966, 392-406.

-----. "Language and Literature Under Communism." In Yuan-li Wu, ed., China: A Handbook. NY: Praeger, 1973, 705-36.

Chen, Sihe. "On 'Invisible Writing' in the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature 1949-1976." Tr. Hongbing Zhang. MCLC Resource Center Publication.

Chen, Xiaomei. "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Literature." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 65-83.

Chen, Xiaoming. "The Disappearance of Truth: From Realism to Modernism in China." In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 158-65.

-----. "Personal Recollections and the Historicization of Literature: Keep the Red Flag Flying as a Case Study of the Complexity of Revolutionary Literature." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 225-47.

Chin, Luke Kai-hsin. The Politics of Drama Reform in China after 1949: Elite Strategies of Resocialization. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 1980.

Chung, Hiliary and Tommy McClellan, "The Command Enjoyment of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses.' In Hilary Chung ed., In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1996, 1-22.

Cohen, Jerome. "The Party and the Courts: 1940-1959." The China Quarterly 38 (April-June 1969): 120-57.

Crespi, John. "Calculated Passions: The Lyric and the Theatric in Mao-era Poetry Recitation." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 72-110.

Crozier, Ralph, ed. China's Cultural Legacy and Communism. NY: Praeger, 1970.

Cultural Press. The People’s New Literature: Four Reports at the First All-China Conference of Writers and Artists. Beijing: Cultural Press, 1950. [with essays by Zhou Enlai, Guo Moruo, Mao Dun, and Zhou Yang].

DeMare, Brian. "Local Actors and National Politics: Rural Amateur Drama Troupes and Mass Campaigns in Hubei Province, 1949-1953." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 129-178.

Denton, Kirk A. "Rectification: Party Discipline, Intellectual Remolding, and the Formation of a Political Community." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 51-63.

Eber, Irene. "Social Harmony, Family and Women in Chinese Novels, 1948-58." The China Quarterly 117 (Mar., 1989): 71-96.

Farquhar, Mary. "Revolutionary Children's Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (July 1980): 61-84.

Fokkema, D.W. Literary Doctrine in China and Soviet Influence, 1956-60. Hague: Mouton, 1965.

Giafferri-Huang, Xiaomin. Le roman chinois depuis 1949. Paris: Press Universitaire de France, 1991.

Goldman, Merle. Literary Dissent in Communist China. NY: Antheneum, 1971.

Greene, Maggie. "A Ghostly Bodhisattva and the Price of Vengeance: Meng Chao, Li Huiniang, and the Politics of Drama, 1959-1979." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 149-99.

Guo, Bingru. "Revolutionary Narrative in the Seventeen Years Period." Tr. Michael Gibbs Hill. In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 305-18.

He, Qiliang. "Between Business and Bureaucrats: Pingtan Storytelling in Maoist and Post-Maoist China." Modern China 36, 3(2010): 243-268.

[Abstract: This article examines the complex relationship of the state, market, and artists in pingtan storytelling in post-1949 China. By focusing on Su Yuyin, a pingtan storyteller, and his performing career, this article explores the persistence of cultural markets after the Communist victory in 1949 and argues that the market continued to play a significant role in shaping China’s popular culture, which the government was keen on patronizing and politicizing. By comparing the regime’s management of pingtan storytelling before and after the Cultural Revolution (1966—1976), this article further argues that the regime’s censorship of popular culture in the 1950s and 1960s was handicapped by its lack of financial resources and the continued existence of cultural markets. The result was that censorship was not as strictly and efficiently enforced as has been assumed.]

Hegel, Robert. "Making the Past Serve the Present in Fiction and Drama: From the Yan'an Forum to the Cultural Revolution." In Bonnie McDougall, ed., Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, 197-223.

Hendrischke, Hans J. Populare Lesestoffe: Propaganda und Agitation im Buchwesen der Volksrepublik China (Popular Reading Material: Propaganda and Agitation in Book Publishing in the People's Republic of China). Bochum: Herausgeber Chinathemen, 1988.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Hsia, Tsi-An. "Twenty Years after the Yenan Forum." In Cyril Birch, ed., Chinese Communist Literature. NY: Praeger, 1963, 226-253. Rpt. in Hsia, The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968, 234-60.

-----. Heroes and Hero-Worship in Chinese Communist Fiction. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

Hsu, Kai-yu. "Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Its Search for an Ideal Form." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 224-65.

Huang, Joe. Heroes and Villains in Communist China: The Contemporary Chinese Novel as a Reflection of Life. HK: Heinemann, 1973.

Huangfu, Jenny. "Roads to Salvation: Shen Congwen, Xiao Qian, and the Problem of Non-Communist Celebrity Writers, 1948-1957." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 39-87.

Hung, Chang-tai. "The Dance of Revolution: Yangge in Beijing in the Early 1950s." The China Quarterly 181 (March 2005): 82-99.

Hutt, Michael. "Reading Nepali Maoist Memoirs." Studies in Nepali History and Society 17, no. 1 (June 2012): 107–142.

Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao's China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.

King, Richard. "The Hundred Flowers." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 476-80.

-----. Milestones on a Golden Road: Writing for Chinese Socialism, 1945-80. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Literature created under and by a repressive regime is rarely accorded the same respect as works that go against the party line. Yet, as Richard King's Milestones on a Golden Road argues, these works deserve serious attention as part of an attempt, however misguided, to create a Chinese socialist culture. King presents eight pivotal works of fiction produced in four key periods of Chinese revolutionary history: the civil war (1945-49), the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), and the post-Mao catharsis (1979-80). Taking its cues from the Soviet Union's optimistic depictions of a society liberated by Communism, the official Chinese literature of this era is characterized by grand narratives of progress. Addressing questions of literary production, King looks at how writers dealt with shifting ideological demands, what indigenous and imported traditions inspired them, and how they were able to depict a utopian Communist future to their readers, even as the present took a very different turn. Early "red classics" were followed by works featuring increasingly lurid images of joyful socialism, and later by fiction exposing the Mao era as an age of irrationality, arbitrary rule, and suffering -- a Golden Road that had led to nowhere.]

Knight, Sabina. "Moral Decision in Mao-Era Fiction." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 133-61.

Kraus, Richard. "Let a Hundred Flowers Blossom, Let a Hundred Schools of Thought Contend." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 249-62.

Laughlin, Charles. "Incongruous Lyricism: Liu Baiyu, Yang Shuo and sanwen in Chinese Socialist Culture." In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 2000, 115-29.

Li, Chi. The Use of Figurative Language in Communist China. Studies in Chinese Communist Terminology, no. 5. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1958.

Li, Peter. "War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction." Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Du Pengcheng's Defend Yan'an and Wu Qiang's Red Sun]

Li, Ting-sheng. The CCP's Persecutions of Intellectuals in 1949-1969. Taipei: Asian People's Anti-Communist League, 1969.

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Liu, Kang. "Rethinking the Aesthetic Debate in the 1950s and 1960s." Literature Review (2000): 34-59.

Liu, Lydia. “A Folksong Immortal and Official Popular Culture in Twentieth-Century China.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 553-609. [deals in part with film “Liu Sanjie” and its folk roots]

Liu, Xiaobo. "Mutual Destruction and Mutual Purges in Academic Circles." Chinese Law and Government 38, 5 (Sept-Oct. 2005): 58-77. [link is to a reprint on the Chinese Pen website]

Liu, Yu. "Maoist Discourse and the Mobilization of Emotions in Revolutionary China." Modern China 36, 3 (2010): 329-362.

[Abstract: This article focuses on how Maoist discourse engineered revolutionary emotions as a method of political mobilization. Based on personal memoirs and eyewitness accounts, it argues that the Maoist discourse can be disaggregated into three themes, each aimed at provoking one type of emotion: the theme of victimization, which mobilized indignation in struggle campaigns; the theme of redemption, which generated guilt in thought reform campaigns; and the theme of emancipation, which raised euphoria in social transformation campaigns. It also argues that Maoist discourse propagation employed three techniques—personalization, magnification, and moralization—and emphasizes that these techniques of propagation are as important as the content of the three themes in the production of passions.]

Leung, K.C. "Literature in the Service of Politics: The Chinese Literary Scene Since 1949." World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 18-20.

MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Chinese Intellectual. NY: Praeger, 1960.

Mu, Aili. Mao Zedong's Aesthetic Ideology and Its Function. Ph.d. diss. SUNY, Stonybrook, 1996.

Pickowicz, Paul. Marxist Literary Thought and China: A Conceptual Framework. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1980.

Schwartz, Benjamin. "The Intelligentsia in Communist China: A Tentative Comparison." In Richard Pipes, ed., The Russian Intelligentsia. NY: Columbia UP, 1961.

Song, Mingwei. "The Taming of the Youth: Discourse, Politics, and Fictional Representation in the Early PRC." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 108-38.

Song, Mingwei and Shengqing Wu, editors. The Obscure Decade: Literary Imagination and Political Culture in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the PRC, 1949-1959. Special issue of Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009).

Song, Yongyi, chief editor. The Chinese Anti-Rightist Campaign Database (1957-). HK: Chinese University Press, 2010.

Stuckey, Andrew. "Interlude: The Maoist (Anti)Tradition and the Nationalist (Neo)Tradition." In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 59-79.

Su, Wei. "The School and the Hospital: On the Logics of Socialist Realism." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 165-75.

Taylor, Jeremy. "The Sinification of Soviet Agitational Theatre: 'Living Newspapers' in Mao's China." Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies vol. 2 (July 2013).

[Abstract: The adoption and development of zhivaya gazeta (lit. ‘living newspapers’) in China follows a trajectory common to many forms of artistic expression that were introduced into that country by the Soviets in the early decades of the twentieth century. While the Soviet heritage of this theatre was at first celebrated, the Chinese Communist Party sought to tailor it to particular needs and to present it as a specifically Chinese innovation, rechristening it ‘huobaoju’.Despite dying out in the Soviet Union by the late 1920s, ‘living newspapers’ continued to be produced in China from the 1930s through until the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), with the form being employed in tandem with specific campaigns or attempts at mass mobilisation. Indeed, the very nature of Chinese communism under Mao provided the perfect environment in which this form of theatre could thrive]

U, Eddy. "Third Sister Liu and the Making of the Intellectual in Socialist China." Journal of Asian Studies 69, 1 (Feb. 2010): 57-83.

[Abstract: Through an analysis of Third Sister Liu, a popular musical of the early 1960s, this article illustrates how the Chinese Communist Party mobilized state and society to express disparaging ideas about the intellectual during the Great Leap Forward. The Chinese intellectual was not any specific social type, group, or individual, but a substrate upon which the party organized and promoted its vision and division of society. Official representations, organization, and the threat of punishment underpinned the party's efforts and produced local resistance toward the party's understanding of the intellectual. The author's analytical approach stresses the social work of construction that reproduced the intellectual as a major political subject, an official classification, and an embodied identity in socialist China. The analysis illuminates heretofore obscured dimensions of Communist Party rule and experiences of those affected by the classification.]

Van Fleit Hang, Krista. "People's Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 87-107.

-----. Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Richard King]

[Abstract: In the Maoist period, authors and the communist literary establishment shared the belief that art could reshape reality, and was thus just as crucial to the political establishment as building new infrastructure or developing advanced weaponry. Literature the People Love investigates the production of a literary system designed to meet the needs of a newly revolutionary society in China, decentering the Cold War understanding of communist culture. Krista Van Fleit Hang shows readers how to understand the intersection of gender, tradition, and communist ideology in essential texts. Rather than arguing for or against the literary merits of the works of the early Maoist period, the book presents a sympathetic understanding of culture from a period in China's history in which people's lives were greatly affected by political events.]

-----. "Introduction: Reading People's Literature." In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 1-22.

-----. "People's Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition." In Van Fleit Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 23-56.

Volland, Nicolai. "A Linguistic Enclave: Translation and Language Policies in the Early People's Republic of China." Modern China 35 (2009): 467-494.

Wagner, Rudolf. "The Cog and the Scout: Functional Concepts of Literature in Socialist Political Culture: The Chinese Debate in the Mid-Fifties." In W. Kubin and R. Wagner, eds., Essays in Modern Chinese Literature and Literary Criticism. Bochum, 1982.

-----. "Life as a Quote from a Foreign Book. Love, Pavel, and Rita." In H.Schmidt-Glintzer (ed.), Das andere China. Festschrift für Wolfgang Bauer zum 65. Geburtstag, Wolfenbütteler Forschungen; vol. 62. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1995, 463-476. [deals with the problems of handling love themes in PRC literature, and Soviet background of its treatment (especially Ostrovski, How the Steel was Tempered)]

-----. "Culture and Code. Historical Fiction in a Socialist Environment: The GDR and China." In H. Chung (ed.)(with M. Falchikov, B. S. McDougall, K. McPherson), In the Party Spirit. Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Editions Rodopi: Amsterdam/Atlanta 1996, 129-140.

Wang, Ban. "Revolutionary Realism and Revolutonary Romanticism: The Song of Youth." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 470-75.

-----. "Socialist Realism." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 101-118.

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan "Farewell to Revolution" that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wang, David Der-wei. "Reinventing National History: Communist and Anti-Communist Fiction of the Mid-Twentieth Century." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 139-64.

Wang, Xiaojue. Modernity with a Cold War Face: Reimagining the Nation in Chinese Literature Across the 1949 Divide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jeffrey C. Kinkley]

[Abstract: The year 1949 witnessed China divided into multiple political and cultural entities. How did this momentous shift affect Chinese literary topography? Modernity with a Cold War Face examines the competing, converging, and conflicting modes of envisioning a modern nation in mid-twentieth century Chinese literature. Bridging the 1949 divide in both literary historical periodization and political demarcation, Xiaojue Wang proposes a new framework to consider Chinese literature beyond national boundaries, as something arising out of the larger global geopolitical and cultural conflict of the Cold War. Examining a body of heretofore understudied literary and cultural production in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and overseas during a crucial period after World War II, Wang traces how Chinese writers collected artistic fragments, blended feminist and socialist agendas, constructed ambivalent stances toward colonial modernity and an imaginary homeland, translated foreign literature to shape a new Chinese subjectivity, and revisited the classics for a new time. Reflecting historical reality in fictional terms, their work forged a path toward multiple modernities as they created alternative ways of connection, communication, and articulation to uncover and undermine Cold War dichotomous antagonism.

Wu, Guo. "The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

Yang, Lan. "'Socialist Realism' versus 'Revolutionary Realism plus Revolutionary Romanticism.'" In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 88-105.

You, Ziying. "Tradition and Ideology: Creating and Performing new Gushi in China, 1962-1966." Asian Ethnology 71, 2 (2012): 259-80.

Zhao, Zhong. The Communist Program for Literature and Art in China. Kowloon: Union Research Institute, 1955.

Zhongguo wenxue yishu gongzuozhe di'erci daibiao dahui ziliao (Materials from the second representatives meeting of China Literary and Art Workers). Beijing: Zhongguo wenxue yishu jielian hehui, 1953.


Cultural Revolution (1966-76)

Aijmer, Goran. "Political Ritual: Aspects of the Mao Cult During the Cultural 'Revolution.'" China Information 11, 2/3 (Aut/Win 1996/97): 215-31.

Bai, Di. A Feminist Brave New World: The Cultural Revolution Model Theater Revisited. Ph.D. diss. The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1997.

-----. "The Cultural Revolution Model Theater." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 496-501.

-----. "Feminism in the Revolutionary Model Ballets The White-Haired Girl and The Red Detachment of Women." In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Bergman, Par. Paragons of Virtue in Chinese Short Stories during the Cultural Revolution. Gotebord, Graphic Systems, 1984.

Bibliography on Chinese Cultural Revolution (Indiana University Library)

Borden, Caroline. "Characterization in Revolutionary Chinese and Reactionary American Short Stories." Literature and Ideology 12 (1972): 9-16.

Braester, Yomi. "The Purloined Lantern: Maoist Semiotics and Public Discourse in Early PRC Film and Drama." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 106-27.

Brown, Kevin. "Language Politics in Inner Mongolia during the Cultural Revolution." Online resource.

Bryant, Lei Ouyang. New Songs of the Battlefield: Songs and Memories of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Ph. D. diss. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 2004.

Cao, Zuoya. Out of the Crucible: Literary Works about the Rusticated Youth. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2003.

Ch'en, Shih-hsiang. "Language and Literature Under Communism." In Yuan-li Wu, ed., China: A Handbook. NY: Praeger, 1973, 705-36.

Chen, Sihe. "On 'Invisible Writing' in the History of Contemporary Chinese Literature 1949-1976." Tr. Hongbing Zhang. MCLC Resource Center Publication.

Chen, Xiaomei. "The Marginality of the Study of Cultural Revolution: The Neglected and the Privileged in the Making of Imagined Communities." Historical Society of Twentieth Century China Annual Conference (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, Sept/Oct. 1997).

-----. "The Making of a Revolutionary Stage: Chinese Model Theater and Western Influences." In Claire Sponsler and Xiaomei Chen, eds., East of West: Cross-cultural Performance and the Staging of Difference. NY: St. Martin's Press, 2000, 125-40.

----- Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

-----. "Operatic Revolutions: Tradition, Memory, and Women in Model Theater." In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 73-158.

-----. "Family, Village, Nation/State, and the Third World: The Imagined Communities in Model Theater." In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 159-194.

-----. "Remembering War and Revolution on the Maoist Stage." In Andrew Hammond, ed., Cold War Literature: Writing the Global Conflict. New York: Routledge, 2006, 131-145.

Cheng Shi, et al., eds. Wenge xiaoliao ji (A collection of Cultural Revolution jokes). Chengdu: Xinan caijing daxue, 1988.

Chin, Ai-li. "Short Stories in China: Theory and Practice, 1973-1975." In Godwin Chu, ed., Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978, 124-83..

Chin, Luke Kai-hsin. The Politics of Drama Reform in China after 1949: Elite Strategies of Resocialization. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 1980.

Clark, Paul. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2008.

[Abstract: A groundbreaking study of cultural life during a turbulent and formative decade in contemporary China, this book seeks to explode several myths about the Cultural Revolution (officially 1966–1976). Through national and local examination of the full range of cultural forms (film, operas, dance, other stage arts, music, fine arts, literature, and even architecture), Clark argues against characterizing this decade as one of chaos and destruction. Rather, he finds that innovation and creativity, promotion of participation in cultural production, and a vigorous promotion of the modern were all typical of the Cultural Revolution. Using a range of previously little-used materials, Clark forces us to fundamentally reassess our understanding of the Cultural Revolution, a period which he sees as the product of innovation in conflict with the effort by political leaders to enforce a top-down modernity. Contents: Introduction; 1. Modelling a new culture; 2. Spreading the new models; 3. Fixing culture on film; 4. Elaborating culture: dance, music, stage, and fine arts; 5. Writing wrongs: public and private fictions and resistance; 6. Conclusion: forcing modernity.]

-----. "Model Theatrical Workss and the Remodeling of the Cultural Revolution." In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Dai Jiafang. Yangbanxi de fengfengyunyun: Jiang Qing, yangbanxi ji neimu (The storm around model drama: Jiang Qing, model drama, and behind the scenes). Beijing: Zhonghua gongshang lianhe, 1994.

Denton, Kirk. "Model Drama as Myth: A Semiotic Analysis of Taking Tiger Mountain By Strategy." In Constantine Tung, ed. Drama in the People's Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 119-36.

Ding, Wang, ed. Zhongguo wenhua da geming ziliao huibian (Documents on the Chinese Cultural Revolution). HK: Minbao yuekan, 1967-72.

Dittmer, Lowell. "Radical Ideology and Chinese Political Culture: An Analysis of the Revolutionary Yangbanxi." In Richard Wilson, Sidney Greenblatt, Amy Wilson, eds., Moral Behaviour in Chinese Society. NY: Praeger, 1981, 126-51.

Dittmer, Lowell and Chen Ruoxi. Ethics and Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Berkeley: UC, Center for Chinese Studies, 1981.

Emerson, Andrew G. "The Guizhou Undercurrent." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 111-33.

Esherick, Joseph, Paul G. Pickowicz, and Andrew G. Walder, eds. The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

Fokkema, D. W. Report from Peking: Observations of a Western Diplomat on the Cultural Revolution. London: C. Hurst, 1971.

-----. "The Forms and Values of Contemporary Chinese Literature." New Literary History 4, 3 (Spring 1973): 591-603.

-----. "Maoist Ideology and Its Exemplification in the New Peking Opera." Current Scene 10, 8 (1972): 13-20.

Galik, Marian. "The Concept of 'Positive Hero' in Chinese Literature of the 1960s and 1970s." Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 17 (1981): 27-53.

Greene, Maggie. "A Ghostly Bodhisattva and the Price of Vengeance: Meng Chao, Li Huiniang, and the Politics of Drama, 1959-1979." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 149-99.

Gu, Yizhong. "The Three Prominences." In Ban Wang, ed., Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 283-303.

Guo, Jian. "Resisting Modernity in Contemporary China: The Cultural Revolution and Post-Modernism." Modern China 25, 3 (July 1999): 343-76.

Guo, Jian, Yongyi Song, and Yuan Zhou, eds. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Lanham, Toronto, and Oxford: The Scarecrow Press, 2006.

Hay, Trevor. China's Proletarian Myth: The Revolutionary Narrative in Model Theatre of the Cultural Revolution. PhD thesis. Griffith University, 2000.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Honig, Emily. “Socialist Sex: The Cultural Revolution Revisited.” Modern China 29, 2 (April 2003): 143-75.

Howard, Roger. Contemporary Chinese Theater. London: Heinemann Educational Books, 1978.

Hsu, Kai-yu. The Chinese Literary Scene: A Writer's Visit to the People's Republic of China. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976.

Ji, Fengyuan. Linguistic Engineering: Language and Politics in Mao's China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2003.

Judd, Ellen. "Prescriptive Dramatic Theory of the Cultural Revolution." In Constantine Tung, ed. Drama in the People's Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 94-118.

-----. "Dramas of Passion: Heroism in the Cultural Revolution Model Operas." In William Joseph, et al. eds., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1991,

King, Richard. A Shattered Mirror: the Literature of the Cultural Revolution. Ph.D. thesis. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1984.

-----. "Revisionism and Transformation in the Cultural Revolution Novel." Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (1993): 105-130.

-----. "Writings on the Urban Youth Generation." Renditions 50 (1998): 4-9.

-----. "A Fiction Revealing Collusion: Allegory and Evasion in the Mid-1970s." Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 71-90.

-----. "Fantasies of Battle: Making the Militant Hero Prominent." In Richard King, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

-----. Milestones on a Golden Road: Writing for Chinese Socialism, 1945-80. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Literature created under and by a repressive regime is rarely accorded the same respect as works that go against the party line. Yet, as Richard King's Milestones on a Golden Road argues, these works deserve serious attention as part of an attempt, however misguided, to create a Chinese socialist culture. King presents eight pivotal works of fiction produced in four key periods of Chinese revolutionary history: the civil war (1945-49), the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), the Cultural Revolution (1966-76), and the post-Mao catharsis (1979-80). Taking its cues from the Soviet Union's optimistic depictions of a society liberated by Communism, the official Chinese literature of this era is characterized by grand narratives of progress. Addressing questions of literary production, King looks at how writers dealt with shifting ideological demands, what indigenous and imported traditions inspired them, and how they were able to depict a utopian Communist future to their readers, even as the present took a very different turn. Early "red classics" were followed by works featuring increasingly lurid images of joyful socialism, and later by fiction exposing the Mao era as an age of irrationality, arbitrary rule, and suffering -- a Golden Road that had led to nowhere.]

King, Richard, Ralph C. Croizier, Scott Watson, and Sheng Tian Zheng, eds. Art in Turmoil: The Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-76. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2010.

Knight, Sabina. "Moral Decision in Mao-Era Fiction." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 133-61.

Kong, Shuyu. "For Reference Only: Restricted Publication and Distribution of Foreign Literature During the Cultural Revolution." Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 2 (Fall 2002): 76-85. 

Kraus, Richard. "Arts Policies of the Cultural Revolution: The Rise and Fall of Culture Minister Yu Huiyong." In William Joseph, Christine Wong, and David Zweig, eds., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1991, 219-41.

Landsberger, Stefan. "Mao as the Kitchen God: Religious Aspects of the Mao Cult During the Cultural Revolution." China Information 11, 2/3 (Aut/Win 1996/97): 196-214.

Larson, Wendy. "Never This Wild: Sexing the Cultural Revolution." Modern China 25, 4 (1999): 423-50.

Law, Kam-yee, ed. The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered: Beyond Purge and Holocaust. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

[Table of Contents: Explanations for China's Revolution at its Peak--L.T. White & K.Y. Law * Historical Reflections on the Cultural Revolution as a Political Movement--H.Y. Lee * The Structural Sources of the Cultural Revolution--S. Wang * Between Destruction and Construction: The First Year of the Cultural Revolution--S. Wang * Cleansing the Class Ranks: The Hidden Face of the Cultural Revolution--A.G. Walder * The Logic of Repressive Collective Action: A Case Study of Violence in the Cultural Revolution--X. Gong * The Cultural Revolution in Zhejiang Revisited: The Paradox of Rebellion and Factionalism and Violence and Social Conflict amidst Economic Growth--K. Forster * The Politics of the Cultural Revolution in Historical Perspective--A. Dirlik * The Cultural Revolution and the Origins of Post-Mao Reform--M. Lupher * Legacies of the Maoist Development Strategy: Rural Industrialization in China--C.P.W. Wong * The Strange Tale of China's Tea Industry During the Cultural Revolution]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "Dissent Literature from the Cultural Revolution." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 1 (1979): 59-79.

Leese, Daniel. Performative Politics and Petrified Images: The Mao Cult during China's Cultural Revolution. Ph. D. diss. Bremen: International University Bremen, 2006.

Leung, K.C. "Literature in the Service of Politics: The Chinese Literary Scene Since 1949." World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 18-20.

Leys, Simon. The Chairman's New Clothes: Mao and the Cultural Revolution. Trs. Carol Appleyard and Patrick Goode. London: Allison and Bushby, 1977.

List of the Yangbanxi (Barbara Mittler).

Liu, Kang. "Hegemony and Cultural Revolution." New Literary History 28, 1 (1997): 69-86.

Liu, Xiaobo. "Mutual Destruction and Mutual Purges in Academic Circles." Chinese Law and Government 38, 5 (Sept-Oct. 2005): 58-77. [link is to a reprint on the Chinese Pen website]

Lu, Guang and Xiaoyu Xiao. "Beijing Opera during the Cultural Revolution: The Rhetoric of Ideological Conflicts." In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 223-48.

Lu, Tonglin. "Fantasy and Ideology in a Chinese Film: A Zizekian Reading of the Cultural Revolution." positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 2 (Fall 2004): 539-64. [mostly about Jiang Wen's In the Heat of the Sun]

Lu, Xing. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: The Impact on Chinese Thought, Culture, and Communication. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Lupher, Mark. "Revolutionary Little Red Devils: The Social Psychology of Rebel Youth." In Anne Kinney, ed. Chinese Views of Childhood. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995, 321-44.

Ma, Sheng-Mei. "Contrasting Two Survival Literatures: On the Jewish Holocaust and the Chinese Cultural Revolution." Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, 1 (1987): 81-93.

MacKerras, Colin. “Chinese Opera After the Cultural Revolution (1970-1972).” The China Quarterly 55 (1973): 478-510.

McDougall, Bonnie. "Dissent Literature: Official and Nonofficial Literature In and About China in the Seventies." Contemporary China (1979): 49-79.

Meserve, Walter J. and Ruth I. Meserve. “China’s Persecuted Playwrights: The Theater in Communist China’s Current Cultural Revolution.” Journal of Asian and African Studies 5 (1970): 209- 215.

Mittler, Barbara. "To Be or Not to Be: Making and Unmaking the Yangbanxi." [manuscript in progress]

-----. "Cultural Revolution Model Works and the Politics of Modernization in China: An Analysis of Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy." The World of Music. Special Issue, Traditional Music and Composition 2 (2003): 53-81.

-----. "Popular Propaganda? Art and Culture in Revolutionary China." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 152, 4 (Dec. 2008): 466-89.

-----. A Continuous Revolution: Making Sense of Cultural Revolution Culture. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2012.

[Abstract: Cultural Revolution Culture, often denigrated as nothing but propaganda, not only was liked in its heyday but continues to be enjoyed today. A Continuous Revolution sets out to explain its legacy. By considering Cultural Revolution propaganda art--music, stage works, prints and posters, comics, and literature--from the point of view of its longue duree, Barbara Mittler suggests that Cultural Revolution propaganda art was able to build on a tradition of earlier art works, and this allowed for its sedimentation in cultural memory and its proliferation in contemporary China. Taking the aesthetic experience of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) as her base, Mittler juxtaposes close readings and analyses of cultural products from the period with impressions given in a series of personal interviews conducted in the early 2000s with Chinese from diverse class and generational backgrounds. By including much testimony from these original voices, Mittler illustrates the extremely multifaceted and contradictory nature of the Cultural Revolution, both in terms of artistic production and of its cultural experience.]

-----. A Continuous Revolution [website accompanying publication of Barbara Mittler's A Continous Revolution: Making Sense of Cultural Revolution Culture (Harvard University Press, 2012)]

Morning Sun: A Film and Website About Cultural Revolution (Longbow Group)

The Morning Sun (2003). Produced and directed by Richard Gordon and Carma Hinton. Longbow Group. [two-hour documentary of the events and cultural context of the Cultural Revolution]

Mowry, Hua-yuan Li. Yang-pan hsi--New Theater in China. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1973.

Ni, Hua-ying. The Treatment of Cultural Revolution in Post-Cultural Revolutionary Literature (late 70's to early 90's). PhD thesis. Canberra: Australian National University, 1997.

On-line Center of Cultural Revolution Studies

Pan, Yihong. Tempered in the Revolutionary Furnace: China's Youth in the Rustication Movement. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2009.

[Abstract:: Yihong Pan tells her personal story, and that of her generation of urban middle school graduates sent to the countryside during China's Rustication Movement. Based on interviews, reminiscences, diaries, letters, and newspaper accounts, the work examines the varied, and often perplexing, experiences of the seventeen million Chinese students sent to work in the countryside between 1953 and 1980. Rich in human drama, Pan's book illustrates how life in the countryside transformed the children of Mao from innocent, ignorant, yet often passionate, believers in the Communist Party into independent adults. Those same adults would lead the nationwide protests in the winter of 1978-79 that forced the government to abandon its policy of rustication. Richly textured, this work successfully blends biography with a wealth of historical insight to bring to life the trials of a generation, and to offer Chinese studies scholars a fascinating window into Mao Zedong's China.]

Perry, Elizabeth and Li Xin. "Revolutionary Rudeness: The Language of Red Guards and Rebel Workers in China's Cultural Revolution." Indiana East Asian Working Papers (July 1993): 1-17.

Pickowicz, Paul G. Literature and People in the People's Republic. HK: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1971.

Pollard, David E. "The Short Story in the Cultural Revolution." China Quarterly 73 (March 1978): 99-121.

Remembering the Chinese Cultural Revolution: A Two-day Multimedia Event (University of California, San Diego, Jan. 12-13, 2007).

Rethinking Cultural Revolution Culture. Confernece website (Heidelberg, Feb. 22-24).

Roberts, Rosemary. "Positive Women Characters in the Revolutionary Model Works of the Chinese Cultural Revolution: An Argument Against the Theory of Erasure of Gender and Sexuality." Asian Studies Review 28, 4 (Dec. 2004): 407- 422.

-----. "Gendering the Revolutionary Body: Theatrical Costume in Cultural Revolution China." Asian Studies Review 30, 2 (June 2006).

-----. "Performing Gender in Maoist Ballet: Mutual Subversions of Genre and Ideology in The Red Detachment of Women." Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 16 (March 2008).

-----. "Maoist Women Warriors: Historical Continuities and Cultural Transgressions." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 139-62.

-----. Maoist Model Theatre: The Semiotics of Gender and Sexuality in the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: Here is a convincing reflection that changes our understanding of gender in Maoist culture, esp. for what critics from the 1990s onwards have termed its 'erasure' of gender and sexuality. In particular the strong heroines of the yangbanxi, or 'model works' which dominated the Cultural Revolution period, have been seen as genderless revolutionaries whose images were damaging to women. Drawing on contemporary theories ranging from literary and cultural studies to sociology, this book challenges that established view through detailed semiotic analysis of theatrical systems of the yangbanxi including costume, props, kinesics, and various audio and linguistic systems. Acknowledging the complex interplay of traditional, modern, Chinese and foreign gender ideologies as manifest in the 'model works', it fundamentally changes our insights into gender in Maoist culture]

Schwarcz, Vera. "The Burden of Memory: The Cultural Revolution and the Holocaust." China Information 11, 1 (Summer 1996): 1-13.

-----. Bridge Across Broken Time: Chinese and Jewish Cultural Memory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Schrift, Melissa. Biography of a Chairman Mao Badge. Piscatawy, NY: Rutgers UP, 2001.

Song, Yongyi. "A Glance at the Underground Reading Movement during the Cultural Revolution." Journal of Contemporary China 16, 51 (May 2007): 325-333.

Thurston, Anne. F. Enemies of the People: The Ordeal of the Intellectuals in China's Great Cultural Revolution. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987.

Virtual Museum of the Cultural Revolution (CND).

Wagner, Vivian. "Songs of the Red Guards: Keywords Set to Music." East Asian Working Papers Series on Language and Politics in Modern China, Indiana University.

Wang, Ban. "The Cultural Revolution: A Terrible Beauty is Born." In Wang, The Sublime Figure of History Aesthetics and Politics in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997, 194-228. [online version by Morningsun.com]

Wang, Ban, ed. Words and Their Stories: Essays on the Language of the Chinese Revolution. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: As China joins the capitalist world economy, the problems of social disintegration that gave rise to the earlier revolutionary social movements are becoming pressing. Instead of viewing the Chinese Revolution as an academic study, these essays suggest that the motifs of the Revolution are still alive and relevant. The slogan "Farewell to Revolution" that obscures the revolutionary language is premature. In spite of dislocations and ruptures in the revolutionary language, to rethink this discourse is to revisit a history in terms of sedimented layers of linguistic meanings and political aspirations. Earlier meanings of revolutionary words may persist or coexist with non-revolutionary rivals. Recovery of the vital uses of key revolutionary words proffers critical alternatives in which contemporary capitalist myths can be contested.]

Wasserstron, Jeffrey and Sue Tuohy, eds. East Asian Working Papers Series on Language and Politics in Modern China. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Wu, Guo. "The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

Yang, Guobin and Ming-Bao Yue, eds. "Collective Memories of the Cultural Revolution," special issue of The China Review 5, 2 (Fall 2005). [essays by Guobin Yang, Ming-Bao Yue, Xiaomei Chen, David Davies, Jennifer Hubbert, Lei Ouyang Bryant]

Yang Jian. Wenhua dageming zhong de dixia wenxue (Underground literature of the Cultural Revolution). Beijing: Zhaohua, 1993.

-----. Zhongguo zhiqing wenxue shi (History of Chinese ‘sent down’ youth literature). Beijing: Zhongguo gongren, 2001.

Yang Kelin, ed. Wenhua da geming bowuguan (Museum of the Cultural Revolution). 2 vols. HK: Dongfang, 1995. [a beautifully illustrated--posters, photographs, film stills, etc.--history of the Culural Revolution]

Yang, Lan. Chinese Fiction of the Cultural Revolution. HK: Hong Kong UP, 1998.

-----. "The Depiction of the Hero in the Cultural Revolution Novel." China Information 12, 4 (Spring 1998): 68-95.

-----. "The Ideal Socialist Hero: Literary Conventions in Cultural Revolution Novels." In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 185-213.

-----. "Ideological Style in the Language of the Chinese Novels of the Cultural Revolution." Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 149-172.

-----. "The Language of Chinese Fiction of the Cultural Revolution: An Anti-dialectal Style." Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 15 (2001).

-----. "'Socialist Realism' versus 'Revolutionary Realism plus Revolutionary Romanticism.'" In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 88-105.

Yee, Law Kam, ed., The Chinese Cultural Revolution Reconsidered:Beyond Purge and Holocaust. NY: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2003.

Yung, Bell. "Model Opera as Model: Fron Shajiabang to Sagabong." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 144-64.


Post-Mao (1976-89)

Anagnost, Ann. "Who is Speaking Here? Discursive Boundaries and Representation in Post-Mao China." In John Hay, ed. Boundaries in China. London: Reaktion Books, 1994, 257-79.

Balcom, John. "Bridging the Gap: Contemporary Chinese Literature from a Translator's Perspective." Wasafiri 55 (2008): 19-23.

Barme, Geremie. "Flowers or More Weeds? Culture in China Since the Fall of the Gang of Four." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 1 (1979): 125-33.

-----. "Chaotou wenxue: China's New Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 2 (1979): 137-48.

-----. "The Chinese Velvet Prison: Culture in the New Age 1976-1989." Issues and Studies 25, 8 (1992): 54-79; also in Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 45-70.

-----. "History for the Masses." In Jonathan Unger, ed., Using the Past to Serve the Present. M.E. Sharpe, Inc., Armonk, NY, 1993.

-----. "To Screw Foreigners is Patriotic: China's Avant-Garde Nationalists." The China Journal 34 (July 1995).

Braester, Yomi. "Disjointed Time, Split Voices: Retrieving Historical Experience in Scar Literature." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 146-57.

-----. "The Aesthetics and Anesthetics of Memory: PRC Avant-Garde Fiction." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 177-91.

Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik. "The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-1979: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals." Asian Survey 21, 7 (July 1981): 747-73.

Cai, Rong. The Subject in Crisis in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Cao, Zuoya. Out of the Crucible: Literary Works about the Rusticated Youth. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2003.

Chan, Peter. "Popular Publications in China: A Look at 'The Spring of Peking.'" Contemporary China 3, 4 (Winter 1979): 103-111.

Chan, Sylvia. "The Blooming of a 'Hundred Flowers' and the Literature of the 'Wounded Generation.'" In Bill Brugger, ed., China Since the 'Gang of Four'. London: Croon Helm, 1980.

-----. "Blooming and Contending: Chinese Writers' Response on Chinese Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 8 (1982): 127-35.

-----. "Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Towards a 'Free Literature.'" Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 19/20 (Jan/July 1988): 81-126.

Chang, Tze-chang. "Modern Literary Techniques in Mainland China's Protest Literature." Issues and Studies 21, 10 (October 1985): 123-40.

Chen, Dazhuan. "The Hunan Writers." Tr. Alice Childs. Chinese Literature (Summer 1989): 3-11.

Chen, Dengke. "Some Suggestions Concerning Literary Work." Tr. Maurice Tseng. In Howard Goldblatt, ed., Chinese Literature From the 1980s: The Fourth Congress of Writers and Artists. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1982, 91-102.

Chen Fong-ching and Jin Guantao. From Youthful Manuscripts to River Elegy: The Chinese Popular Cultural Movement and Political Transformation, 1979-1989. HK: Chinese University of HK Press, 1997.

Chen, Jianguo. The Aesthetics of the 'Beyond': Phantasm, Nostalgia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2009.

[Abstract: This book is about an alternative mode of reading, thinking, and representing the intricacies of human experience in Chinese literature of the late twentieth century, which the author calls the aesthetics of the "beyond." It investigates how contemporary Chinese writers, by means of dynamic interface of literary practice and cultural philosophical considerations, engage the reader in critical reflection on and aesthetic appreciation of the complexity of human conditions. By studying the "beyond" in its various manifestations: the semiotics of human embodiment, the discourse of the phantasm, the politics of nostalgia with regard to "origin" and "center," and the metaphysics of death in the writings of some major contemporary Chinese writers, the book explores the ways in which the "beyond" is constructed as a new paradigm of critical thinking in literary, aesthetic, and philosophical terms. It examines how its discursive strategies, structural features, and aesthetic possibilities are presented and how varied literary tropes are used in an attempt to unravel human experience in all its aspects.]

Chen, Jo-hsi. Democracy Wall and the Unofficial Journals. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1982.

Chen, Xiaomei. "Misunderstanding Western Modernism: The Menglong Movement in Post-Mao China." Representations 35 (Summer 1991): 143-63.

-----. Occidentalism: A Theory of Counterdiscourse in Post-Mao China. NY: Oxford UP, 1995.

-----. "Women as Dramatic Other in the Body Politics of Post-Mao Theater." In Gerd Kaminski, Barbara Kreissel, and Constantine Tung, eds., China's Perception of Peace, War, and the World. Wien: Ludwig Bolzmann Institut fur China, 1997, 160-67.

-----. "Introduction to Occidentalism." In Diana Bryden, ed., Postcolonialism: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies. NY: Routledge, 2000.

-----. "Audience, Applause, and Actor: Border Crossing in Social Problem Plays." In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 195-234. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

-----. "A Stage of Their Own: Feminism, Countervoices, and the Problematic of Women's Theater." In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 235-60. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

-----. "From Discontented Mother to Woman Warrior: Body Politics in Post-Maoist Theater." In Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 261-90. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

-----. "A Stage in Search of a Tradition: The Dynamics of Form and Content in Post-Maoist Theater." Asian Theatre Journal 18, 2 (2001): 200-21. [Project Muse link]. Also in Chen, Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002, 291-330.

Chen, Xiaoming. "The Disappearance of Truth: From Realism to Modernism in China." In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 158-65.

Chey, Jocelyn. "Chinese Cultural Policy--Liberalization?" The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 1 (Jan. 1979): 107-112.

Chih, Pien. "The 'Wound' Debate." Chinese Literature 3 (March 1979): 103-05.

Chiu, Ling-yeong. "The Pen is Mightier than the Sword: A Study of the Wounded Literature in China Since 1976." In: Chen, Edward K.Y., and Steve S.K. Chin, eds. Development and Change in China. Hong Kong: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1981, 313-326 .

Chou, Yu-shan. "Communist China's 'Scar Literature.'" Issues and Studies (Taipei) 16, 2 (Feb 1980): 57-67.

-----. "Change and Continuity in Communist Chinese Policy on Literature and Art." Issues and Studies 22, 9 (Jan. 1986): 9-12.

Choy, Howard Yuen Fung. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng's China, 1979-1997. Ph. D. diss. Boulder: University of Colorado, 2004.

-----. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng's China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Andrew Stuckey]

Chung, Hilary and Tommy McClellan. "The 'Command Enjoyment' of Literature in China: Conferences, Controls and Excesses." In Chung, ed. In the Party Spirit: Socialist Realism and Literary Practice in the Soviet Union, East Germany and China. Critical Studies no. 6. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1996, 1-23. [deals with the Yan'an Forum and the 1979 Fourth Congress of Chinese Writers and Artist and compares them to similar conferences in the Soviet Union]

Clarke, Donald C. "Political Power and Authority in Recent Chinese Literature." The China Quarterly 102 (1985): 234-52.

Day, Michael. China's Second World of Poetry: The Sichuan Avant-garde, 1982-1992. Leiden: Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS). Leiden University, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heather Inwood]

Diefenbach, Thilo. Kontexte der Gewalt in moderner Chineschiche Literatur. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2004. [deals primarily with Mo Yan, Su Tong, Zhang Wei, and Chen Zhongshi]

Doar, Bruce. "Speculation in a Distorting Mirror: Scientific and Political Fantasy in Contemporary Chinese Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 8 (1982): 51-64.

Duke, Michael S. "Chinese Literature in the Post-Mao Era: The Return of ‘Critical Realism.’" Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 16, 3 (1984): 2-5.

-----. "Reinventing China: Cultural Exploration in Contemporary Chinese Fiction." In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 23-44.

Eber, Irene. "Old Issues and New Directions in Cultural Activities since September 1976." In Jurgen Domes, ed., Chinese Politics after Mao. Cardiff: University of Cardiff Press, 1979.

Emerson, Andrew G. "The Guizhou Undercurrent." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 111-33.

Edwards, Louise. "Consolidating a Socialist Patriarchy: The Women's Writers' Industry and 'Feminist' Literary Criticism." In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 183-97.

Ferrari, Rossella. "Avant-garde Drama and Theater: China” In Cody, Gabrielle and Sprinchorn, Evert, eds., The Columbia Encyclopaedia of Modern Drama. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

-----. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Meng Jinghui and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Theatre. PhD diss. London: SOAS, 2007.

-----. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Experimental Theater in Contemporary China. London, NY, Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2012.

[Abstract: The first comprehensive review of the history and development of avant-garde drama and theater in the PRC since 1976. Drawing on a range of critical perspectives in the fields of comparative literature, theater, performance, and culture studies, the book explores key artistic movements and phenomena that have emerged in China's major cultural centers in the last several decades. It surveys the work of China's most influential dramatists, directors and performance groups, with a special focus on Beijing-based playwright, director and filmmaker Meng Jinghui¡Xthe former enfant terrible of Beijing theater, who is now one of Asia's foremost theater personalities. Through an extensive critique of theories of modernism and the avant-garde, the author reassesses the meanings, functions and socio-historical significance of this work in non-Western contexts by proposing a new theoretical construct¡Xthe pop avant-garde¡Xand exploring new ways to understand and conceptualize aesthetic practices beyond Euro-American cultures and critical discourses.]

Fokkema, D. W. "Chinese Literature since the Death of Mao Tse-tung: A Comparison with the Russian 'Thaw' and Its Aftermath." In Ying-hsiung Chou, ed. The Chinese Text: Studies in Comparative Literature. HK: CUP, 1986, 159-76.

Goldblatt, Howard. "Fresh Flowers Abloom Again: Chinese Literature on the Rebound." World Literature Today 55, 1 (1981): 7-10.

-----, ed. Chinese Literature From the 1980s: The Fourth Congress of Writers and Artists. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1982.

-----, ed. Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Goodman, David S. G. Beijing Street Voices: The Poetry and Politics of China's Democracy Movement. London: Marion Boyers, 1981.

-----. "To Write the Word for Man Across the Sky: Literature and its Political Context in the People's Republic of China, 1978-1982." The Journal of Communist Studies (March 1985).

Gu, Edward X. "Cultural Intellectuals and the Politics of the Cultural Public Space in Communist China (1979-1989): A Case Study of Three Intellectual Groups." Journal of Asian Studies 58, 2 (May 1999): 389-431.

Gunn, Edward. "Perception of Self and Values in Recent Chinese Literature." In Robert Hegel and Richard Hessney eds., Expressions of Self in Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 1985, 308-41.

Haishi Zou Hao: Chinese Poetry, Drama and Literature of the 1980's. Bonn: Engelhardt-NG, 1989.

Harnisch, Thomas. Chinas neue Literature: Schrifsteller und ihre Kurzgeschicten in den Jahren 1978-1979. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985.

He, Yuhuai. Cycles of Repression and Relaxation: Politco-Literary Events in China, 1976-1989. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1992.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Huang, Yibing. Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [publisher's blurb]

Chapters: (1) Rethinking the Legacy of the Cultural Revolution; (2) Duo Duo: An Impossible Farewell, or, Exile between Revolution and Modernism; (3) Wang Shuo: Playing for Thrills in the Era of Reform, or, A Genealogy of the Present; (4) Zhang Chengzhi: Striving for Alternative National Forms, or, Old Red Guard and New Cultural Heretic; (5) Wang Xiaobo: From "Golden Age" to "Silver Age," or, Writing Against the Gravity of History; (6) Revising a Double-Faced Chinese Modernity]

Huot, Marie Claire. La petite revolution culturelle. Arles: Philippe Picquier, 1994.

-----. China's New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

-----. "Literary Experiments: Six Files." In Huot, China's New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 7-48. [deals mostly with avant-garde writers]

Huters, Theodore. "Contemporary Chinese Letters." In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 330-44.

Iovene, Paula. "Why Is There a Poem in this Story? Li Shangyin's Poetry, Contemporary Chinese Literature, and the Futures of the Past." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 71-116.

Jenner, W.J.F. "1979: A New Start for Literature in China." The China Quarterly 86 (1981): 274-303.

Jones, Andrew F. "Avante-Garde Fiction in China." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 554-60.

Kahn-Ackerman, Michael. "Issues in Contemporary Chinese Literature." In Jochen Noch et al., eds., China Avant-Garde. Berlin: Haus der Kulturen der Welt, 1993, 67-72.

King, Richard. "'Wounds' and 'Exposure': Chinese Literature after the Gang of Four." Pacific Affairs 54, 1 (1981): 92-99.

-----. "Writings on the Urban Youth Generation." Renditions 50 (1998): 4-9.

-----. "Models and Misfits: Rusticated Youth in Three Novels of the 1970s." In William A. Joseph, ed., New Perspectives on the Cultural Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991,

Kinkley, Jeffrey, ed. After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985.

-----. "New Realism in Contemporary Chinese Literature" (review article). Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association 17, 1 (1982): 77-100.

Kleinman, Arthur. "How Bodies Remember: Social Memory and Bodily Experience of Criticism, Resistance and Deligitimation Following China's Cultural Revolution." New Literary History 25, 1 (Winter 1994): 27-48.

Knight, Deirdre Sabina. "Scar Literature and the Memory of Trauma." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 527-32.

-----. "Historical Trauma and Humanism in Post-Mao Realism." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 162-90.

Korenaga, Shun. "The Growing Acceptance of Contemporary Chinese Poetry in Japan." Acta Asiatica 72 (1997): 106-16.

Kraus, Richard. "China's Cultural 'Liberalization' and Conflict over the Social Organization of the Arts." Modern China 9, 2 (April 1983): 212-27.

-----. "Four Trends in the Politics of Chinese Culture." In Bih-jao Lin and James T. Meyers, eds., Forces for Change in Contemporary China. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, 1992, 213-24.

Larson, Wendy and Richard Krauss. "Chinas Writers, The Nobel Prize, and the International Politics of Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 21 (1989): 143-60.

-----.. "Realism, Modernism, and the Anti-'Spiritual Pollution' Campaign in Modern China." Modern China 15, 1 (Jan. 1989): 37-71.

Lau, Joseph. "The Wounded and the Fatigued: Reflections on Post-1976 Chinese Fiction." Journal of Oriental Studies 20, 2 (1982): 128-42.

Laughlin, Charles. "Literature and Popular Culture." In Robert E. Gamer, ed., Understanding Contemporary China. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999.

Lee, Gregory. Troubadours, Trumpters, Troubled Masks: Lyricism, Nationalism, and Hybridity in China and Its Others. Durham: Duke UP, 1996.

-----. China's Lost Decade: The Politics and Poetics of the 1980s in Place of History. Lyon: Editions Tigre de Papier, 2009. 2nd Edition. Brookline, MA: Zephyr Press, 2012.

[Abstract: The period in China's recent history between the death of Mao and the debacle of 1989 can be seen as a "lost" decade: "lost" in the sense that the political engagement of intellectuals and makers of culture has been occulted by official history-telling; "lost" also in that tis memory has been abandoned even by many who lived through it; "lost" also in the embarassed silence of those who prefer to focus on the economic miracle of the 1990s that gave rise to today's more prosperous Chna; and "lost" as a time of opportunity for cultural and political change that ultimately did not happen. Calling on over thirty years of acquaintance with China including five years spent studying the cultural scene in Beijing during the 1980s, the author here traces the imbrication of culture, politics, and history of a decade when everything seemed possible.]

Lee, Gregory. "Between the Fall of the Gang of Four and the Rise of Best-Sellers: Modern China's Long Decade." Wasafiri 55 (2008): 5-12.

Leenhouts, Mark. "Culture Against Politics: Roots-Seeking Literature." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 533-40.

Li, Peter. "War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction." Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Li Cunbao's Wreath at the Foot of the Mountain and Xu Huaizhong's Anecdotes on the Western Front]

Li, Tuo. "The New Vitality in Modern Chinese." In W. Larson and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg, eds., Inside Out: Modern and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus, Denmark: Aarhus UP, 1993, 65-77.

Li, Xia. "Confucius, Playboys and Rusticated Glasperlenspieler: from Classical Chinese Poetry to Postmodernism." Interlitterraria 4 (1999): 41-60.

-----. "Fractured Perspectives and Visions: Literary Representations of Chinese Intellectuals in Post-Mao Fiction." In Discontinuities and Displacements: Studies in Comparative Literature. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2009, 116-125.

Li, Xiaojiang. "Resisting While Holding the Tradition: Claims for Rights Raised in Literature by Chinese Women Writers in the New Period." Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter, 1999): 99-110. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 109-116.

Lin, Bih-jaw, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.

La Litterature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernite: colloque d'Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Universite de Provence, 1989.

Liu, Bai. Cultural Policy in the People's Republic of China: Letting a Hundred Flowers Blossom. Paris: Unesco, 1983.

Liu, Kang. "Subjectivity, Marxism, and Cultural Theory in China." In X. Tang and K. Liu, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 23-54.

Liu, Lu. "Toward the Demythification of US Images in Chinese First Person Books." In Ray Heisey, ed., Chinese Perspectives in Rhetoric and Communication. Stamford, CT: Ablex Publishing, 2000, 119-38.

Liu, Toming Jun. "Uses and Abuses of Sentimental Nationalism: Mnemonic Disquiet in Heshang and Shuobu." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 169-209.

Liu, Zaifu. "Chinese Literature in the Past Ten Years: Spirit and Direction." Chinese Literature (Autumn 1989): 151-77.

Lo, Man-wa. "Female Initiation and Subjectivity in Contemporary Chinese Fiction." Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 74-87.

Louie, Kam. "Discussions of Exposure Literature Since the Fall of the Gang of Four." Contemporary China 3, 4 (1979): 91-102.

-----. "The Uses of Literature as Social Commentary in Present Day China." China in the Eighties Conference Papers. Goulburn: Goulburn College of Advanced Education, 1980, 22-33

-----. "Between Paradise and Hell: Literary Double-Think in Post-Mao China." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 10 (1983): 99-113.

-----. Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Broadway, NSW: Wild Peony, 1989.

-----. "Educated Youth Literature: Self-Discovery in the Chinese Villages." In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 91-102.

-----. "Discussion of Exposure Literature in the Chinese Press, 1978-1979." In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 1-13.

-----. "Love Stories: The Meaning of Love and Marriage in China, 1978-1981." In Louie, Between Fact and Fiction: Essays on Post-Mao Chinese Literature and Society. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1989, 41-75.

Lu, Jie. "Cultural Invention and Cultural Intervention: Reading Chinese Urban Fiction of the Nineties." Modern Chinese Liteature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 107-39.

Lu, Tonglin. Misogyny, Cultural Nihilism, and Oppositional Politics: Contemporary Chinese Experimental Fiction. Stanford: SUP, 1995.

Ma, Sheng-Mei. “Contrasting Two Survival Literatures: On the Jewish Holocaust and the Chinese Cultural Revolution.” Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2, 1 (1987): 81-93.

MacKerras, Colin. "Drama and Politics in Mainland China, 1976-89." In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 109-38.

Martin, Helmut. Origins and Consequences of China's Democracy Movement 1989 : Social and Cultural Criticism in the PRC. Köln: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien,1990.

-----. "China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan During the 1980s and 1990s." In Victor H. Mair, ed. The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2001, 758-81.

Martin, Helmut, ed. Cologne-Workshop 1984 on Contemporary Chinese Literature: Chinesische Gegenwartsliterature. Koln: Deutsche Welle, 1986.

----- and Karl-Heinz Pohl, eds. Chinesische Schriftsteller der 80er Jahre. Special issue of Akzente (Munich) 2 (April 1985).

McDougall, Bonnie. "Censorship and Self-Censorship in Chinese Poetry and Fiction." In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 205-24.

-----. "Censorship and Self-Censorship in Contemporary Chinese Literature." In Susan Whitfield, ed., After the Event: Human Rights and their Future in China. London: Wellsweep, 1993, 73-90.

-----. "Poems, Poets, and Poetry 1976: An Exercise in the Typology of Modern Chinese Literature." Contemporary China 2, 4 (Winter 1978).

-----. "Dissent Literature: Official and Nonofficial Literature In and About China in the Seventies." Contemporary China 3, no. 4 (1979): 49-79.

-----. "Underground Literature: Two Reports from Hong Kong." Contemporary China 3, 4 (1979): 80-90.

-----. "Breaking Through: Literature and the Arts in China, 1976-1986." Copehagen Papers in East and Southeast Asian Studies 1 (1988): 35-65. Rpt. in McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 171-204.

-----. "Problems and Possibilities in Translating Contemporary Chinese Literature." The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 25 (Jan. 1991): 37-67.

Mi, Jiayan. "Poetics of Navigation: River Lyricism, Epic Consciousness, and Post-Mao Sublime Poemscape." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 1 (Spring 2007): 91-137.

Misra, Kalpana. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng's China. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Mok, Ka-ho. Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1998.

Neder, Christina. Lesen in der Volksrepublik China: eine empirisch-qualitative Studie zu Leseverhalten und Lektürepräferenzen der Pekinger Stadtbevölkerung vor dem Hintergrund der Transformation des chinesischen Buch- und Verlagswesens 1978-1995. Hamburg: Institut für Asienkunde, 1999. [empirical study of reading habits in the post-Mao period]

Palandri, Angela Jung. "The Polemics of Post-Mao Poetry: Controversy over Meng-lung shih." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 19, 3 (1984): 67-86.

Pan, Yuan and Jie Pan. "The Non-Official Magazine Today and the Younger Generation's Ideals for a New Literature." In J. Kinkley, ed., After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985, 193-219.

Roberts, Rosemary A. "Politics and Pathos: The Reappearance of Tragedy in Chinese Rural Literature." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 13 (Jan. 1985): 85-95.

Siu, Helen. "Social Responsibility and Self-Expression: Chinese Literature in the 1980s." Modern Chinese Literature 5, 1 (1989): 7-32.

Sun, Lung-kee. "Contemporary Chinese Culture: Structure and Emotionality." The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs (July 1991).

Tsai, Yuan-huang. "The Second Wave: Recent Developments in Mainland Chinese Literature." In Bih-jaw Lin, ed. Post-Mao Sociopolitical Changes in Mainland China: The Literary Perspective. Taibei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1991, 5-22.

Twitchell, Jeffrey and Huang Fan. "Avant-Garde Poetry in China: The Nanjing Scene 1981-1992." World Literature Today 71, 1 (1997): 29-35.

Van Crevel, Maghiel. Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money, Leiden: Brill, 2008

Visser, Robin. "Privacy and its Ill Effects in Post-Mao Urban Fiction." In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds., Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002, 171-94.

-----. "Post-Mao Urban Fiction." Jones, Andrew F. "Avante-Garde Fiction in China." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 570-77.

Vittinghoff, Natascha. "China’s Generation X: Rusticated Red Guards in Controversial Contemporary Plays." In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 285-318. [discusses Sha Yexin’s New Sprouts from the Borderlands, Wang Peigong’s We, and Xun Pinli’s Yesterday’s Longan Trees]

Wagner, Rudolf. "Der chinesische Autor im eigenen Licht. Literarische Selbstreflexion über die Literatur und ihren Zweck in der VR China" (The Chinese writer in his own light: literary self-reflections on literature and its purpose in the PRC) . In W. Kubin (ed.), Moderne Chinesische Literatur. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, l985, 75-101.

-----. "The Chinese Writer in his Own Mirror: Writer, State, and Society--the Literary Evidence." In Merle Goldman, Timothy Cheek and Carol Hamrin, eds., China's Intellectuals and the State: In Search of a New Relationship. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1987, 183-231.

-----. "The PRC Intelligentsia: A View from Literature." In J. Kallgren, ed., Building a Nation-State. China After Forty Years. China Research Monograph 37. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, 1990, 153-183.

Wang, Jing. High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng's China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

Wang, Mason Y.H., ed. Perspectives in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Michigan: Green River Press, 1983.

Watson, James L. "The Renegotiation of Chinese Cultural Identity in the Post-Mao Era: An Anthrological Perspective." In K. Lieberthal et al., eds., Perspectives on Modern China: Four Anniversaries. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1991, 364-86.

Wedell-Wedellsborg, Anne. "The Changing Concept of Self as Reflected in Chinese Literature of the 1980s." In Viviane Alleton, ed., Notions et Perceptions du Changement en Chine. Paris: Institut des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, College de France, 1994.

-----. "Haunted Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature and the Supernatural." International Fiction Review 32, 1-2 (2005): 21-31.

Williams, Philip F. "Some Mainstream Features and Divergent Currents in Post-Mao Stories from 1979-80." Journal of Chinese Studies 2, 1 (1985): 1-15.

-----. "Divergent Portrayals of the Rustication Experience in Chinese Narrative After Mao." Contrastes: Revue de linguistique contrastive (Paris) 18/19 (1989): 89-97.

-----. "Some Provincial Precursors of Popular Dissent Movements in Beijing." China Information 6, 1 (1991): 1-9. [analyzes Hu Ping's 1989 reportage novel, Zhongguo de mouzi, among other matters relevant to contemporary Chinese literature and culture].

-----. "Migrant Laborer Subcultures in Recent Chinese Literature: a Communicative Perspective." Intercultural Communication Studies 8, 2 (1998-99): 153-161. [discusses the literary portrayal of contemporary rural mangliu, esp. in Zhang Mingyuan's 1989 play, Duo yu de xiatian].

-----. "Ingraining Self-Censorship and Other Functions of the Laogai, as Revealed in Chinese Fiction and Reportage." In Voices from the Laogai: Fifty Years of Surviving China's Forced Labor Camps. Washington: Laogai Research Foundation, 2000, 97-104.

-----. "Remolding and the Labor Camp Novel." Asia Major 4, 2 (1991): 133-149.

Williams, Philip F. and Yenna Wu. The Great Wall of Confinement: The Chinese Prison Camp Through Contemporary Fiction and Reportage. Berkeley: UCP, 2004. [contains a history of incarercation in China, as well as an overview of prison camps in the PRC, but it's main focus is to look at post-Mao literary representations of prison camps] [MCLC Resource Center review by Maghiel van Crevel]

Wu, Liang. "Re-membering the Cultural Revolution: Chinese Avant-garde Literature of the 1980s." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 125-36.

Xiao, Hui Faye. "Science and Poetry: Narrativizing Marital Crisis in Reform-Era Rural China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 146-74.

Xu, Jilin. "The Fate of Enlightenment--Twenty Years in the Chinese Cultural Sphere, 1978-98." East Asian History 20 (Dec. 2000): 169-86.

Yang, Daniel S.P. "Theater Activities in Post-Cultural Revolution China." In C. Tung and C. Mackerras, eds., Drama in the People's Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 164-80.

Yang, Haiou. "'Cultural Fever': A Cultural Discourse in China's Post-Mao Era." In Virginia R. Dominguez and David Y. H. Wu, eds., From Beijing to Port Moresby: The Politics of National Identity in Cultural Policies. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 1998, 207-45.

Yang, Xiaobin. Selections from Lishi yu xiuci (History and rhetoric). Contemporary Chinese Literature, 1999. [in Chinese, browser required]

-----. The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wendy Larson]

-----. "Toward a Theory of Postmodern/Post-Mao--Deng Literature." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 81-97.

Yeh, Michelle. "Misty Poetry." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 520-26.

Zhang, Xudong. Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms: Culture Fever, Avant-garde Fiction, and the New Chinese Cinema. Durham: Duke UP, 1997.

Zhao, Henry. "New Waves in Recent Chinese Fiction." In Henry Zhao, ed., The Lost Boat: Avant-garde Fiction from China. London: Wellsweep, 1993, 9-18.

-----. "The River Fans Out: Chinese Fiction Since the Late 1970s." European Review 11, 2 (May 2003): 193-208.

Zhong, Xueping. "Shanghai Shimin Literature and the Ambivalence of (Urban) Home." Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (1995): 79-99.

-----. Masculinity Besieged? Issues of Modernity and Male Subjectivity in Chinese Literature of the late Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

Zhou, Xiaoyi. "The Ideological Function of Western Aesthetics in 1980s China." Literary Research / Recherche Litteraire 18, 35 (Spring-Summer 2001): 112-19.


Post-1989

Balcom, John. "Bridging the Gap: Contemporary Chinese Literature from a Translator's Perspective." Wasafiri 55 (2008): 19-23.

Barme, Geremie. "Soft Porn, Packaged Dissent, and Nationalism: Notes on Chinese Culture in the 1990s." Current History (Sept. 1994).

-----. Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1996.

-----. In the Red, Contemporary Chinese Culture. NY: Columbia UP, 1999.

Baranovich, Nimrod. "Inverted Exile: Uyghur Writers and Artists in Beijing and the Political Implications of Their Work." Modern China 33 (2007): 462-504.

Berry, Michael. A History of Pain: Trauma in Modern Chinese Literature and Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2008.

[Abstract: The portrayal of historical atrocity in fiction, film, and popular culture can reveal much about the function of individual memory and the shifting status of national identity. In the context of Chinese culture, films such as Hou Hsiao-hsien's City of Sadness and Lou Ye's Summer Palace and novels such as Ye Zhaoyan's Nanjing 1937: A Love Story and Wang Xiaobo's The Golden Age collectively reimagine past horrors and give rise to new historical narratives. Table of Contents: Prelude: A History of Pain. Part I: Centripetal Trauma: 1. Musha 1930; 2. Nanjing 1937; 3. Taipei 1947. Part II: Centrifugal Trauma: 4. Yunnan 1968; 5. Beijing 1989; Coda: Hong Kong 1997]

Cai, Rong. The Subject in Crisis in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Chao I-heng [Zhao Yiheng]."Post-Isms and Chinese New Conservatism." New Literary History 28, 1 (Winter 1997): 31-44.

Chao, Shih-Chen. "The Re-institutionalisation of Popular Fiction--The Internet and a New Model of Popular Fiction Prosumption in China." Journal of the British Association of Chinese Studes 3 (Dec. 2013).

Chen, Jianguo. "The Logic of the Phantasm: Haunting and Spectrality in Contemporary Chinese Literary Imagination." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 231-65. [deals with texts by Mo Yan, Chen Cun, and Yu Hua]. Rpt. in Chen, The Aesthetics of the 'Beyond': Phantasm, Nostaligia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Deleware Press, 2009, 62-90.

Chen, Jianguo. The Aesthetics of the 'Beyond': Phantasm, Nostaligia, and the Literary Practice in Contemporary China. Newark: University of Deleware Press, 2009.

[Abstract: This book is about an alternative mode of reading, thinking, and representing the intricacies of human experience in Chinese literature of the late twentieth century, which the author calls the aesthetics of the "beyond." It investigates how contemporary Chinese writers, by means of dynamic interface of literary practice and cultural philosophical considerations, engage the reader in critical reflection on and aesthetic appreciation of the complexity of human conditions. By studying the "beyond" in its various manifestations: the semiotics of human embodiment, the discourse of the phantasm, the politics of nostalgia with regard to "origin" and "center," and the metaphysics of death in the writings of some major contemporary Chinese writers, the book explores the ways in which the "beyond" is constructed as a new paradigm of critical thinking in literary, aesthetic, and philosophical terms. It examines how its discursive strategies, structural features, and aesthetic possibilities are presented and how varied literary tropes are used in an attempt to unravel human experience in all its aspects.]

Chen, Jianhua. "Local and Global in Narrative Contestation: Liberalism and the New Left in Late 1990s China." Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 9, 1-2 (1998).

Chen, Xiaomei. Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China, 1966-1996. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ruru Li]

Chen, Xiaoming. "The Chinese Perspective and the Assessment of Contemporary Chinese Literature." Tr. Nancy Tsai. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 23-27.

Cheng, Yinghong. "Che Guevara: Dramatizing China's Divided Intelligentsia at the Turn of the Century." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 1-44.

Choy, Howard Yuen Fung. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng's China, 1979-1997. Ph. D. diss. Boulder: University of Colorado, 2004.

-----. Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng's China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Andrew Stuckey]

Conceison, Claire. "Hot Tickets: China's New Generation Takes the Stage." Persimmon 3, 1 (Spring 2002): 18-27.

Dai, Jinhua. "Redemption and Consumption: Depicting Culture in the 1990s." positions east asia cultures critique 4, 1 (Spring 1996): 127-43.

-----. "Invisible Writing: The Politics of Chinese Mass Culture in the 1990s." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11,1 (Spring 1999): 31-60.

-----. "Rewriting the Red Classics." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 151-78.

Davies, Gloria. "Anticipating Community, Producing Dissent: The Politics of Recent Chinese Intellectual Praxis." The China Review 2, 2 (Fall 2002): 1-35.

[Abstract: This paper explores the ongoing debate between the "liberals" and the "New Left" in relation to the rhetorical and discursive strategies adopted by various authors on both sides of this “ideological” division. In articulating the need for greater democracy and social justice in present-day Mainland Chinese society, these authors deploy tropes and concepts drawn from a wide range of Chinese and EuroAmerican sources. Their common anticipation of community—the word that is now most frequently used in Anglophone scholarship to signify the common good—has produced dissent and debate, primarily because of the different ways in which these authors have formulated their vision of the common good. This paper also examines the foundational concepts and values that underpin “liberal” and “New Left” conceptualizations of the common good, and situates their differently formulated concerns in the context of both globalization and a transformed Chinese party-state, whose current ideology shares much in common with the economic rationalistic doctrine of neo-liberalism.]

-----. Worrying About China: The Language of Chinese Critical Inquiry. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2007. [HUP webpage]

[Abstract: As an intellectual mandate, "worrying about China" carries with it the moral obligation of identifying and solving perceived "Chinese problems"--social, political, cultural, historical, or economic--in order to achieve national perfection. In Worrying about China, Gloria Davies pursues this inquiry through a wide range of contemporary topics, including the changing fortunes of radicalism, the peculiarities of Chinese postmodernism, shifts within official discourse, attempts to revive Confucianism for present-day China, and the historically problematic engagement of Chinese intellectuals with Western ideas.]

Davis, Edward, ed. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture. London: Routledge, 2004.

Day, Michael. "Introduction: Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Literature on the Internet." Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS), Leiden Division. [study of contemporary Chinese poetry websites]

-----. China's Second World of Poetry: The Sichuan Avant-garde, 1982-1992. Leiden: Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS). Leiden University, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Heather Inwood]

Des Forge, Roger and Luo Xu. "China as a Non-Hegemonic Superpower? The Uses of History among the China Can Say No Writers and Their Critics." Critical Asian Studies 33, 4 (Dec. 2001).

Dong, Jian. "Withering of the Spirit of Contemporary Chinese Drama." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 4 (Oct. 2007): 571-80.

Edwards, Louise. "Consolidating a Socialist Patriarchy: The Women's Writers' Industry and 'Feminist' Literary Criticism." In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 183-97.

Feng, Jin. "'Addicted to Beauty': Consuming and Producing Web-based Chinese Danmei Fiction at Jinjiang." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 1-41.

-----. "Cong Jinjian danmei wen kan Zhongguo nuxing xingbie shenfen de goucheng" (Constructing female gender identities through Danmei at Jinjiang). Zhongguo xing yanjiu 30, 3 (2009): 132-153.

Ferrari, Rossella. "Avant-garde Drama and Theater: China” In Cody, Gabrielle and Sprinchorn, Evert, eds., The Columbia Encyclopaedia of Modern Drama. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

-----. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Meng Jinghui and Contemporary Chinese Avant-garde Theatre. PhD diss. London: SOAS, 2007.

-----. Pop Goes the Avant-garde: Experimental Theater in Contemporary China. London, NY, Calcutta: Seagull Books, 2012.

[Abstract: The first comprehensive review of the history and development of avant-garde drama and theater in the PRC since 1976. Drawing on a range of critical perspectives in the fields of comparative literature, theater, performance, and culture studies, the book explores key artistic movements and phenomena that have emerged in China's major cultural centers in the last several decades. It surveys the work of China's most influential dramatists, directors and performance groups, with a special focus on Beijing-based playwright, director and filmmaker Meng Jinghui¡Xthe former enfant terrible of Beijing theater, who is now one of Asia's foremost theater personalities. Through an extensive critique of theories of modernism and the avant-garde, the author reassesses the meanings, functions and socio-historical significance of this work in non-Western contexts by proposing a new theoretical construct¡Xthe pop avant-garde¡Xand exploring new ways to understand and conceptualize aesthetic practices beyond Euro-American cultures and critical discourses.]

Ferry, Megan M. "Marketing Chinese Women Writers in the 1990s, or the Politics of Self-Fashioning." In Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 59-80.

Fokemma, Douwe. "Chinese Postmodernist Fiction." Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 141-65.

[Abstract: The title of this essay implies that there is a Chinese postmodernism that differs from American or European postmodernism. But the different postmodernisms also have a common basis, which can be found at the level of unstable signification. First the author briefly sketches how the concept of postmodernism traveled from the United States to western Europe and Russia, with key roles for American critics such as John Barth, Leslie Fiedler, Ihab Hassan, and Matei Calinescu and, in Europe, writers such as Umberto Eco and the reception of Jorge Luis Borges and Vladimir Nabokov. To the author, Chinese postmodernism differs from other variants of postmodernism because of its different cultural-historical and literary-historical background. With few exceptions, modernism was a late discovery in China. After 1978 Wang Meng, Zhang Jie, Wang Anyi, and others wrote fiction in a modernist style. The simultaneity of modernism and postmodernism is a clue to the interpretation of Chinese fiction of the 1980s and 1990s. Postmodernist exuberant fabulation, partly inspired by Gabriel García Márquez and partly by traditional Chinese fiction, can be found in fiction by Mo Yan, Yu Hua, and Han Shaogong. Please Don't Call Me Human (Qianwan bie ba wo dang ren, 1989), by Wang Shuo, who was recently honored with a Chinese compilation of “research material concerning Wang Shuo” (Tianjin, 2005), is also discussed.]

Friedman, Edward. "Democracy and 'Mao Fever.'" Journal of Contemporary China 6 (Summer 1994): 84-95.

Fumian, Marco. "The Temple and the Market: Controversial Positions in the Literary Field with Chinese Characteristics." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 126-66.

Gan Yang. "A Critique of Chinese Conservatism in the 1990s." Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 45-66.

Goldblatt, Howard. "Border Crossings: Chinese Writing, in Their World and Ours." In Timothy B. Weston and Lionel Jensen, eds., China Beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 2000, 327-45.

-----. "Fictional China." In Lional M. Jensen and Timothy B. Weston, eds., China's Transformations: The Stories beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Goldman, Merle. “Poltically-Engaged Intellectuals in the 1990s.” The China Quarterly 159 (Sept. 1999): 700-711.

Gong, Haomin. Uneven Modernity: Literature, Film, and Intellectual Discourse in Postsocialist China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2011.

[Abstract: Postsocialist China is marked by paradoxes: economic boom, political conservatism, cultural complexity. Haomin Gong's dynamic study of these paradoxes, or "unevenness," provides a unique and seminal approach to contemporary China. Reading unevenness as a problem and an opportunity simultaneously, Gong investigates how this dialectical social situation shapes cultural production. He begins his investigation of "uneven modernity" in China by constructing a critical framework of unevenness among different theoretical schools and expounding on how dialectical thinking points to a metaphysical paradox in capitalism and modernity: the inevitable tension between a constant pursuit of infinite fullness and a break of fullness (unevenness) as the means of this pursuit. In the Chinese context, this paradox is created in the "uneven developmentalism" that most manifestly characterizes the postsocialist period. Gong goes on to investigate manifestations of the dialectics of unevenness in specific cultural events. Four case studies address respectively but not exclusively literature (the prose of Yu Qiuyu), popular fiction (Chi Li's neorealist fiction), commercial cinema (the movies of Feng Xiaogang), and art-house cinema (Wang Xiaoshuai's filmmaking). Representing different aspects of cultural production in postsocialist China, these writers and directors deal with the same social condition of uneven development, and their works clearly exhibit the problematics of this age. Uneven Modernity makes a significant contribution to the burgeoning field of China studies as well as the study of uneven development in general. It addresses some of the most popular, yet understudied, cultural phenomena in contemporary China. Specialists and students will find its insights admirable and its style accessible.]

Guo, Yingjie. Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China: The Search for National Identity under Reform. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

-----. "Pushing the (Red) Envelope." Time Asia 156, 16 (Oct 23, 2000). [ part of a special issue on youth in China, includes brief looks at works by Wei Hui, Mian Mian, Yu Xiu, Han Han, and Zhu Wen.]

Hao, Zhidong. Intellectuals at a Crossroads: The Changing Politics of China's Knowledge Workers. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.

He, Baogang and Yingjie Guo. "Patriotic Villains and Patriotic Heroes: New Trends in Literary Nationalism." In Nationalism, National Identity and Democratization in China. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2000, 53-78.

He, Ping. China's Search for Modernity: Cultural Discourse in the Late 20th Century. Houndmills: PalgraveMacmillan, 2002.

Henningsen, Lena. "Harry Potter with Chinese Characteristics, Plagiarism between Orientalism and Occidentalism." China Information 20, 2 (2006): 275-311.

-----. Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Krista Van Fleit Hang]

[Abstract: Henningsen offers five studies that challenge the wide-spread prejudice among the Western Press that China is an empire of plagiarism, sometimes even referred to as the "People's Republic of Cheats". By analyzing the cases of convicted plagiarist Guo Jingming, the victim of plagiarism Han Han, the follow-up publications to Jiang Rong's Wolf’s Totem, the Harry Potter fakes and fan fiction, as well as discussions of academic plagiarism, Henningsen proves that copyright increasingly matters to Chinese writers. Confronted with instances of copyright infringements on their own works, they voice their opposition and fight for their rights, be it through legal action or their writing. At the same time, the author demonstrates that a text that is commonly considered to be "plagiarized" or "imitated" may turn out to be a highly creative work in its own right, for example when Harry Potter appears as a timid exchange student in China. Therefore, Henningsen opts for a literary reading of these "derivative" works and argues that imitation may, at times, be a creative tool. While these two central arguments appear to be contradictory, the author shows that they represent two sides of the same coin: the emergence of a new self-conception among Chinese authors, as they struggle to recast their relationship with society and state.]

Hillenbrand, Margaret. "Beleaguered Husbands: Representations of Marital Breakdown in Some Recent Mainland Fiction." Tamkang Review 30, 2 (1999).

-----. "Murakami Haruki in Greater China: Creative Responses and the Quest for Cosmopolitanism." Journal of Asian Studies 68, 3 (2009): 715-747. [deals in part with Chun Shu, Mian Mian, Wei Hui, Chungking Express, and Taiwan Internet literature]

Hockx, Michel. "Links with the Past: Mainland China's Online Literary Communities and their Antecedents." Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 105-27.

Abstract: This article compares Chinese literary journals from the early twentieth century with a Mainland Chinese literary website from the early twenty-first century. In both these periods, literary practice underwent significant changes as a result of major changes in the technological processes involved in the production and distribution of texts. Five aspects of these changes are examined: the mixed media environment, the provision of information about authors' identities, engagement with social issues, community building, and the relationship with serious literature. The article argues that a very traditional Chinese view of literature as a socially embedded act of communication continued to play a significant role in both periods, and was even further enhanced through interaction with the new technologies. Despite the fact that both types of publication appeal(ed) to large readerships, it is argued that it is not helpful simply to consider them as 'popular literature'. Both the journals from 100 years ago and the website of today represent literary communities that share a serious view of literature, albeit one that is not compatible with the familiar New Literature paradigm.

Hockx, Michel and Julia Strauss, eds. Special Issue: Culture in the Contemporary PRC. The China Quarterly 183 (Sept. 2005). [articles by Jing Wang, Michel Hockx, Yomi Braester, Kirk A. Denton, Antonia Finnane, Jeroen de Kloet, Maghiel van Crevel, and Deborah Davis]. Rpt as Culture in the Contemporary PRC. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Hai Ren]

Hong, Zhigang. "Another Look at Subjective Self-Consciousness and Contemporary Chinese Literature." Tr. Ronald Kimmons. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 36-39.

Hong, Zicheng. A History of Contemporary Chinese Literature. Tr. Michael M. Day. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Edward Gunn]

Hu, Andy Yinan. Swimming Against the Tide: Tracing and Locating Chinese Leftism Online. MA Thesis. Simon Fraser University, 2006.

Hu, Ying. "Writing Erratic Desire: Sexual Politics in Contemporary Chinese Fiction." In Xiaobing Tang and S. Snyder, eds., In Pursuit of Contemporary East Asian Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1996, 49-68.

Huang, Yibing. Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Darryl Sterk]

Chapters: (1) Rethinking the Legacy of the Cultural Revolution; (2) Duo Duo: An Impossible Farewell, or, Exile between Revolution and Modernism; (3) Wang Shuo: Playing for Thrills in the Era of Reform, or, A Genealogy of the Present; (4) Zhang Chengzhi: Striving for Alternative National Forms, or, Old Red Guard and New Cultural Heretic; (5) Wang Xiaobo: From "Golden Age" to "Silver Age," or, Writing Against the Gravity of History; (6) Revising a Double-Faced Chinese Modernity]

Huot, Claire. "Here, There, Anywhere: Networking by Young Chinese Writers Today." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 198-215.

-----. China's New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.

-----. "Literary Experiments: Six Files." In Huot, China's New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 7-48. [deals mostly with avant-garde writers]

Huters, Theodore. "Contemporary Chinese Letters." In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 330-44.

Inwood, Heather. On the Scene of Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Ph. D. dissertation. London: SOAS, 2008. [mainland poetry scene from 2000-2008]

Iovene, Paula. "Why Is There a Poem in this Story? Li Shangyin's Poetry, Contemporary Chinese Literature, and the Futures of the Past." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 71-116.

Jiang, Hong, ed. "The Cultural Configuration of Literature and Film in the 1990s China: A New Perspective," a special issue of The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2003).

Jiang, Hong. "The Personalization of Literature: Chinese Women's Writing in the 1990s." The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2002).

Jones, Andrew F. "Avante-Garde Fiction in China." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 554-60.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. Chinese Justice, the Fiction: Law and Literature in Modern China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000.

-----. "Modernity and Apocalypse in Chinese Novels from the End of the Twentieth Century." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 101-20. [deals with Wang Lixiong's Yellow Peril, Lu Tianming's Heaven Above, Zhang Ping's Choice, and Mo Yan's Liquorland]

-----. Corruption and Realism in Late Socialist China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2007. [Publisher's blurb]

Knight, Sabina. "Self-Ownership and Capitalist Values in 1990s Chinese Fiction." In The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 222-58. [deals with Yu Hua's Xu Sanguan the Bloodseller and Weihui's Shanghai Baby]

Kong, Shuyu. "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Chinese Literary Journals in the Cultural Marketplace." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 93-144.

-----. Consuming Literature: Best Sellers and the Commercialization of Literary Production in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2005.

Kramer, Oliver. "No Past to Long For?: A Sociology of Chinese Writers in Exile." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 161-77.

-----. "Nostalgia in Contemporary Chinese Exile Literature." Paper presented at EASC in Prague 1994.

Kraus, Richard. "Public Monuments and Private Pleasures in the Parks of Nanjing: A Tango in the Ruins of the Ming Emperor's Palace." In Deborah Davis, ed., China's Consumer Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

-----. "China in 2003: From SARS to Spaceships." Asian Survey 44 (Jan./Feb. 2004): 147-157.

-----. The Party and the Arty in China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Matthew D. Johnson]

[press blurb: In this original exploration of the dynamic and potent interface between Chinese culture and politics, Richard Kraus examines the impact of the market on the once-comprehensive system of state patronage of the arts in the PRC. The author uses all genres of art to explore the changing nature of politics, seen through such phenomena as ideology, propaganda, censorship, and the relationship of artists to the state. Kraus makes three provocative arguments: First, the commercialization of China's cultural life has been intellectually liberating, but also poses serious economic challenges that artists are sometimes slow to master. Second, despite conventional wisdom in the West that China's economic reforms have not been followed by serious political reform, he shows that the shift from state patronage to a mixed system of private and public sponsorship is in fact a fundamental political change. Third, Western recognition of the reformation in China's cultural life has been obscured by a combination of ignorance, ideological barriers, and foreign policy rivalry. Cogent, witty, and deeply informed, this comprehensive overview of the Chinese arts scene will be an essential text for all observers of contemporary China.]

"Issues in Contemporary Chinese Literature: Informal Roundtable Discussion by Three Authors: Wang Meng, Liu Sola, Zha Jianying." Tr. Marshal McArthur. Baker Institute, Rice University (March 10, 1998).

Larson, Wendy. "Never This Wild: Sexing the Cultural Revolution." Modern China 25, 4 (1999): 423-50.

Laughlin, Charles. "Literature and Popular Culture." In Robert E. Gamer, ed., Understanding Contemporary China. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999.

Laurence, Patricia. "Beyond the Little Red Book: Literature in China Today." The Nation (Sept. 4-11, 2000): 31-37.

Lei, Guang. "Rural Taste, Urban Fashions: The Cultural Politics of Rural/Urban Difference in Contemporary China." positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 613-46.

Li Fukan and Eva Hung. "Post-Misty Poetry." Renditions 37 (1992): 93-98.

Li, Xia. "Metropolis in Twilight: Urban Consciousness in Contemporary Chinese Literature." Interlitteraria 6 (2001): 19-45.

Li, Xia. "Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature." Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 4, 1 (Jan. 2007): 1-12. [In Chinese]

[Abstract: There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926). Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western) works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul) as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.]

Li, Xiaojiang. "Resisting While Holding the Tradition: Claims for Rights Raised in Literature by Chinese Women Writers in the New Period." Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter, 1999): 99-110. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 109-116.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Lin, Qingxin. Brushing History Against the Grain: Reading the Chinese New Historical Fiction, 1986-1999. HK: HK University Press, 2005. [includes discussion of Mo Yan, Su Tong, Wang Anyi, Chen Zhongshi, etc.]

Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.

Liu, Kang. "Is There an Alternative to (Capitalist) Globalization?: The Debate About Modernity in China." In Fredric Jameson and Masao Miyoshi, eds., The Cultures of Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1998, 164-90.

-----. "What Is 'Socialism with Chinese Characteristics'? Issues of Culture, Politics, and Ideology." In Liu, Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'I Press, 2004, 46-77.

-----. Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honlulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2004.

-----. "Reinventing the "Red Classics" in the Age of Globalization." Neohelicon 37, 2 (Spring 2010): 329-347.

[Abstract: The resurgence of revolutionary literature or Red Classics at the turn of the century is indicative of the cultural logic of the revolutionary hegemony during Mao and post-Mao China. Revolutionary hegemony served quite effectively to legitimate Mao Zedong’s, and much of Deng Xiaoping’s reign, but it has become increasingly difficult to sustain its viability and efficacy. From the beginning of the new century, both the state and consumer popular culture sectors have pushed for a Red Classic resurgence. While the ideological content and styles of the Red Classics are apparently incommensurable to China’s social reality today, their current popularity suggests a success in capturing or eliciting emotional responses from the audience primarily derived from their lived and felt experience during the Mao era. For the state, the Red Classics and the entire revolutionary legacy can now exist only as mummies of history, serving as a nationalist, “patriotic” narrative of the recent past. Meanwhile, the Red Classics is reinvented as nostalgia, a commodity in China’s cultural market. The paper examines the genealogy and current reinvention of the Red Classics, in order to shed some light on China’s post-revolutionary cultural politics.]

Liu, Lydia. "What's Happened to Ideology? Transnationalism, Postsocialism, and the Study of Global Media Culture." Duke Working Papers in Asian / Pacific Studies (Spring 1998).

Liu, Qingfeng. "The Topography of Intellectual Culture in 1990s Mainland China: A Survey." Tr. Gloria Davies. In Gloria Davies, ed. Voicing Concerns: Contemporary Chinese Critical Inquiry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefied, 2001, 47-70.

Liu, Toming Jun. "Uses and Abuses of Sentimental Nationalism: Mnemonic Disquiet in Heshang and Shuobu." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 169-209.

Lu, Jie. "Exploration of Language: The Foregrounding of Style in Contemporary Chinese Fiction." American Journal of Chinese Studies 5, 1 (1998): 111-30.

-----. "Cultural Invention and Cultural Intervention: Reading Chinese Urban Fiction of the Nineties." Modern Chinese Liteature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 107-39.

Lu, Jie, ed. China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008.

[Contents: Introduction: China’s New Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century; (1) History in a Mythical Key: Temporality, Memory, and Tradition in Wang Anyi’s Fiction; (2) National Trauma, Global Allegory: Reconstruction of Collective Memory in Tian Zhuangzhuang’s The Blue Kite; (3) Globalizing Chinese Literature: Toward a Rewriting of Contemporary Chinese Literary Culture; (4) The Quest of Ma Lihua, a Han Intellectual in Tibet; Who Is Afraid of Lu Xun?—Politics of ‘Debates about Lu Xun’ (Lu Xun lun zheng) and the Question of His Legacy in Post-Revolution China; (5) Shanghai Cosmopolitan: Class, Gender and Cultural Citizenship in Weihui’s Shanghai Babe; (6) Marketing Chinese Women Writers in the 1990s, or the Politics of Self-Fashioninl (7) From Real Time to Virtual Reality: Chinese Cinema in the Internet Age; (8) Links with the Past—Mainland China’s Online Literary Communities and their Antecedents; (9) Spaces of Disappearance: Aesthetic Responses to Contemporary Beijing City Planning; (10) Spectacles of Remembrance: Nostalgia in Contemporary Chinese Art; (11) Rewriting Beijing: A Spectacular City in Qiu Huadong’s Urban Fiction]

Lu, Sheldon H. "Literature: Intellectuals in the Ruined Metropolis at the Fin-de-siecle." In Lu, ed., China, Trannational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002, 239-59.

-----. "Popular Culture and Body Politics: Beauty Writers in Contemporary China." Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (2008): 167-85.

[Abstract: This essay is a study of a group of women writers who emerged on the Chinese literary scene in the late 1990s and the turn of the twenty-first century. They have been called beauty writers (meinü zuojia), referring to the authors themselves being beautiful women. Their writings are characterized by an unabashed, unprecedented foregrounding of female sexuality. While their novels were censored by the state now and then, they circulate on the Internet and contribute to the formation of China's booming Internet literature. The initial core group of beauty writers has made a large impact on other aspiring female writers eager to explore and expose their sensuality and sexuality. The parading and pandering of female subjectivity via a body politics have become a major literary fad in contemporary mainland China.]

Ma, Shu Yun. "The Rise and Fall of Neo-Authoritarianism in China." China Information 5, 3 (Winter 1990/91).

McDougall, Bonnie S. "Censorship and Self-Censorship in Contemporary Chinese Literature." In Susan Whitfield, ed., After the Event: Human Rights and their Future in China. London: Wellsweep Press, 1993: 73-90.

-----. “Literary Decorum or Carnivalistic Grotesque: Literature in the People’s Republic of China after 50 Years.” The China Quarterly 159 (Sept. 1999): 723-33.

-----. "Discourse on Privacy by Women Writers in Late Twentieth Century China." China Information 19, 1 (March 2005): 97-119.

McGrath, Jason. Postsocialist Modernity: Chinese Cinema, Literature, and Criticism in the Market Age. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2008.

[press blurb: This book examines Chinese culture under the age of marke reforms. Beginning in the early 1990s and on into the new century fields such as literature and film have been fundamentall transformed by the forces of the market as China is integrated eve more closely into the world economic system. As a result, the formerl unified revolutionary culture has been changed into a pluralized stat that reflects the diversity of individual experience in the reform era New autonomous forms of culture that have arisen include avant-garde as well as commercial literature, and independent film as wel as a new entertainment cinema. Chinese people find their experience of postsocialist modernity reflected in all kinds of new cultural form as well as critical debates that often question the direction of Chines society in the midst of comprehensive and rapid change]

Misra, Kalpana. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng's China. NY: Routledge, 1998.

Mok, Ka-ho. Intellectuals and the State in Post-Mao China. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1998. [discusses Yan Jiaqi, Fang Lizhi, Liu Binyan, and Liu Xiaobo]

Neder, Christina. Lesen in der Volksrepublik China: eine empirisch-qualitative Studie zu Leseverhalten und Lektürepräferenzen der Pekinger Stadtbevölkerung vor dem Hintergrund der Transformation des chinesischen Buch- und Verlagswesens 1978-1995. Hamburg: Institut für Asienkunde, 1999. [empirical study of reading habits in the post-Mao period]

Pirazzoli, Melinda. "Free Market Economy and Chinese Literature." World Literature Today 70 (1996).

Shi, Anbin. A Comparative Approach to Redefining Chinese-ness in the Era of Globalization. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2003, 129-206.[a general introductory chapter, with chapters on Cui Jian, Wei Hui and Wang Xiaobo, and Zhaxi Dawa]

Shu, Yunzhong. "New Historical Fiction in China." Chinese Culture 37 (1996): 87-110.

Sautman, Barry. "Sirens of the Strongman: New-Authoritarianism in Recent Chinese Political Theory." China Quarterly 129 (March 1992): 72-102.

Song, Mingwei. "How the Steel Was Tempered: The Rebirth of Pawel Korchagin in Contemporary Chinese Media." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 95-111.

[Abstract: Russian writer Nicholas Ostrovski's novel How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) provided generations of Chinese youth with a widely admired role model: a young devoted communist soldier, Pawel Korchagin, whose image occupied a prominent place in the orthodoxy revolutionary education and literary imagination during Mao's era. Over the past decade, Pawel Korchagin has regained his popularity in Chinese media, his name and image have been appropriated by numerous artists and filmmakers to help in portrayals of the new generation's self-fashioning. The various (unorthodox) interpretations recently attached to Pawel's heroic story reveal a huge gap between Maoist ideology and the post-Mao ideas. This paper looks into the intricate relationships between Pawel Korchagin's revolutionary past and his varied contemporary representations. By doing so, I hope to gain a better understanding of the cultural politics of appropriating Mao's legacy to create new meanings for a changing Chinese society. One example on which this paper focuses is the sixth-generation director Lu Xuechang's film Becoming a Man (1997), which rewrites the revolutionary Bildungsroman of Pawel in a startling different context.]

Tang, Yijie. "Some Reflections on New Confucianism in Mainland Chinese Culture of the 1990s." Tr.Gloria Davies. In Gloria Davies, ed. Voicing Concerns: Contemporary Chinese Critical Inquiry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefied, 2001, 123-34.

Tao, Dongfeng. "When a Red Classic Was Spoofed: A Cultural Analysis of a Media Incident." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 247-70.

Tao, Naikan. "Going Beyond: Post-Menglong Poets." The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 27/28 (1995/96): 146-53.

Twitchell, Jeffrey and Huang Fan. "Avant-Garde Poetry in China: The Nanjing Scene 1981-1992." World Literature Today 71, 1 (1997): 29-35.

van Crevel, Maghiel. “The Horror of Being Ignored and the Pleasure of Being Left Alone: Notes on the Chinese Poetry Scene.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (April 2003).

-----. Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008. [MCLC Resource Center review by Christopher Lupke]

[Abstract: is a groundbreaking contribution to scholarship, well-suited to classroom use in that it combines rigorous analysis with a lively style. Covering the period from the 1980s to the present, it is organized around the notions of text, context and metatext, meaning poetry, its socio-political and cultural surroundings, and critical discourse in the broadest sense. Authors and issues studied include Han Dong, Haizi, Xi Chuan, Yu Jian, Sun Wenbo, Yang Lian, Wang Jiaxin, Bei Dao, Yin Lichuan, Shen Haobo and Yan Jun, and everything from the subtleties of poetic rhythm to exile-bashing in domestic media. This book has room for all that poetry is: cultural heritage, symbolic capital, intellectual endeavor, social commentary, emotional expression, music and the materiality of language – art, in a word.]

Visser, Robin. "Privacy and its Ill Effects in Post-Mao Urban Fiction." In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds. Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002,171-194. [deals with texts by Chen Ran and Liu Heng, with bits on Sun Ganlu, Qiu Huadong, and Zhu Wen]

-----. "Post-Mao Urban Fiction." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 570-77.

-----. "Urban Ethics: Modernity and the Morality of Everyday Life." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 193-216. [deals with Qiu Huadong, Zhu Wen, and He Dun]

-----. Cities Surround the Countryside: Urban Aesthetics in Postsocialist China. Durham: Duke UP, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Paul Manfredi]

Wang, Ban. "Memory as History: Making Sense of the Past in Contemporary China." American Journal of Chinese Studies 5, 1 (1998): 49-67.

-----. "From Historical Narrative to the World of Prose: The Essayistic Mode in Contemporary Chinese Literature." In Martin Woesler, ed., The Modern Chinese Literary Essay: Defining the Chinese Self in the 20th Century. Bochum: Bochum UP, 2000, 173-88.

-----. "In Search of Real-Life Images in China: Realism in the Age of Spectacle." Journal of Contemporary China 17 (56) (2008): 497-512.

Wang, Ban and Jie Lu, eds. China and New Left Visions: Political and Cultural Interventions. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2012. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Xiaobing Tang]

Wang, Chaohua, ed. One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Ban Wang]

[contains articles by and interviews with Wang Hui, Zhu Xueqin, Chen Pingyuan, Qian Liqun, He Qinglian, Qin Hui, Wang Yi, Li Changping, Xiao Xuehui, Wang Anyi, Gan Yang, Wang Xiaoming, etc; a good introduction to cultural discourse of 1990s PRC]

Wang, David Der-Wei. "Return to Go: Fictional Innovation in the Late Qing and the Late Twentieth Century." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 257-97.

-----. "Red Legacy in Fiction." Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 1 (2011): 213-48.

Wang, Hui. "Contemporary Chinese Thought and the Question of Modernity." Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 9-44.

-----. "PRC Cultural Studies and Cultural Criticism in the 1990s." Tr. Nicholas Kaldis. positions: east asian cultures critique 6, 1 (1998): 239-51.

-----. "Challenging the Eurocentric, Cold-war View of China and the Making of a Post-Tiananmen Intellectual Field." Xudong Zhang, ed. East Asia (Spring/Summer 2002).

-----. China's New Order: Society, Politics and Economy in Transition. Ed. Theodore Huters. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2003.

-----. "The New Criticism." In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 55-86.

-----. "The Year 1989 and the Historical Roots of Neoliberalism in China." positions: east asia cultures critique 12, 1 (Spring 2004): 1-69.

Wang, Lingzhen. "Reproducing the Self: Consumption, Imaginary, and Identity in Chinese Women's Autobiographical Practice in the 1990s." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 173-92. [deals primarily with Chen Ran's Private Life and Lin Bai's Self at War]

Wang Shaoguang, Deborah Davis, and Yanjie Bian. "The Uneven Distribution of Cultural Capital: Book Reading in Urban China." Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 315-348.

[abstract: Drawing on interviews with 400 couples in four cities in 1998, this exploratory study focuses on variation in reading habits to integrate the concept of cultural capital into the theoretical and empirical analysis of inequality and social stratification in contemporary urban China. Overall, we find that volume and composition of cultural capital varies across social classes independent of education. Thus, to the extent that cultural capital in the form of diversified knowledge and appreciation for certain genres or specific authors is unevenly distributed across social classes, we hypothesize that the possession of cultural capital may be a valuable resource in defining and crystallizing class boundaries in this hybrid, fast-changing society.]

Wang, Xiaoming. "China on the Brink of a 'Momemtous Era." positions east asia cultures critique 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 585-611.

Wedell-Wedellsborg, Anne. "Chinese Literature and Film in the 1990s." In Robert Benewick and Paul Wingrove, eds., China in the 1990s. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1995, 224-33.

-----. "Haunted Fiction: Modern Chinese Literature and the Supernatural." International Fiction Review 32, 1-2 (2005): 21-31.

Williams, Philip F. "The Rage for Postism and a Chinese Scholar's Dissent." Academic Questions 12, 1 (Winter 1998-99): 43-53. [discusses Liu Zaifu and various debates over modern Chinese literary theory].

-----. "Migrant Laborer Subcultures in Recent Chinese Literature: a Communicative Perspective." Intercultural Communication Studies 8, 2 (1998-99): 153-161. [discusses the literary portrayal of contemporary rural mangliu, esp. in Zhang Mingyuan's 1989 play, Duo yu de xiatian].

Wong, Lisa Lai-ming. "Examples of Contemporary Chinese Women's Poetry." Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 385-408.

[Contemporary critics who study women's literature often focus on the very act of speaking, or the possession of a voice. The speaker in a poem seems to lend the women of her time a voice to express their feelings and in so doing offers a female perspective on social and cultural aspects of life. Adopting ideas from Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own as well as Hélène Cixous's notion of "writing the body, " this article explores how women poets find a private space in their own rooms for examining "liberated" selves. A new conception of body and space is presented in these lyric voices. In contrast, in the voices of many critics, we hear a glaring double standard that exposes the persistence of patriarchal inhibition of women's freedom of expression. This dialogic tension between the voices reveals women's predicaments and their strong protests against the status quo in contemporary China.]

Wu, Guo. "The Social Construction and Deconstruction of Evil Landlords in Contemporary Chinese Fiction, Art, and Collective Memory." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 131-64.

Xu, Ben. "'From Modernity to Chineseness': The Rise of Nativist Cultural Theory in Post-1989 China." positions east asia cultures critique 6, 1 (1998): 203-37.

-----. Disenchanted Democracy: Chinese Cultural Criticism after 1989. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

-----. "Contesting Memory for Intellectual Self-Positioning: The 1990s' New Cultural Conservativism in China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 1 (Spring 1999): 157-192.

Xu, Jilin. "The Fate of Enlightenment--Twenty Years in the Chinese Cultural Sphere, 1978-98." East Asian History 20 (Dec. 2000): 169-86.

Yang, Guobin. "China's Zhiqing Generation: Nostalgia, Identity, and Cultural Resistance in the 1990s." Modern China 29, 3 (July 2003): 267-96.

Yang, Xiaobin. "Maoist Discourse, Trauma and Chinese Avant-Garde Literature." American Imago 51, 2 (1994).

-----. Selections from Lishi yu xiuci (History and rhetoric). Contemporary Chinese Literature, 1999. [in Chinese, browser required]

-----. "Whence and Whither the Postmodern/Post-Mao-Deng Historical Subjectivity and Literary Subjectivity in Modern China." In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 379-98.

-----. The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wendy Larson]

-----. "Toward a Theory of Postmodern/Post-Mao--Deng Literature." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 81-97.

Yang, Xin. From Beauty Fear To Beauty Fever: A Critical Study of Contemporary Chinese Female Writers. New York: Peter Lang, 2011.

[Abstract: looks at a «glamorous» literary and cultural moment in China at the turn of the twenty-first century, namely that of the high-profile female writers born in the 1970s. Dubbed as «beauty writers», they brought to light a series of literary, cultural, and social issues at an important moment of institutional and ideological transformation, when China was more actively participating in the global market economy. The discourse of beauty writers is closely related to the changing ideology from «beauty fear» to «beauty fever». Beauty fear resulted from the revolutionary ambition of denouncing the old institutionalized ideologies and embracing gender equality. Beauty fever was driven by commercialization in the mid- and late 1990s, when globalization became the new social reality and broke the boundaries of world/China, official/folk, and elite/mass. After years of revolutionary policies of gender erasure, beauty fever was the product of the intertwined narratives of resistance politics, feminism, capitalism, consumerism, and the postmodern ludic carnival.]

Zhang, Ning. "Garge or Gold: Two Extreme Assessments of Contemporary Chinese Literature." Tr. Denis Mair. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 28-30.

Zhang, Xudong. "Nationalism, Mass Culture, and Intellectual Strategies in Post-Tiananmen China." Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 109-40.

-----. "Challenging the Eurocentric, Cold War View of China and the Making of a Post-Tiananmen Intellectual Field." East Asia 19, 1/2 (2001): 3-57. [available online through Ingenta Select]

-----. "Multiplicity or Homogeneity? The Cultural-Political Paradox of the Age of Globalization." Cultural Critique 58 (Fall 2004): 30-55.

-----. Postsocialism and Cultural Politics: China in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2008.

[Abstract: Xudong Zhang offers a critical analysis of China’s “long 1990s,” the tumultuous years between the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown and China’s entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001. The 1990s were marked by Deng Xiaoping’s market-oriented reforms, the Taiwan missile crisis, the Asian financial crisis, and the end of British colonial rule of Hong Kong. Considering developments including the state’s cultivation of a market economy, the aggressive neoliberalism that accompanied that effort, the rise of a middle class and a consumer culture, and China’s entry into the world economy, Zhang argues that Chinese socialism is not over. Rather it survives as postsocialism, which is articulated through the discourses of postmodernism and nationalism and through the co-existence of multiple modes of production and socio-cultural norms. Highlighting China’s uniqueness, as well as the implications of its recent experiences for the wider world, Zhang suggests that Chinese postsocialism illuminates previously obscure aspects of the global shift from modernity to postmodernity. Zhang examines the reactions of intellectuals, authors, and filmmakers to the cultural and political conflicts in China during the 1990s. He offers a nuanced assessment of the changing divisions and allegiances within the intellectual landscape, and he analyzes the postsocialist realism of the era through readings of Mo Yan’s fiction and the films of Zhang Yimou. With Postsocialism and Cultural Politics, Zhang applies the same keen insight to China’s long 1990s that he brought to bear on the 1980s in Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms.--from Duke UP website]

Zhang, Zhen. "The World Map of Haunting Dreams: Reading Post-1989 Chinese Women's Diaspora Writings." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 308-35. [deals with disporic writings of Liu Suola, Zha Jianying, Hong Ying, and You You]

Zhao, Bin. "Consumerism, Confucianism, Communism: Making Sense of China Today." New Left Review (March-April 1997): 43-59.

Zhao, Henry Y.H. [Zhao Yiheng]. "Those Who Live in Exile Lose Belief But Create Literature." In Breaking the Barriers: Chinese Literature Facing the World. Stockholm: The Olof Palme International Center, Sweden, 130-50.

-----. "The River Fans Out: Chinese Fiction Since the Late 1970s." European Review 11, 2 (May 2003): 193-208.

Zhu, Xueqin. "For a Chinese Liberalism." In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 87-107.


Taiwan

Au, Chung-to. Modernist Aesthetics in Taiwanese Poetry since the 1950s. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

[Abstract: Much of the previous scholarship on Taiwanese modernist poetry easily falls into ideological arguments. This book participates in the development of an alternative approach to understanding Taiwanese modernist poetry. Dr. Au’s approach emphasizes the diversity and intensity of experiences of place and placelessness in the work of five poets: Lomen, Luo Fu, Rong Zi, Yu Guangzhong and Zheng Chouyu. The phenomenon of placelessness is a problem in all modernity and so modern aesthetics is an outgrowth of modern society’s sense of placelessness. This book not only shows how place becomes placelessness but also analyses Taiwanese modernist poets’ responses to the phenomenon of placelessness. Four kinds of places are examined, namely, the house, the city, homeland and an imagined literary community, in this work. The result is both refreshing and original.]

Allen, Joseph. "From Literature to Lingerie: Classical Chinese Poetry in Taiwan Popular Culture.“ In Marc L. Moskowitz, ed., Popular Culture in Taiwan: Charismatic Modernity. New York: Routledge, 2010, 65-85.

Bai, Ling. "The Era after Social Diversification: Developments in Taiwanese Poetry 1985-1990." Trs. Duncan Hewitt and Chu Chiyu. Renditions 35/36 (1991): 294-98.

Berry, Michael. A History of Pain: Trauma in Modern Chinese Literature and Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2008.

[Abstract: The portrayal of historical atrocity in fiction, film, and popular culture can reveal much about the function of individual memory and the shifting status of national identity. In the context of Chinese culture, films such as Hou Hsiao-hsien's City of Sadness and Lou Ye's Summer Palace and novels such as Ye Zhaoyan's Nanjing 1937: A Love Story and Wang Xiaobo's The Golden Age collectively reimagine past horrors and give rise to new historical narratives. Table of Contents: Prelude: A History of Pain. Part I: Centripetal Trauma: 1. Musha 1930; 2. Nanjing 1937; 3. Taipei 1947. Part II: Centrifugal Trauma: 4. Yunnan 1968; 5. Beijing 1989; Coda: Hong Kong 1997]

Birch, Cyril. "Images of Suffering in Taiwan Fiction." In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980, 71-85.

Braester, Yomi. "Retelling Taiwan: Identity and Dislocation in Post-Chiang Mystery ." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 158-76. Rpt. as "Taiwanese Identity and the Crisis of Memory: Post-Chiang Mystery," in David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 213-32.

Chang, Chiung-fang. "Taiwan Literature: The Next Export Success Story?" Sinorama 26, 1 (Jan. 2001).

Chang, Shi-kuo. "Realism in Taiwan Fiction: Two Directions." In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980, 31-42.

Chang, Sung-cheng Yvonne. Modernism and the Nativist Resistance: Contemporary Fiction from Taiwan. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.

-----. "Beyond Cultural and National Identities: Current Re-evaluation of the Kominka Literature from Taiwan's Japanese Period." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 1, 1 (1997): 75-107.

-----. "Elements of Modernism in Fiction from Taiwan." Tamkang Review 19, 1-4 (Aut. 1988/Sum. 1989): 591-606.

-----. "Modern Taiwanese Fiction from Taiwan." In Murray Rubinstein, ed., Taiwan: A History, 1600-1994. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1998.

-----. "Modernism and Contemporary Fiction of Taiwan." In Roger Bauer, Douwe Fokkema, eds., Proceedings of the XIIth Conference of the Inernational Comparative Literature Association: Space and Boundaries of Literature. Munich: Iudicium, 1990, 285-90.

-----. "Three Generations of Taiwan's Contemporary Women Writers: A Critical Introduction." In Ann Carver and Sung-cheng Yvonne Chang, eds., Bamboo Shoots After the Rain: Contemporary Stories of Taiwan. NY: The Feminist Press, 1990.

-----. "Taiwanese New Literature and the Colonial Context: A Historical Survey." In Murray A. Rubinstein, ed. Taiwan: A New History. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 261-74.

-----. "Literature in Post-1949 Taiwan, 1950s to 1980s." In Murray A. Rubinstein, ed. Taiwan: A New History. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 403-18.

-----. Literary Culture in Taiwan: From Martial Law to Market Law. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

-----. "Representing Taiwan: Shifting Geopolitical Frameworks." In David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 17-25.

Chang, Wen-chi. "Taiwanese identity in Contemporary Literature." In Chung-min Chen et al. eds., Ethnicity in Taiwan: Social, Historical, and Cultural Perspectives. Nangang: Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, 1994, 169-87.

Chen, Aili. The Search for Cultural Identity: Taiwan 'Hsiang-T'u' Literature in the Seventies. Ph.d. diss. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1991.

Chen, Chang-fang and Sung Mei-hwa. "Elements of Change in the Fiction of Taiwan in the 1980s." The Chinese Pen (Summer 1989): 31-42.

Chen, Fangming. "Postmodern or Postcolonial? An Inquiry into Postwar Taiwanese Literary History." In David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 26-50.

Chen, Jo-hsi. "Literary Formosa." The China Quarterly 15 (July-Sept, 1963): 75-85.

Chen, Li-fen. Fictionality and Reality in Narrative Discourse: A Reading of Four Contemporary Taiwanese Writers. Ph. D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 2000.[chapters on Ch'en Ying-chen, Ch'i-Teng Sheng, Wang Chen-ho, and Wang Wen-hsing; available through Dissertation.com]

-----. "Queering Taiwan: In Search of Nationalism's Other." Modern China 37 (2011): 384-421.

[Abstract: This article deals with the formation of Taiwan’s homosexual cultural politics in the 1990s, the impact and implications of which are yet to be examined within the larger context of Taiwan’s cultural and political development and ethnic relationships. It is argued that the rise of this cultural politics is both a reflection and a source of a growing sense of identity crisis on the island. By examining the configurations of “queer” in various discursive domains, this interdisciplinary study seeks to delineate the cross-referencing ideological network of this cultural movement and its entanglement with the complexity of Taiwan’s nationalism. At the same time, to the extent that this movement tends to present itself as a radical politics from a privileged epistemological and cultural standpoint, this claimed radicalism is also scrutinized for its problematics and ironies.]

Chen, Lucy. "Literary Formosa." In Mark Mancall, ed., Formosa Today. NY, London: Praeger, 1964, 131-41.

Chen, Shao-Hsing. "Diffusion and Acceptance of Modern Artistic and Intellectual Expression in Taiwan." Studia Taiwanica 2 (1957): 1-6.

Chen, Shou-yi. "Contemporary Literature in Taiwan." Claremont Quarterly 11, 3 (1964): 50-70.

Chen, Yu-ling. "The State of Taiwan Literature--Feminine, Nativist, and Anti-Colonial Discourse. Tr. Suefen Tsai. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 22 (Jan. 2008): 147-53.

Cheung, Dominic. "The Continuity of Modern Chinese Poetry in Taiwan." World Literature Today 65, 3 (1991): 399-404.

Chi, Pang Yuan. "Taiwan's History in Literature." Solidarity 120 (1988): 51-58.

-----. "Taiwan Literature, 1945-1999." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 14-30.

Chien, Ying ying. "From Utopian to Dystopian World: Two Faces of Feminism in Contemporary Taiwanese Women's Fiction." World Literature Today 68, 1 (1994): 35-42.

Chiu, Kuei fen. "Taking Off: A Feminist Approach to Two Contemporary Women's Novels in Taiwan." Tamkang Review 23, 1-4 (1992-1993): 709-33.

-----. "Identity Politics in Contemporary Women's Novels in Taiwan." Tamkang Review 30, 2 (Winter 1999): 27-54. Rpt. in Peng-hisang Chen and Whitney Crothers Dilley, eds., Feminism/Femininity in Chinese Literature. Amsterdam,: Rodopi, 2002, 67-86.

-----. "Treacherous Translation: Taiwanese Tactics of Intervention in Transnational Cultural Flows." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 1 (Jan. 2005): 47-69.

Chong, Ling. "Feminism and Female Taiwan Writers." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 146-60.

Chou, Ying-hsiung. "Between History and the Unconscious: Contemporary Taiwanese Fiction Revisited." Tamkang Review 22, 1-4 (1991): 155-76.

Chun, Allen. "The Culture Industry as National Enterprise: The Politics of Heritage in Contemporary Taiwan." In Virginia R. Dominguez and David Y. H. Wu, eds., From Beijing to Port Moresby: The Politics of National Identity in Cultural Policies. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 1998, 77-113.

Chung, Mingder. The Little Theatre Movement of Taiwan (1980-1989): In Search of Alternative Aesthetics and Politics. Ph.D. diss. NY: New York University, 1992.

"Contemporary Literature in Taiwan." Special Section of Free China Review 41, 4 (April 1991): 1-47.

Damm, Jens. Ku'er vs. tongzhi - Diskurse der Homosexualität. Über das Entstehen sexueller Identitäten im glokalisierten Taiwan und im postkolonialen Hongkong (Discourses on homosexual identities in Taiwan and Hong Kong). Bochum: Cathay Skripten, Taiwan Studies Series, no. 16, 2000.

[Abstract: During the nineties, two different discourses on homosexual identity have developed in Hong Kong and in Taiwan: a tongzhi-discourse in Hong Kong, which attributes the negative attitude toward homosexuality in modern Chinese societies to the influence of (post)colonialism and appeals for a more tolerant attitude by making frequent and pointed reference to the Chinese tradition of male homosexual relationships. The Taiwanese ku'er (queer) discourse, which regards Taiwanese society as being firmly embedded in a globalized world, may therefore be seen as resulting from a blend of glocalized influences and a more tolerant attitude is only possible in a pluralistic society where the flow of gender and desire is recognized. In the paper, two recently published works are presented as examples for the two discourses: Post-Colonial 'Tongzhi', written by the Hong Kong sociologist Zhou Huashan and Queer Archipelago: A Reader of the Queer Discourses in Taiwan compiled by the Taiwanese author of belles-lettres and ku'er-theoretician Ji Dawei. It is also shown that the differences in the discourses may be traced back to the drifting apart of the political and social scenarios in Taiwan and Hong Kong.]

Diamond, Catherine Theresa Cleeves. The Role of Cross-cultural Adaptation in the Little Theatre Movement in Taiwan. Ph.D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 1993.

Dutrait, Noel. "Four Taiwanese Writers on Themselves Chu T'ien-wen, Su Wei Chen, Cheng Chiung-ming and Ye Lingfang respond to our questionnaire." China Perspectives 17 (May/June 1998).

Faurot, Jeannette L., ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.

Fix, Douglas L. Conscripted Writers: Collaborating tales?: Taiwanese War Stories. Cambridge, Mass: Fairbank Center, 1994.

-----. “Conscripted Writers, Collaborating Tales? Taiwanese War Stories.” Harvard Studies on Taiwan: Papers of the Taiwan Studies Workshop 2 (1998): 19-41.

Fleming, Brent Leonard. Theatre Management Procedures: An Operations Manual for the Cultural Center Theatres in Taiwan, the Republic of China. Ph.D.diss. Texas Technical University, 1987.

Goldblatt, Howard. "Taiwan Literature in the People's Republic of China." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 16, 2 (1981): 57-66.

Haddon, Rosemary M. "Mimesis and Motivation in Taiwan Colonial Fiction." B.C. Asian Review 1 (1987)

-----. "Taiwan Xiangtu wenxue: The Sojourner-Narrator." B.C. Asian Review 3-4 (1990).

-----. Nativist Fiction in China and Taiwan: A Thematic Survey. Ph.D. diss. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1993.

-----. "Chinese Nativist Literature of the 1920s: The Sojourner-Narrator." Modern Chinese Literature 8, no. 1-2 (1994): 97-124.

-----. "T'ai-wan hsin wen-hsueh and the Evolution of a Journal: T'ai-wan min-pao." Tamkang Review 25, 2 (1994): 1-35.

-----. "Introduction: Taiwanese Nativism and the Colonial/Post-Colonial Discourse." In Rosemary Haddon, tr./ed , Oxcart: Nativist Stories from Taiwan, 1934-1977. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996, v-xxv.

-----. "Engendering Women: Taiwan's Recent Fiction by Women." In Antonia Finnan and Ann McLaren, eds. Dress, Sex and Text in Chinese Culture. Clayton, Australia: Monash Asia Institute, 1999, 212-24.

Hammer, Christiane. Reif für die Insel. Ein Streifzug durch die taiwanesische Literature in deutscher Übersetzung. Mit einer Auswahlbibliographie (A Survey of Taiwanese literature in German translation. With a selective bibliography). Bochum: Cathay Skripten, Taiwan Studies Series, no. 14, 1999.

[Abstract: Compared with the literature from the Chinese mainland, modern texts from Taiwan in German translations lead a far more marginal life on Germany's book market. This is not so much attributable to a lack of quality, but correlates to the minor importance Taiwan studies enjoy in the field of German sinology, in stark contrast to the situation, e.g., in the USA. However, quite a number of translations are hidden in various theses and studies, the so-called 'grey literature'. This survey examines some of these semi-official publications, most of which were initiated by the late Professor Helmut Martin, and considers whether they provide useful references to interesting authors or even raw matereial which could be transformed into translations on a commercial scale.]

Hegel, Robert E. "The Search for Identity in Fiction from Taiwan." In Robert Hegel and Richard Hessney, eds., Expressions of Self in Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 1985. 342-360.

Hillenbrand, Margaret. "GIs and the City: the Vietnam War in Taiwanese Fiction of the 1970s and 1980s." Asian Studies Review 25, 4 (2001).

-----. "Trauma and the Politics of Identity: Form and Function in the Fictional Narratives of the February 28th Incident." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 2 (Fall 2005): 49-89.

-----. "The National Allegory Revisited: Writing Private and Public in Contemporary Taiwan." positions: east asia cultures critique 14, 3 (2006): 633-662. [Project Muse link]

-----. Literature, Modernity, and the Practice of Resistance: Japanese and Taiwanese Fiction, 1960-1990. Leiden: Brill, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Bert Scruggs]

[Abstract: This book is a cross-cultural, interdisciplinary study which compares responses to modernity in the literary cultures of Japan and Taiwan, 1960-1990. Moving beyond the East-West framework that has traditionally dominated comparative enquiry, the volume sets out to explore contemporary East Asian literature on its own terms. As such, it belongs to the newly emerging area of inter-Asian cultural studies, but is the first full-length monograph to explore this field through the prism of literature. The book combines close readings of paradigmatic texts with in-depth analysis of the historical, social, and ideological contexts in which these works are situated, and explores the form and function of literary practice within the "miracle" societies of industrialized East Asia.]

Hsia, Yu, et al. "Cross it Out, Cross it Out, Cross it Out: Erasurist Poetry from Taiwan's Poetry Now (Issue #9, Feb 2012)." Asymptote (April 2012).

Hsiau, A-Chin. Contemporary Taiwanese Cultural Nationalism. NY: Routledge, 2000.

-----. "The Indigenization of Taiwanese Literature: Historical Narrative, Strategic Essentialism, and State Violence." In John Makeham and A-chin Hsiau, eds. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 125-55.

Hsu, Chien-jung. The Construction of National Identity in Taiwan's Media, 1896-2012. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

[Abstract: National identity has been an ongoing political issue in Taiwan since the late-1890s. The Construction of National Identity in Taiwan1s Media, 1896-2012 breaks new ground with the most comprehensive analysis of the development of Taiwan1s media and the construction of national identity in Taiwan1s media. Using a variety of media contents including newspapers, opposition magazines, broadcasting radio, news TV stations and the Internet as well as numerous interviews with journalists, senior media staffs and academics, Dr Hsu provides many original insights into the formation of national identity in Taiwan's media. Taiwan's media began to demonstrate a variety of new identities under democratization. Part of this change responded to market conditions as a majority of Taiwan's population stressed their Taiwan identity.]

Hsu, Vivian. "Universal Vision in Contemporary Taiwan Literature." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 16, 3 (1981): 19-40

Hsu, Wen Hsiung. "Purism and Alienation in Recent Taiwanese Fiction." In Bjorn Jernudd and Michael Shapiro eds., The Politics of Language Purism. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989, 197-210.

Huang, Hans Tao-Ming. Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: This book delineates the history and politics of gender and sexuality since postwar Taiwan. Tracking the interface between queerness and national culture, it underscores the imbrications of male homosexuality, prostitution and feminism within the modernizing process and offers a trenchant critique of the violence of sexual modernity.]

Huang, Heng-ch'iu. "Relections on Hakka Literature in Taiwan." Tr. Yingtsih Huang. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 16 (2005): 171-84..

Hung, Eva (ed.); Pollard, D. E. (ed.) "Contemporary Taiwan Literature." Renditions 35/36 (1991).

Kinkley, Jeffrey. "Mainland Chinese Scholars' Images of Contemporary Taiwan Literature." In Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 25-42.

Kleeman, Faye Yuan. 2003. Under an Imperial Sun: Japanese Colonial Literature of Taiwan and the South. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.

Ko, Ch'ing-ming. "Modernism and Its Discontents: Taiwan Literature in the 1960s." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 76-95.

Ku, Tim-hung. "Modernism in Modern Poetry of Taiwan, ROC: A Comparative Perspective." Tamkang Review 18 (1987/88): 125-39.

Kwan-Terry, John. "Modernism and Tradition in Some Recent Chinese Verse." Tamkang Review 3, 2 (1972): 189-202.

Lancashire, Edel Marie. Concord and Discord in the World of Literature in Taiwan, 1949-1971: A Selective Study of Writers' associations, Literary Movements and Controversial Writers. Ph.D. thesis. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London,1981.

-----. "The Lock of the Heart Controversy in Taiwan, 1962-1963: A Question of Artistic Freedom and a Writer's Social Responsibility." The China Quarterly (Sept. 1985): 462-488.

Lau, Joseph. "Echoes of the May Fourth Movement in Taiwan Hsiang-t'u Fiction." In Hung-mao Tien, ed., Mainland China, Taiwan and US Policy. Cambridge, MA: OG Publishers, 1983, 135-50.

Laureillard, Marie. "La poésie visuelle taiwanaise: un retour réflexif sur l'écriture." Transtext(e)s Transculture: Journal of Global Cultural Studies 2 (Jan. 2007).

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "Modernism and Romanticism in Taiwan Fiction." In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980, 6-30.

-----. "Taiwanese Literature-Chinese Literature? Research Topics of the Nineties Concerning the Colonial Period and Post-war Development." Asiatica Venetiana 2 (1997): 105-116.

-----. "Last Rehearsals, Waiting in the Wings--Taiwan's Cultural Criticism of the Nineties." In Raoul Findeisen and Robert Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997, 447-58.

-----. "A New Proximity: Chinese Literature in the People's Republic and on Taiwan." In H. Goldblatt, ed., Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and Its Audiences. Armonk, NY : M. E. Sharpe, 1990. 29-43.

Leroux, Alain. "Poetry Movements in Taiwan from the 1950s to the late 1970s: Break and Continuities." China Perspectives 68 (2007): 56-65.

Li, Ch'iao. "Bickering about the Meaning of 'Taiwanese Literature.'" Tr. Robert Smitheram. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 1 (Aug. 1996).

Liao, Hsien-hao. "From Central Kingdom to Orphan of Asia: The Transformation of Identity in Modern Taiwanese Literature in the five Major Literary Debates." In Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 106-26.

-----. "Becoming Cyborgian: Postmodernism and Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan." In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 175-201.

Liao, Ping-hui. "The Case of the Emergent Cultural Criticism Columns in Taiwan's Newspaper Literary Supplements: Global/Local Dialectics in Contemporary Taiwanese Public Culture." In Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake, eds., Global/local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996, 337-47.

-----. "From Romancing the State to Romancing the Store: Further Elaborations of Butterfly Motifs in Contemporary Taiwan Literature." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 32-47.

Lin, Esther. "Ecrire on Japonais: Les ecrivains Taiwanais des annees 1930 et 1940." In Isabelle Rabut, ed., Les belles infideles dans l'empire du milieu: Problematique et pratiques de la traduction dans le monde Chinois moderne. Paris: You Feng, 2010, 224-38.

Lin Jui-ming. "Literature Originates From the Land and People."Tr. Jenn-Shann Jack Lin. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 4 (1999): 3-8.

Lin, Julia C. Essays on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1985.

Lin, Pei-Yin. "Negotiating Colonialism: Taiwanese Literature During the Japanese Occupation." IIAS Newsletter 38 (Sept. 2005): 20.

-----. "Memory, History, and Identity: Representations of the February 28th Incident in Taiwanese Literature." In Evolving Cultural Memory in China and Her Neighbours. Hong Kong: Education Press, 2008, 306-335.

-----. "Cultural Memory and Identity in Taiwanese Fiction of the Twentieth Century." In Cultural Memory and Chinese Society. Malaysia: University of Malaya, 2008, 111-127.

-----. "Remaking 'Taiwan': Literary Representations of the 2.28 Incident by Lin Yaode and Li Qiao." In Ann Heytlen and Scott Sommers, eds., Becoming Taiwan: From Colonialism to Democracy. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 2010, 63-81.

Lin, Peiyin and Weipin Tsai, ed. Print, Profit, and Perception: Ideas, Information and Knowledge in Chinese Societies, 1895-1949. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

[Abstract: Print, Profit, and Perception examines the dynamic cross-cultural exchanges occurring in China and Taiwan from the first Sino-Japanese War to the mid-twentieth century. Drawing examples from various genres, this interdisciplinary volume presents nine empirically grounded case studies on the growth in the production, dissemination and consumption of texts,which lay behind a dramatic expansion of knowledge. The chapters collectively address the co-existence of globalization and localization processes in the period. By taking into account intra-Asian cultural encounters and tracing the multiple competing forces encountered by many, this book offers a fresh and compelling take on how individuals and social groups participated in transnational conceptual flows. Contributors include: Paul Bailey, Che-chia Chang, Elizabeth Emrich, Tze-ki Hon, Max K.W. Huang, Mei-e Huang, Mike Shi-chi Lan, Pei-yin Lin, and Weipin Tsai.]

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. "Two Texts to a Story: White Terror in Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 65-114.

-----. "Toward a New Identity: Nativism and Popular Music in Taiwan." China Information 17, 2 (2003): 83-107.

-----. Representing Atrocity in Taiwan: The 2/28 Incident and White Terror in Fiction and Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2007. [publisher's blurb]

Lin, Yaofu. "Toward a Version of China: The Taiwan Experience." Surfaces 5 (1995).

Liou, Liang-ya. "Gender Crossing and Decadence in Taiwan Fiction at the Fin-de-siecle." In John C. Hawley ed., Post-colonial and Queer Theories: Intersections and Essays. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001. 71-86.

"Literature." The Republic of China Yearbook--Taiwan, 2001. [decent overview of Taiwan literature]

Liu, Joyce C. "Re-staging Cultural Memories in Contemporary Theatre in Taiwan: Wang Qimei, Stanley Lai, and Lin Huaimin." In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 267-78.

-----. "The Importance of Being Perverse: China and Taiwan, 1931-1937." In David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 93-112.

Liu, Kenneth S. H. "Publishing Taiwan: A Survey of Publications of Taiwanese Literature in English Translation." In Anna Guttman, Michel Hockx and George Paizis, eds., The Global Literary Field. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006, 200-227.

Lu, Han-hsiu. "The Line Graph of Memory: The Return Road to One's Hometown." Tr. John Balcolm. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 22 (Jan. 2008): 3-8.

Lupke, Christopher. Modern Chinese Literature in the Post-Colonial Diaspora. Ph.D. diss. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1993.

-----. “Xia Ji’an’s (T.A. Hsia) Critical Bridge to Modernism in Taiwan.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 1 (2000): 35-64.

-----. "The Taiwan Modernists." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 481-87.

-----. "The Taiwan Nativists." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 502-508.

Makeham, John and A-chin Hsiau, eds. Cultural, Ethnic, and Political Nationalism in Contemporary Taiwan: Bentuhua. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Malmqvist, Goran. "On the Develpment of Modern Taiwanese Poetry." Archiv Orientalni 67, 3 (1999): 311-22.

Marijnissen, Silvia. "'Made Things': Serial Form in Modern Poetry from Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 172-206.

Martin, Fran. Situating Sexualities: Queer Narratives in 1990s Taiwanese Fiction and Film. Ph. D. diss. Melbourne: University of Melbourne, 2000.

-----. Situating Sexualities: Queer Representations in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. HK: University of Hong Kong Press, 2003. [reviewed by Kam Louie in Intersections 10 (Aug. 2004)].

Martin, Helmut. "The History of Taiwanese Literature." Chinese Studies 14, 1 (June 1996): 1-51.

McArthur, Charles. 'Taiwanese Literature' after the Nativist Movement: Construction of a Literary Identity Apart from a Chinese Model. Ph. D. diss. Austin: University of Texas, 1999.

Mei, Wen-li. "The Intellectual in Formosa." The China Quarterly (July/Sept 1978): 65-74.

Moskowitz, Marc L. ed. Popular Culture in Taiwan: Charismatic Modernity. NY: Routledge, 2010.

Neder, Christina and Ines Susanne Schilling, eds. Transformation! Innovation? Perspectives on Taiwan Culture. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2003.

P'eng Jui-chin. "The Primary Issue for Taiwan Literature is Identifying with the Land." Tr. Mabel Lee. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 4 (1999): 9-12.

-----. "The Characteristics of Taiwan Hakka Writers and Their Works." Tr. John Crespi. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 16 (2005): 185-202.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. "Seven Decades of Taiwan Literature: An Outline." In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 313-21.

-----. "From Anti-Imperialism to Post-Colonialism: Taiwan Fiction Since the 1977 Nativist Literature Debate." In Kwok-kan Tam et al., eds., Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2002, 57-78.

Rawnsley, Ming-Yeh. Cultural and Social Change in Taiwan: Society, Cinema and Theatre. NY: Routledge, 2011.

[Abstract: From a Japanese colony to an authoritarian regime to a new democracy, Taiwanese society has gone through many phases of social transition since 1945. This book examines the processes of cultural, social and political transition in Taiwan since 1945, investigating their impact on the Taiwanese cultural industries, with a particular focus on cinema and theatre, and showing how changes in cinema and theatre illustrate the broader cultural, social and political changes taking place. It sets out the history of the development of Taiwanese theatre and cinema since the 1930s, and relates this to broader changes within Taiwanese society. It analyses the socio-politics of Taiwanese-language cinema, and the impact of language policies including the government’s encouragement and promotion of Mandarin in the 1960s. Important issues are considered, notably the modernization and commercialization of cinema and theatre in Taiwan, focusing in particular on Taiwanese produced gangster movies, and also questions of liberalization and democratization, especially the new wave of independent cinema that arrived in the mid 1980s. The book includes interviews with important movie directors, actors, producers, industry workers and critics, including Chen Qiu-yan and Huang Jian-ye. Overall, it provides a full account of cultural, political and social change in Taiwan over the last eighty years, and its relationship with Taiwanese cinema and theatre.]

Research Unit on Taiwanese Culture and Literature (Ruhr University Bochum)

Riep, Steven. "Piecing Together the Past: The Notion of Recovery in Fiction and Film from Taiwan." Modern China 38, 2 (March 2012): 199-232.

[Abstract: Writers and filmmakers in Taiwan have sought to use the narrative techniques of classic detective fiction to recover events of the Nationalist government-imposed White Terror of the early 1950s to bring the once-concealed past to light. Fiction writer Chen Yingzhen (Ch'en Ying-chen) pioneered this technique in short fiction written in 1983 to bring before the public the events of the White Terror and to consider how guilt for the atrocities should be affixed. Wan Jen's (Wan Ren) 1995 feature film Super Citizen Ko explores possibilities for memorialization and the notion of victimhood in its recovery of the Nationalist repression of progressive political movements and its impact on a former political prisoner and his family. Finally, Tseng Wen-Chen (Zeng Wenzhen) in her documentary Spring: The Story of Xu Jinyu offers a portrait of a woman White Terror survivor turned political activist living in an era when the White Terror has been commemorated but remains poorly understood by the younger generation.]

Ross, Timothy A. "Taiwan Fiction: A Review of Recent Criticism." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 13, 1 (1978): 72-80.

Sang, Tze-lang. "Lesbian Feminism in the Mass-Mediated Public Sphere of Taiwan." In Mayfair Mei-hui Yang, ed., Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 132-61.

Scruggs, Bert Mitchell. Collective Consciousness and Individual Identities in Colonial Taiwan Fiction. Ph. D. diss. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2003.

-----. "Censorship, Education, Technology, and the Colonial Taiwan Literary Field." Journal of the International Student Center, Yokohama National University 10 (2003): 95-108.

Shen, Na-huei. The Age of Sadness: A Study of Naturalism in Taiwanese Literature under Japanese Colonization. Ph. D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 2003.

Shih, Fang-long, Stuart Thompson, and Paul-Francois Tremlett, eds. Re-Writing Culture in Taiwan. London: Routledge, 2009.

Shih, Shu-mei and Ping-Hui Liao, eds. Comparatizing Taiwan. Routledge, 2014.

[Contents: Introduction: Why Taiwan? Why Comparatize?, Shu-mei Shih and Ping-hui Liao Part I: Taiwan in Comparison 1. Comparativism and Taiwan Studies: Analyzing Taiwan in/out of Context, or Taiwan as an East Asian New World Society, Frank Muyard 2. Tiger's Leap into the Past: Comparative Temporalities and the Politics of Redemption, Chien-heng Wu 3. Comparison for Compassion: Exploring the Structures of Feeling in East Asia, Hong-luen Wang 4. Archipelagoes of Taiwan Literature: Comparative Methods and Island Writings in Taiwan, Yuting Huang 5. Paradoxes of Conservation and Comparison: Taiwan, Environmental Crises, and World Literatures, Karen Thornber 6. Weak Links, Literary Spaces, and Comparative Taiwan, Jing Tsu 7. Far-fetched Lands: The Caribbean, Taiwan, and Submarine Relations, Li-chun Hsiao Part II: Imperial Conjunctures and Contingencies 8. Is Feminism Translatable? Spivak, Taiwan, A-Wu, Shu-mei Shih 9. Voices of Empire in Dubliners and Taibenren, Margaret Hillenbrand 10. Body (Language) across the Sea: Gender, Ethnicity, and the Embodiment of Post/colonial Modernity, Faye Yuan Kleeman 11. Interlingual Discovery: Sato Haruo's Travels in the Colony, Ping-hui Liao 12. Taiwan's Postcolonial and Queer Discourse in the 1990s, Liang-ya Liou 13. Taiwan after the Colonial Century: Bringing China into the Foreground, Jieh-min Wu]

Shimazu, Naoka. "Colonial Encounters: Japanese Travel Writings on Colonial Taiwan." In Yuko Kikuchi, ed. Refracted Modernity: Visual Culture and Identity in Colonial Taiwan. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 2007, 21-37.

Shu, James C. T. "Iconoclasm in Taiwan Literature: A Change in the 'Family.'" Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 2, 1 (Jan.1980): 73-85

Smith, Craig. "Aboriginal Autonomy and Its Place in Taiwan's National Trauma Narrative." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 209-39.

Sung, Mei-hwa. "Feminist Consciousness in Contemporary Fiction of Taiwan." In S. Harrell and Chun-chieh Huang, eds. Cultural Exchange in Postwar Taiwan. Boulder: Westview, 1994, 275-93.

-----. "Writing Women's Literary History: Gender Discourse and Women's Literature in Taiwan." In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 171-92.

Taiwan Cultural Studies (Taiwan wenhua yanjiu)

Taiwan Literature Studies Database (Forum for the Study of World Literatures in Chinese, UC Santa Barbara)

Taiwan Literature Symposium (NY, Apri-May 1998)

Tang, Xiaobing. "On the Concept of Taiwan Literature." Modern China 25, 4 (Oct. 1999): 379-422. Rpt. in David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 51-90.

Tarumi, Chie. "Listenting to Voices from the Netherworld: Lu Heruo and the Kuso-Realism Debate." Tr. Bert Scruggs. In Ping-hui Liao nad David Der-wei Wang, eds., Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule, 1895-1945. NY: Columbia UP, 2006, 262-76.

Tay, William, ed. "Contemporary Chinese Fiction from Taiwan." Special issue. Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992).

Thornber, Karen Laura. Empire of Texts in Motion: Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese Transculturations of Japanese Literature. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2009.

[Abstract: By the turn of the twentieth century, Japan’s military and economic successes made it the dominant power in East Asia, drawing hundreds of thousands of Chinese, Korean, and Taiwanese students to the metropole and sending thousands of Japanese to other parts of East Asia. The constant movement of peoples, ideas, and texts in the Japanese empire created numerous literary contact nebulae, fluid spaces of diminished hierarchies where writers grapple with and transculturate one another’s creative output. Drawing extensively on vernacular sources in Japanese, Chinese, and Korean, this book analyzes the most active of these contact nebulae: semicolonial Chinese, occupied Manchurian, and colonial Korean and Taiwanese transculturations of Japanese literature. It explores how colonial and semicolonial writers discussed, adapted, translated, and recast thousands of Japanese creative works, both affirming and challenging Japan’s cultural authority. Such efforts not only blurred distinctions among resistance, acquiescence, and collaboration but also shattered cultural and national barriers central to the discourse of empire. In this context, twentieth-century East Asian literatures can no longer be understood in isolation from one another, linked only by their encounters with the West, but instead must be seen in constant interaction throughout the Japanese empire and beyond.]

Tozer, W. "Taiwan's 'Cultural Renaissance.'" The China Quarterly (July/Sept. 1970): 81-90.

Tseng, Shih-jung. From Honto Jin to Bensheng Ren: The Origin and Development of Taiwanese National Consciousness. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2009.

[Abstract: This book attempts to use numerous volumes of mostly unpublished diaries for examining issues of Taiwanese identity. Using the diaries of two Taiwanese intellectuals, the author examines how the Taiwanese national consciousness emerged and was reconstructed under the Japanese and Chinese Nationalist rule between 1920 and 1955, suggesting that a multi-dimensional Taiwanese national consciousness was created in the 1920s. Nevertheless, between 1937 and 1945, it was reconstructed by the imperial war mobilization. It then underwent a further reconstruction during and after the regime change from Japan to China, leading to the emergence of the bensheng ren (native Taiwanese) consciousness. The emerging international Cold War environment enabled the creation of a de facto independent state based on Taiwan-size governance, which had an impact on shaping the bensheng ren identity.]

Tu, Kuo-ch'ing. "The Study of Taiwan Literature: An International Perspective." Taiwan Literature English Translation Series 2 (Dec. 1997): xiii-.

-----. "Urban Literature and the Fin-de-siecle in Taiwan." Taiwan Literature English Translation Series 6 (Dec. 1999): xiii-.

-----. "Foreword: Lai Ho, Wu Cho-liu, and Taiwan Literature." Taiwan Literature English Translation Series 15 (2004): xix-xxx.

-----. "Taiwan Literature and Childhood." Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 22 (Jan. 2008): vii-xii.

Tuan, Iris Hsin-chun. Alternative Theater in Taiwan: Feminist and Intercultural Approaches. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2007.

[Abstract: Taiwan's historical and contemporary status as a nexus of Asian and Western cultural influences provides a rich canvas of research for the author who is uniquely trained in both Western critical and Taiwanese theatrical practices. This highly original book furnishes a creative interpretation of alternative, contemporary Taiwanese Theater by applying Feminism, Interculturalism and other western theories to three intercultural performances of four avant-garde female directors from 1993-2004. Although several important playwrights and directors have staged vital gender critiques of national and international practices, almost no critic has remarked upon them. The book's intersection of a gender critique, and, in part, a postcolonial one, with Taiwanese stage practices is, therefore, a unique and significant contribution.]

Tung, Constantine. "Current Literary Scene in Taiwan: An Observation." Asian Thought and Society 3 (1978): 338-45.

van Fliet Hang, Krista. "The Road to Industrialization: Chinese Realism in Taiwan and the People's Republic." In Marc L. Moskowitz, ed., Popular Culture in Taiwan: Charismatic Modernity. NY: Routledge, 2010, 52-64.

Wang, David. "Radical Laughter in Lao She and His Taiwan Successors." In H. Goldblatt, ed., Worlds Apart: Recent Chinese Writing and its Audiences. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 44-63.

-----. "Translating Taiwan: A Study of Four English Anthologies of Taiwan Fiction." In Eugene Eoyang, ed., Translating Chinese Literature. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1995. 262-72.

----- and Carlos Rojas, eds. Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006. [publisher's blurb] [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Pei-Yin Lin]

Wang, Jing. "Taiwan Hsiang-t'u Literature: Perspectives in the Evolution of a Literary Movement." In J. Faurot, ed. Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.

-----. "The Rise of Children's Poetry in Contemporary Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature 3, 1/2 (1987): 57-70.

Wang, Tuo. "Native Literature as a Stimulus for Social Change: From a Writing Career to Political Activism." Tr. Juliettte Gregory. In Helmut Martin Modern Chinese Writers: Self-portrayals. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1992, 224-30.

Weinstein, John B. "Multilingual Theater in Contemporary Taiwan." Asian Theatre Journal 17, 2 (2000): 269-83. [Project Muse link]

Yang, Jane Parish. "The Evolution of the Taiwanese New Literature Movement from 1920-1940." Fu Jen Studies: Literature and Linguistics 15 (1982): 1-18.

Yang, Xiaobin. "Telling (Hi)story: Illusory Truth or True Illusion." Tamkang Review 21, 2 (1990): 127-47.

Yee, Angelina C. "Constructing a Native Consciousness: Taiwan Literature in the Twentieth Century." The China Quarterly 165 (March 2001): 83-101. [pdf version on China Quarterly website]. Rpt. in Richard Louis Edmonds and Steven M. Goldstein, eds., Taiwan in the Twentieth Century: A Retrospective View. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2001, 83-101.

Yeh, Michelle. "Modern Poetry in Taiwan: Continuities and Innovations." In S. Harrell and Chun-chieh Huang, eds. Cultural Exchange in Postwar Taiwan. Boulder: Westview, 1994, 227-45.

-----. "From Surrealism to Nature Poetics: A Study of Prose Poetry from Taiwan." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 2 (Jan. 2000): 119-56.

-----. "Modern Poetry of Taiwan." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 561-69.

-----. "'On Our Destitute Dinner Table': Modern Poetry Quarterly in the 1950s." In David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 113-39.

Yeh Shih-t'ao. "A Long Range View of Taiwan Fiction." Tr. Linda G. Wang. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 4 (1999): 99-102.

-----. "The Multi-Ethnic Issue of Taiwan Literature." Tr. Wan-shu Lu. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series, No. 3 (1998): 3-12.

-----. An Outline History of Taiwan Literature. Taiwan Writers Translation Series. Santa Barbara: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 2007.

-----. "Protest Literature during the Japanese Occupation." Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 20 (2007): 145-59.

-----. "Memories of the Literary Circles during the Japanese Occupation." Tr. John Balcom. Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 20 (2007): 113-24.

Yen, Yuan-shu. "The Japanese Experience in Taiwan Fiction." Tamkang Review 4, 2 (Oct. 1973): 167-88.

-----. "Social Realism in Recent Chinese Fiction from Taiwan." Thirty Years of Turmoil in Asian Literature. Taipei: International PEN, 1976, 197-231.

Yip, June. Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction, Cinema and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2004.

Yip, Wai-lim, ed. Chinese Arts and Literature: A Survey of Recent Trends. Occasional Papers/Reprint Series in Contemporary Asian Studies. Baltimore, 1977. [articles on Chen Ruoxi and on poetry]

Yu Guangzhong (Yu Kwang-chung). "Chinese Poetry in Taiwan." The Chinese Pen (Autumn 1972): 42-65.


Hong Kong

Abbas, M. A. "The Last Emporium: Verse and Cultural Space." In Leung Ping-Kwan, ed., City at the End of Time. Hong Kong: Twilight Books, 1992, 3-19.

-----. Hong Kong: Culture and the Politics of Disappearance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

Abbas, Ackbar and Wu Hung, eds. "Hong Kong 1997: The Place and the Formula." Special issue of Public Culture 9, 3 (1997).

Birus, Hendrik. "Introduction to and Discussion Summary of William Tay's Colonialism, Cold War Era, and Marginal Space: The Existential Conditions of Four Decades of Hong Kong Literature." Surfaces 5 (1995).

Chan, Mimi. "Women in Hong Kong Fiction Written in English: The Mixed Liason." Renditions. 29/30 (Spring/Autumn, 1988): 257-74.

Chan, Sin-wai, ed. Translation in Hong Kong: Past, Present and Future. Hong Kong: Chinese University of HK Press, 2000.

Cheung, Esther M. K. "Voices of Negotiation in Late Twentieth-Century Hong Kong Literature." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 604-609.

-----. "The Hi/stories of Hong Kong." Cultural Studies 15, 3/4 (July 2001): 564-90.

Abstract: This paper examines the formation of modernity in three colonialist epics of Hong Kong and the recent historical and fictional works that aim to rewrite the history of the'local'. Adopting a challenge-response structure, the paper argues that the colonialist epics construct a monolithic discourse of modernity-as-progress via the amnesia of conflicts, tensions, and processes of domination and negotiation in the rural and everyday space of colonial Hong Kong. It is stressed that to piece together the above anomalies is not an attempt to restore a pre-given'native' to but rather an endeavour to examine how the 'local' as divergent historical agents shaped and has been shaped by the political, social, and economic environment of Hong Kong and the larger world outside. This can be called a model of dialectics composed of an internal dialectic and a dialectic of articulation. In this regard, with the benefit of the rapprochement of history and anthropology and a non-linear view of history, this paper is a historical bricolage of the anomalous history of Hong Kong, aiming to destabilize the Hong Kong historical grand narrative. Through rethinking the impact of the colonial experience, this paper hopes to liberate alterity and diversity in historical interpretations and imaginations.

Cheung, Kai-chong. "Fictional Portrayals of the Colonial Cultures of Hong Kong." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 24, 4 (1997): 829-34.

Chow, Rey. "Between Colonizers: Hong Kong's Postcolonial Self-Writing in the 1990s." Diaspora 2, 2 (Fall 1992).

-----. "King Kong in Hong Kong: Watching the 'Handover' from the USA." Social Text 55 (Summer 1998): 93-108.

Chu, Yiu-Wai. Lost in Transition Hong Kong Culture in the Age of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by David Desser]

[Abstract: In this timely and insightful book, Yiu-Wai Chu takes stock of Hong Kong¡¦s culture since its transition to a Special Administrative Region of the People¡¦s Republic of China in 1997. Hong Kong had long functioned as the capitalist and democratic stepping stone to China for much of the world. Its highly original popular culture was well known in Chinese communities, and its renowned film industry enjoyed worldwide audiences and far-reaching artistic influence. Chu argues that Hong Kong¡¦s culture was ¡§lost in transition¡¨ when it tried to affirm its international visibility and retain the status quo after 1997. In an era when China welcomed outsiders and became the world¡¦s most rapidly developing economy, Hong Kong¡¦s special position as a capitalist outpost was no longer a privilege. By drawing on various cultural discourses, such as film, popular music, and politics of everyday life, Chu provides an informative and critical analysis of the impact of China¡¦s ascendency on the notion of ¡§One Country, Two Cultures.¡¨ Hong Kong can no longer function as a bridge between China and the world, writes Chu, and must now define itself from global, local, and national perspectives.]

Damm, Jens. Ku'er vs. tongzhi - Diskurse der Homosexualität. Über das Entstehen sexueller Identitäten im glokalisierten Taiwan und im postkolonialen Hongkong (Discourses on homosexual identities in Taiwan and Hong Kong). Bochum: Cathay Skripten, Taiwan Studies Series, no. 16, 2000.

[Abstract: During the nineties, two different discourses on homosexual identity have developed in Hong Kong and in Taiwan: a tongzhi-discourse in Hong Kong, which attributes the negative attitude toward homosexuality in modern Chinese societies to the influence of (post)colonialism and appeals for a more tolerant attitude by making frequent and pointed reference to the Chinese tradition of male homosexual relationships. The Taiwanese ku'er (queer) discourse, which regards Taiwanese society as being firmly embedded in a globalized world, may therefore be seen as resulting from a blend of glocalized influences and a more tolerant attitude is only possible in a pluralistic society where the flow of gender and desire is recognized. In the paper, two recently published works are presented as examples for the two discourses: Post-Colonial 'Tongzhi', written by the Hong Kong sociologist Zhou Huashan and Queer Archipelago: A Reader of the Queer Discourses in Taiwan compiled by the Taiwanese author of belles-lettres and ku'er-theoretician Ji Dawei. It is also shown that the differences in the discourses may be traced back to the drifting apart of the political and social scenarios in Taiwan and Hong Kong.]

Evans, Grant and Maria Tam. Hong Kong: The Anthropology of a Chinese Metropolis. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998.

Ho, Elaine Yee Lin. "Women in Exile: A Study of Hong Kong Fiction." In Elizabeth Sinn, ed. Culture and Society in Hong Kong. HK: Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1995, 133-59.

------. "Connecting Cultures: Hong Kong Literature in English, the 1950s." New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 5, 2 (Dec. 2003): 5-25.

Ho, Louis. "Apartheid Discourse in Contested Space: Aspects of Hong Kong Culture." Comparative Literature and Culture 3 (Sept. 1998): 1-10.

Ingham, Michael. Hong Kong: A Cultural and Literary History. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2007.

Lam, Agnes. "Poetry in Hong Kong: The 1990s." World Literature Today 73, 1 (1999): 53-62.

Lee, Quentin. "Delineating Asian (Hong Kong) Intellectuals: Speculations on Intellectual Problematics and Post/Coloniality." Third Text 26 (Spring 1994): 11-23.

Lilley, Rozanna. Staging Hong Kong: Gender and Performance in Transition. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1998.

Lo, Kwai-Cheung. "Look Who's Talking: The Politics of Orality in Transitional Hong Kong Mass Culture." Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 47-76.

-----. "Men Aren't Men: Feminization of the Masculine Subject in the Works of Some Hong Kong Male Writers." In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 225-44.

McFarlane, Scot. "Transporting the Emporium: Hong Kong Art and Writing Through the Ends of Time." West Coast Line 21 (1997): 39-40.

Ng, Janet. Paradigm City: Space, Culture, and Capitalism in Hong Kong. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009.

[Hong Kong is often cast in the role of the paradigmatic “global city,” epitomizing postmodernism and globalization, and representing a vision of a cosmopolitan global and capitalist future. In Paradigm City, Janet Ng takes us past the obsession with 1997—the year of Hong Kong’s return to China—to focus on the complex uses and meanings of urban space in Hong Kong in the period following that transfer. She demonstrates how the design and ordering of the city’s space and the practices it supports inculcates a particular civic aesthetic among Hong Kong’s population that corresponds to capitalist as well as nationalist ideologies. Ng’s insightful connections between contemporary film, literature, music and other media and the actual spaces of the city—such as parks, shopping malls, and domestic spaces—provide a rich and nuanced picture of Hong Kong today.]

Pang, Laikwan. "Sightseeing an International City: Hong Kong's Tourism and the Society of Spectacle." Comparative and Interdisciplinary Research on Asia, UCLA.

Snow, Donald B. Written Cantonese and the Culture of Hong Kong: The Growth of Dialect Literature. Ph.D. diss. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1991.

Tay, William. "Colonialism, the Cold War Era, and Marginal Space: The Existential Conditions of Four Decades of Hong Kong Literature." Surfaces 5 (1995). Aslo in Sung-sheng Yvonne Chang and Michelle Yeh, eds., Contemporary Chinese Literature: Crossing the Boundaries. Special issue of Literature East and West. Austin, TX: Department of Middle Eastern Languages and Cultures, 1995, 141-47.

-----. "Colonialism, The Cold War Era, and Marginal Space: The Existential Condition of Five Decades of Hong Kong Literature." In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 31-38.

Taylor, Jeremy E. "Nation, Topography, and Historiograpy: Writing Topographical Histories in Hong Hong." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15,2 (Fall 2003): 45-75.

Turner, Matthew. Hong Kong Sixties: Designing Identity. HK: Hong Kong Arts Centre, 1995.

Wang, Xiaoying. "Hong Kong, China, and the Question of Postcoloniality." In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 89-122.

Wong, Dorothy. "Local, Place and Meaning: A Cultural Reading of the Hong Kong Stories." Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 9, 2 (2000): 168-86.

Ye Si. Xianggang wenhua (Hong Kong culture). HK: Hong Kong Arts Centre, 1995.

Zha, Jianying. "Citizen Chan: Is Hong Kong Poised to Take Over Mainland China?" Transition 65 (1995): 69-94.

Zhang Meijun [Esther Cheung] and Zhu Yaowei, eds. Xianggang wenxue@wenhua yanjiu (Hong Kong literature as/and cultural studies). HK: Oxford UP, 2002.


Diaspora/Exile/Transnational/Sinophone

Ang, Ien. On Not Speaking Chinese: Living between Asia and the West. London / New York: Routledge, 2001.

Bachner, Andrea. Beyond Sinology: Chinese Writing and the Scripts of Culture. NY: Columbia University Press, 2014.

[Abstract: New communication and information technologies provide distinct challenges and possibilities for the Chinese script, which, unlike alphabetic or other phonetic scripts, relies on multiple signifying principles. In recent decades, this multiplicity has generated a rich corpus of reflection and experimentation in literature, film, visual and performance art, and design and architecture, within both China and different parts of the West. Approaching this history from a variety of alternative theoretical perspectives, Beyond Sinology reflects on the Chinese script to pinpoint the multiple connections between languages, scripts, and medial expressions and cultural and national identities. Through a complex study of intercultural representations, exchanges, and tensions, the text focuses on the concrete ¡§scripting¡¨ of identity and alterity, advancing a new understanding of the links between identity and medium and a critique of articulations that rely on single, monolithic, and univocal definitions of writing. Chinese writing¡Xwith its history of divergent readings in Chinese and non-Chinese contexts, with its current reinvention in the age of new media and globalization¡Xcan teach us how to read and construct mediality and cultural identity in interculturally responsible ways and also how to scrutinize, critique, and yet appreciate and enjoy the powerful multi-medial creativity embodied in writing.]

Balcom, John. "To the Heart of Exile: The Poetic Odyssey of Luo Fu." In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007: 65-84.

Barmé, Geremie R. In the Red: On Contemporary Chinese Culture. NY: Columbia UP, 1999. [ch 3, "Traveling Heavy," is on intellectual and cultural diaspora / exile etc]

Bernards, Brian, Shu-mei Shih, and Chien-hsin Tsai, eds., Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Brady, Anne-Marie. "Dead in Exile: The Life and Death of Gu Cheng and Xie Ye." China Information XI, 4 (1997): 126-148.

Chiu, Kuei-fen. "Empire of the Chinese Sign: The Question of Chinese Diasporic Imagination in Transnational Literary Production." Journal of Asian Studies 67, 2 (May 2008): 593-620.

[Abstract: This paper begins with an examination of the burgeoning interest in literatures in Chinese. It argues that studies in literatures in Chinese map out a terrain where complex negotiations and interventions for different purposes are carried out. As studies in literatures in Chinese often imply a shift from the nation-state paradigm to the transnational paradigm, which implicitly celebrates diasporic imagination as a counterforce to the power of the nation-state, this paper proposes to examine the intersection of Chinese Malaysian literature and Taiwan literature at two specific moments of transnational literary production—the late 1970s to the mid-1980s and the late 1990s to the present—so as to demonstrate the unstable meanings of the diaspora sign. It highlights the importance of historicization in investigating phenomena of transnational cultural production and the need to reincorporate the notion of “place” into our agenda in conducting cultural critiques. The paper ends with a critique of the global city as a methodological concept and argues for a place paradigm without privileging the global city as a metaphor for transnational space.]

Chow, Rey. Writing Diaspora: Tactics of Intervention in Contemporary Cultural Studies. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana UP, 1993.

Dirlik, Arif. "Literary Identity/Cultural Identity: Being Chinese in the Contemporary World." MCLC Resource Center Publication (Sept. 2013).

Edmond, Jacob and Hilary Chung. "Yang Lian, Auckland and the Poetics of Exile." In Yang Lian, Unreal City: A Chinese Poet in Auckland. Auckland: Auckland UP, 2006, 1-23.

Eoyang, Eugene Chen. "Tianya, the Ends of the World or the Edge of Heaven: Comparative Literature at the Fin de Siècle." In Yingjin Zhang ed., China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1998, 218-232; 280-282.

Gao Xingjian and Yang Lian. Was hat uns das Exil gebracht? Ein Gespräch zwischen Gao Xingjian und Yang Lian über chinesische Literatur (What Has Exile Brought Us? A Conversation between Gao Xingjian and Yang Lian on Chinese Literature). Tr. Peter Hoffmann, Berlin: DAAD Berliner Künstlerprogramm, 2001.

-----. "The Language of Exile: When Pain Turns to Gain." Abridged and translated by Ben Carrdus. In Index on Censorship (2002).

Groppe, Alison. Not Made in China: Inventing Local Identities in Contemporary Malaysian Chinese Fiction. PhD diss. Cambridge: Harvard University, 2006.

-----. "The Dis/Reappearance of Yu Dafu in Ng Kim Chew's Fiction." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 161-95.

-----. Sinophone Malaysian Literature: Not Made in China. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2013.

[Abstract: China's recent economic growth has fed a rapid increase in the study of modern Chinese language and literature globally. In this shifting global context, authors who work on the edges of the literary empire raise important questions about the homogeneity of language, identity, and culture that is produced by the modern Chinese literary canon. Sinophone Malaysian Literature: Not Made in China examines a key segment of this literature and asks, "What does it mean to be of Chinese descent and Chinese-speaking outside of China?" This book looks specifically at how diasporic Chinese subjects make sense of their Chinese and Malaysian identities in postcolonial Malaysia. By analyzing the literary texts of several of the most influential contemporary Malaysia-born, Chinese-language authors, the author shows how the texts' complex explorations of sentimental attachments, cultural contexts, and sources of power form the basis for a contested, fractured, unstable, and yet enduring Chinese Malaysian identity. This book traces the development of this identity from negotiations with diverse cultural sources and often conflicting affiliations with the appointed centers of cultural productions in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei, and Kuala Lumpur. The special value of the Sinophone Malaysian literary texts that form the focus of the book is that they place political and cultural affiliations of the Chinese-origin, Chinese-speaking Malaysians under a microscope, revealing intricacies and transformations that would otherwise remain invisible...]

Hayot, Eric. "Commentary: On the 'Sainifeng' as a Global Literary Practice." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 219-28.

Holden, Philip. "Reading Between the Lines: Singapore Novels in a Global Frame." In Anna Guttman, Michel Hockx and George Paizis, eds., The Global Literary Field. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006, 2-21.

Huang, Yibing. "Duoduo: An Impossible Farewell, or, Exile between Revolution and Modernism." Amerasia Journal 27, 2 (2001): 64-85

-----. "The Ghost Enters the City: Gu Cheng's Metamorphosis in the 'New World.'" In Christopher Lupke, ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 123-43.

Hutt, Michael. "Reading Nepali Maoist Memoirs." Studies in Nepali History and Society 17, no. 1 (June 2012): 107–142.

Janssen, Ronald R. "What History Cannot Write: Bei Dao and Recent Chinese Poetry." Critical Asian Studies 34, 2 (2002): 259-277.

Khoo, Olivia. The Chinese Exotic: Modern Diasporic Femininity. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2008.

[Abstract: examines new representations of diasporic Chinese femininity emerging from Asia Pacific modernities since the late twentieth century. Through an analysis of cultural artefacts such as films, popular fiction, food and fashion cultures, the book challenges the dominant tendency in contemporary cultural politics to define Chinese femininity from a mainland perspective that furthermore equates it with notions of primitivism. Rather, the book argues for a radical reconfiguration of the concept of exoticism as a frame for understanding these new representations.This engaging study raises important questions on the relationship between the Chinese diasporas and gender. The Chinese Exotic provides a timely critical intervention into the current visualizations of diasporic Chinese femininity. The book contends that an analysis of such images can inform the reconfigured relations between China, the Chinese diasporas, Asia and the West in the context of contemporary globalization, and in turn takes these new intersections to account for the complex nature of modern definitions of diasporic Chinese femininity.]

Kleeman, Faye Yuan. In Transit: The Formation of a Colonial East Asian Cultural Sphere. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2014.

[Abstract: This work examines the creation of an East Asian cultural sphere by the Japanese imperial project in the first half of the twentieth century. It seeks to re-read the "Greater East Asian Co-prosperity Sphere" not as a mere political and ideological concept but as the potential site of a vibrant and productive space that accommodated transcultural interaction and transformation. By reorienting the focus of (post)colonial studies from the macro-narrative of political economy, military institutions, and socio-political dynamics, it uncovers a cultural and personal understanding of life within the Japanese imperial enterprise. To engage with empire on a personal level, one must ask: What made ordinary citizens participate in the colonial enterprise? What was the lure of empire? How did individuals not directly invested in the enterprise become engaged with the idea? Explanations offered heretofore emphasize the potency of the institutional or ideological apparatus. Kleeman asserts, however, that desire and pleasure may be better barometers for measuring popular sentiment in the empire¡Xwhat Raymond Williams refers to as the "structure of feeling" that accompanied modern Japan's expansionism. The negative impact of Japanese imperialism on both nations and societies has been amply demonstrated and cannot be denied, but In Transit focuses on the opportunities and unique experiences it afforded a number of extraordinary individuals to provide a full- er picture of Japanese colonial culture. By observing the empire¡Xfrom Tokyo to remote Mongolia and colonial Taiwan, it explores an area of colonial experience that straddles the public and the pri- vate, the national and the personal, thereby revealing a new aspect of the colonial condition and its postcolonial implications.

Kong, Shuyu. "Diaspora Literature." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 546-53.

Kramer, Oliver. "No Past to Long For? A Sociology of Chinese Writers in Exile." In Michel Hockx ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth-Century China. Richmond: Curzon, 1999, 161-177

-----. Chinese Fiction Abroad: The Exilic Nature of Works Written by Chinese Writers Living Abroad after the Tiananmen Massacre. PhD diss. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, 2002.

Kubin, Wolfgang. "Das Ende des Propheten: Chinesischer Geist und chinesische Dichtung im 20. Jahrhundert" (The End of the Prophet: Chinese Spirit and Chinese Poetry in the 20 th Century). In Die horen. Zeitschrift für Literatur, Kunst und Kritik 169 (1993): 75-91

-----. "The End of the Prophet: Chinese Poetry between Modernity and Postmodernity." In Wendy Larson and Anne Wedell-Wedellsborg eds., Inside Out: Modernism and Postmodernism in Chinese Literary Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1993, 19-37

Lee, Gregory, ed. Chinese Writing and Exile, Select Papers, vol 7. Chicago: The Center for East Asian Studies, University of Chicago, 1993. [contributions by Gregory Lee, Leo Ou-fan Lee, Wang-chi Wong, Susan Daruvala, CH Wang]

-----. Troubadours, Trumpeters, Troubled Makers: Lyricism, Nationalism, and Hybridity in China and Its Others. London: Hurst, 1996. (ch 5, revision of chapter in Lee 1993)

Lee, Karen An-hwei. Anglophone Literatures in the Asian Diaspora: Literary Transnationalism and Translingual Migrations. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Conversant in critical and creative modes of thought, this book examines the uses of translation in Asian and Anglophone literatures to bridge discontinuous subjectivities in Eurasian transnational identities and translingual hybridizations of literary Modernism. Anglophone Literatures in the Asian Diaspora focuses on the roles of mysticism and language in Dict?e's poetic deconstruction of empire, engaging metaphysical issues salient in the history of translation studies to describe how Theresa Cha and four other authors--Sui Sin Far, Chuang Hua, Kazuo Ishiguro, and Virginia Woolf--used figurative and actual translations to bridge discontinuous subjectivities. The author Karen Lee's explorations of linguistic politics and poetics in this eclectic group of writers concentrates on the play of innovative language deployed to negotiate divided or multiple consciousness.]

Li, Dian. The Chinese Poetry of Bei Dao, 1978-2000: Resistance and Exile. Lewiston, ME: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.

Li, Jessica Tsui Yan. "Female Body and Identities: Re-presenting Ibsen’s Nora in China Doll." In K.K. Tam, Terry S. Yip and Frode Helland eds., Ibsen and the Modern Self. Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press, and Oslo: Centre for Ibsen’s Studies, University of Oslo Publications, 2010, 298-310.

Lin, Julia C. "Yip Wai-lim (1937-): A Poet of Exile." In Lin, Essays on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Athens: Ohio UP, 1985, 110-33.

Liu, Tao Tao. "Exile, Homesickness and Displacement in Modern Chinese Literature." I n Wolfgang Kubin ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 335-351.

Lovell, Julia. The Politics of Cultural Capital: China's Quest for a Nobel Prize in Literature. Honolulu: Hawai'i UP, 2006, 144-152.

-----. "Chinese Literature in the Global Canon: The Quest for Recognition." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 197-218.

Ng, Kim Chew. "Minor Sinophone Literature: Diasporic Modernity's Imcomplete Journey." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 15-28.

Parker, David. "Going with the Flow?: Reflections on Recent Chinese Diaspora Studies." Diaspora: A Journal of Translational Studies 14, 2/3 (Fall/Winter 2005): 411-23.

Shih, Shu-mei. Visuality and Identity: Sinophone Articulations Across the Pacific. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Sheldon Hsiao-peng Lu]

-----. "Against Diaspora: The Sinophone as Places of Cultural Production." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 29-48.

Tan, E. K. Rethinking Chineseness: Translational Sinophone Identities in the Nanyang Literary World. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Karen Thornber]

[Abstracts: This book examines the relationship between the Nanyang Chinese, their original homelands (Borneo, Malaysia and Singapore) and their imaginary homeland (China) through the works of writers such as Kuo Pao Kun, Chang Kuei-hsing, and Vyvyane Loh. The increasing international scholarly interest in works by these individuals--part of an ever-growing Sinophone canon--draws critical attention to the politics of identity formation and transnational discourses of ethnicity and identity. Although these works and concomitant discourses have generated a great deal of interest in Asia, they remain largely unexplored in English-language scholarship. While many scholars such as Ien Ang, Quah Sy Ren, Philip Kuhn, Ng Kim Chew, Aihwa Ong, Shu-mei Shih, Tee Kim Tong, Jing Tsu, David Der-wei Wang, Wang Gungwu, and Zhu Chongke have contributed to the field, there is still a great disparity between both the primary and secondary literature written in Chinese and English. To expand the scope of discussion on Sinophone studies with a focus on the Nanyang Chinese, Rethinking Chineseness creates a dialogue by breaking down the linguistic boundaries between these critical discourses. In recent years, scholars in anthropology, cultural studies, literature, and sociology have critically examined Sinophone communities as part of Chinese diaspora and Chinese overseas studies. Focusing on the triangular relationship among globalization, transnationalism and diaspora studies, these scholars tend to assume that Sinophone experiences are similar across culture, history, ethnicity and gender, neglecting the uniqueness of individual Sinophone communities. Rethinking Chineseness addresses this oversight by adopting the Sinophone as a critical concept to investigate the unique experience of the Nanyang Chinese within the context of literary studies. The concept of Chineseness has arisen as a topic widely discussed and debated among scholars such as Ien Ang, Rey Chow, Allen Chun, Shu-mei Shih, Wei-ming Tu, Wang Gungwu and Ling-chi Wang for the past two decades. As a project that takes as its objective a rethinking of the meaning of Chineseness in the context of the Nanyang Chinese, Rethinking Chineseness addresses Chineseness as a theme that poses a problem to scholars involved in Ethnic and Area studies via the critical concept of the Sinophone. The investigation of the productivity of the Sinophone in evaluating the notion of Chineseness is to foreground the significance of the Nanyang Chinese writers and their works within the larger scope of representation in the global cultural experience of Sinophone communities. As cultural products, their works directly and also symptomatically tackle questions relating to Sinophone identities in a less metaphysical but phenomenological sense.]

Teng, Emma J. "What's 'Chinese' in Chinese Diasporic Literature?" I n Charles Laughlin ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005, 61-79.

-----. Eurasian: Mixed Identities in the United States, China and Hong Kong, 1842-1943. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Beth Lew-Williams]

Tong, Tee Kim. "(Re)mapping Sinophone Literature." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 77-92.

Tsu, Jing. Sound and Script in Chinese Diaspora. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Andrea Bachner]

[Abstract: What happens when language wars are not about hurling insults or quibbling over meanings, but are waged in the physical sounds and shapes of language itself? Native and foreign speakers, mother tongues and national languages, have jostled for distinction throughout the modern period. The fight for global dominance between the English and Chinese languages opens into historical battles over the control of the medium through standardization, technology, bilingualism, pronunciation, and literature in the Sinophone world. Encounters between global languages, as well as the internal tensions between Mandarin and other Chinese dialects, present a dynamic, interconnected picture of languages on the move. ... Jing Tsu explores the new global language trade, arguing that it aims at more sophisticated ways of exerting influence besides simply wielding knuckles of power. Through an analysis of the different relationships between language standardization, technologies of writing, and modern Chinese literature around the world from the nineteenth century to the present, this study transforms how we understand the power of language in migration and how that is changing the terms of cultural dominance. Drawing from an unusual array of archival sources, this study cuts across the usual China-West divide and puts its finger on the pulse of a pending supranational world under "literary governance."]

-----. "Sinophonics and the Nationalization of Chinese." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 93-114.

Tsu, Jing and David Der-wei Wang, eds. Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

-----. "Introduction: Global Chinese Literature." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 1-14.

Wong, Sau-ling C. "Global Vision adn Locatedness: World Literature in Chinese/by Chinese from a Chinese-American Perspective." In Jing Tsu and David Der-wei Wang, eds., Global Chinese Literature: Critical Essays. Leiden: Brill, 2010, 49-76.

Van Crevel, Maghiel. Language Shattered: Contemporary Chinese Poetry and Duoduo. Leiden: CNWS, 1996, 221-234.

-----. "Exile: Yang Lian, Wang Jiaxin and Bei Dao." In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008: 137-186.

Wan, Zhi, ed. Breaking the Barriers: Chinese Literature Facing the World. Trs. Chen Maiping, Anna Gustafsson, and Simon Patton. Stockholm: Olof Palme International Center, 1997. [contributions by Wan Zhi, Duoduo, Yan Li, Yang Lian, Yo Yo, Gao Xingjian, Zhao Yiheng, and others]

Wang, Chih-ming. "Bidding Farewell with Regret: Notes towards Affective Articulations and Inter-Asian Writing." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 2 (2013): 214-34.

[Abstract: This paper proposes an alternative approach to the contemporary discussion of Asia, or more specifically East Asia. Rather than conceptualizing Asia as a geo-economic entity, as a cultural historical construct of Euro-centrism, and as a capitalist vision of the world market, this paper seeks to recapture "Asia" in what I call "affective articulations." Specifically, I will examine Dazai Osamu's Farewell with Regret (Sekibetsu, 1945) and Zhang Chengzhi's Respect and Farewell with Regret (Jingzhong yu xibie, 2008) as two exemplars of inter-Asian writing in which Asia is represented as a loaded symbol of affect. Whereas Dazai's book was written in the heat of Great East Asia War, to comply with the demands of the Japanese war effort, Zhang¡¦s book was written at the no less challenging time of China's rise to regional hegemony. Though they differ in style and purpose, both texts hold up a vision of Asia which is distinctly grasped in affective encounters, symbolized by the act of "bidding farewell with regret" (xibie). Intrigued by the affective significance of bidding farewell with regret, this paper first considers "farewell" as a method to recast the discussion of Asia in regional and geopolitical terms, and then performs an analysis of the texts in question so as to identify crucial moments when Asia, despite its internal heterogeneity and complicated history, is grasped in the affective articulation of Sino-Japanese encounters. Such moments, I believe, are real, sincere, and indispensable for our attempt to re-imagine Asia as a translocal solidarity.]

Wong, Lisa Lai-ming. Framings of Cultural Identities: Modern Poetry in Post-Colonial Taiwan with Yang Mu As a Case Study. PhD thesis. HK: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, 1999.

-----. "Writing Allegory: Diasporic Consciousness as a Mode of Intervention in Yang Mu's Poetry of the 1970s." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 1 (2001): 1-28

Yang, Lian. "In Search of Poetry as the Prototype of Exile." Tr. Torbjörn Lodén. 00tal # 9/10 (2002): 35-41.

Yao, Steven G. Foreign Accents: Chinese American Verse from Exclusion to Postethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center Review by Dian Li]

Zhang, Zhen. "The Jet Lag of a Migratory Bird: Border Crossings toward/from 'The Land That Is Not'." In Sharon K Hom ed., Chinese Women Traversing Diaspora: Memoirs, Essays, and Poetry. New York and London: Garland, 1999, 51-75.

Zhang, Zao. Auf die Suche nach poetischer Modernität: Die neue Lyrik Chinas nach 1919 (The Search for Poetic Modernity: China's New Poetry after 1919). PhD thesis. Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, 2004. [ch 7, "Bei Dao und das Exil der Wörter" (Bei Dao and the Exile of Words) is on exile].

Zheng Yi, Su Wei, Wan Zhi, Huang Heqing, eds. Busi liuwangzhe (The undying exile). Taibei: INK, 2005.

Zhou, Gang. Placing the Modern Chinese Vernacular in Transnational Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jon Eugene von Kowallis]

[Abstract: This is the first book to concentrate not only on the triumph of the vernacular in modern China but also on the critical role of the rise of the vernacular in world literature, invoking parallel cases from countries throughout Europe and Asia. Contents: Introduction; The Language of Utopia; The Chinese Renaissance; The Shaky House; 'The Vernacular Only' Writing Mode; Epilogue]

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