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LU XUN STUDIES

 

Reference / Collections / Biographical / General / Fiction / Poetry / Essay / Criticism / Translation / Scholarship / Letters / Visual Arts

Reference

Alber, Charles J. Soviet Criticism of Lu Hsun. Ph.d. Diss. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1971.

Cao Juren. Lu Xun shouce (A Lu Xun handbook). Shanghai: Bolan shuju, 1946.

Chen Jing'an. Lu Xun yanjiu de lishi yu xianzhuang (The history and current state of Lu Xun studies). Nanjing: Jiangsu jiaoyu, 1986.

Concordance of the Complete Works of Lu Xun (Konkordanz zu LXQJ--Institut fuer Moderne China-Studien der Universitaet zu Koeln). [based on Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1981 ed.]

Eber, Irene. "A Selective Bibliography of Works by and about Lu Xun in Western Languages." In Leo Ou-fan Lee, ed. Lu Xun and his Legacy. Berkeley: UCP, 1985. 275-85.

Findeisen, Raoul. Lu Xun. Texte, Chronik, Bilder, Dokumente. Frankfurt a.M. & Basel: Stroemfeld/Nexus, 2002.

Gao Xin. Lu Xun biming tansuo (An investigation into Lu Xun's pennames) Xian: Shanxi renmin, 1980.

Ji, Weizhou. Lu Xun yanjiu shulu (Bibliography of Lu Xun research). Beijing: Xinhua shudian, 1987.

Jianming Lu Xun cidian (A concise dictionary on Lu Xun). Lanzhou: Gansu jiaoyu, 1990.

Lu Xun juan (Volumes on Lu Xun). Hong Kong: Zhongguo xiandai wenxue she, 1972-. [multi-volume set that contains many of the important biographical and scholarly resources, particularly in book form, on Lu Xun]

Lu Xun Page (produced by the online journal, Xin Yusi; includes reports, biographical materials, criticism; in Chinese) and Lu Xun's works).

Lu Xun wang [website in Chinese devoted to Lu Xun and sponsored by the Shanghai Lu Xun Cultural Development Center]

Lu Xun yanjiu xueshu lunzhu ziliao huibian, 1913-1981 (A corpus of scholarship and essays on Lu Xun). 6 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo wenlian, 1985. [indispensable collections of writings on Lu Xun]

Lu Xun yanjiu ziliao bianmu (Catalogue of research materials for Lu Xun). Shen Pengnian, ed. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1958. [covers materials published between 1903 and 1958].

Lu Xun yanjiu ziliao huibian (Catalogue of research materials on Lu Xun). 1980.

Lu Xun yanjiu ziliao suoyin (Index of research materials on Lu Xun). 2 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1982.

Lu Xun zuopin cidian (Dictionary of Lu Xun's works). Henan jiaoyu, 1990. [contains sections on works, characters, historical figures, events, literary factions and journals, expressions and allusions]

McDougall, Bonnie S. "Index to Letters between Two." MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2004 (this index supplants the incorrect index mistakenly published in the original English language translation [Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2000] of this collection of letters between Lu Xun and Xu Guangping)

Peng Xiaoling and Han Aili, eds. Ah Q qishi nian (Seventy years of Ah Q). Beijing: Shiyue, 1993. [collection of writings by LX and other writers and intellectuals about Ah Q].

Shou Yongming. Huigu yu fansi: Lu Xun yanjiu de qianyan yu qushi (Looking back and reflecting: positions and trends in Lu Xun studies). Shanghai: Shanghai sanlian, 2010.

Wang Furen. Zhongguo Lu Xun yanjiu de lishi yu xianzhuang (The history and current status of Lu Xun studies in China). Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin, 1999.

Yuan Liangjun. Lu Xun yanjiu shi (History of Lu Xun studies). Xi'an: Shanxi renmin, 1986. [survey of Lu Xun studies]

-----. Dangdai Lu Xun yanjiu shi (The history of contemporary Lu Xun studies). Xi'an: Shanxi renmin jiaoyu, 1992. [comprehensive survey of Lu Xun studies from 1949 to the late 1980s]

Zhang Mengyang. Zhongguo Lu Xun xue tong shi (A history of Lu Xun studies). Guangzhou: Guangdong jiaoyu, 2001.

Zhang Zuobang. Shensheng de jiegou: Lu Xun yanjiu de siwei shenshi (Deconstruction of a god: four close looks at Lu Xun studies). Chengdu: Sichuan daxue, 2009.


Collections

Cris (Nahan). Tr. Sebastian Veg. Paris: Editions Rue d'Ulm, 2010. [French translation of Nahan]

Diary of a Madman and Other Stories. trs. William Lyell. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.

Die Methode wilde Tiere abzurichten: Erzahlungen, Essays, Gedichte. Tr. Wolfgang Kubin. Berlin: Oberbaum, 1979.

Enyuan lu: Lu Xun he tade lunzhan wenxuan (A record of enmity: selected writings in the debates with Lu Xun). Eds. Li Fugen and Liu Hong. Beijing: Jinri Zhongguo, 1996.

Errances (Panghuang). Tr. Sebastian Veg. Paris: Editions Rue d'Ulm, 2004. [French translation of Panghuang]

Letters Between Two: Correspondence Between Lu Xun and Xu Guangping. Tr. Bonnie McDougall. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2000. [an incorrect version of the index was mistakenly published in this book; for the correct version, see the MCLC Resource Center publication "Index to Letters between Two"]

Lu Xun (Huazhao.com) [contains the complete works of Lu Xun organized by previously published books, e.g., Fen, Nahan, Panghuang]

Lu Xun quanji (Complete works of Lu Xun). 9 vols. Beijng: Renmin wenxue, 1956.

Lu Xun quanji (Complete works of Lu Xun). 20 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1973.

Lu Xun quanji (Complete works of Lu Xun). 16 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1981.

Lu Xun quanji (Complete works of Lu Xun). 18 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 2005. [the best of the many complete works editions; with extensive annotations]

Lu Xun yiwen ji (Collection of Lu Xun's translations). 10 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1959.

Lu Xun Selected Works. 4 vols. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1980.

Lu Xun works. Xin Yusi website. [contains most of Lu Xun's works]

The Real Story of Ah Q and Other Tales of China. Tr. Julia Lovell. Penguin, 2010.

Selected Stories of Lu Xun. Trs. Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang. Beijng: Foreign Languages Press, 1972. [slow loading]

Werke in Sechs Bnden (Works in six volumes). Ed/tr. Wolfgang Kubin, et.al. 6 vols. Z¸rich: Unionsverlag, 1994.

Zhao Ruihong, ed. Lu Xun 'Moluo shi li shuo' (Lu Xun's 'On the Power of Mara Poetry). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin, 1982. [annotations and vernacular translation of this difficult text]


Biographical

Benton, Gregor. "Lu Xun, Leon Trotsky, and the Chinese Trotskyists." East Asian History 7 (1994): 93-104.

Cao Juren. Lu Xun nianpu (A Lu Xun chronology). HK: Sanyu tushu wenju gongsi, 1972.

-----. Lu Xun pingzhuan (Critical biography of Lu Xun). HK: Xin wenhua, nd.

Chen Shuyu. Lu Xun yu Nushida xuesheng yundong (Lu Xun and the student movement at Beijing Women's Normal University). Beijing: Beijing renmin, 1978.

-----. Lu Xun zai Beijing (Lu Xun in Beijing). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin,1978.

-----. Lu Xun shishi xintan (New explorations of the historical facts about Lu Xun). Changsha: Hunan renmin, 1982.

-----. Lu Xun shishi qiuzhen lu (Record of historical facts related to Lu Xun). Changsha: Hunan wenyi, 1987.

-----. Lu Xun de fengyue xiantan (Lu Xun's remarks on romance). Changsha: Hunan wenyi, 1994.

Chen, Shuyu, et.al, eds. A Pictorial Biography of Lu Xun. Beijing: People's Fine Arts Publishing, 1982. [contains short biographical articles in English by Xu Guangping, Li Helin, Sun Ying, Li Zhihao, Tang Tao, Ruan Ming, Wang Yao, Ge Baoquan, Li Jiye, Cao Jinghua, Chen Shuyu, and Wang Shiqing]

Cheng Ma. Lu Xun liuxue Riben shi (A history of Lu Xun's study in Japan). Xian: Shanxi renmin, 1985.

Chih, Pien. "Herin Lies Hope: Reading Lu Hsun's Essays on His Hopes for the Young." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 93-98.

Chisolm, Lawrence W. "Lu Hsun and Revolution in Modern China." Yale French Studies 39 (1967): 226-41.

Denton, Kirk A. “Lu Xun Biography.” MCLC Resource Center Publication (March 2003).

Fan Cheng, ed. Lu Xun de gai guan lun ding (Last words on Lu Xun). Shanghai: Quanqiu shudian, 1937.

Feng Xuefeng. Huiyi Lu Xun (Remembering Lu Xun). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1952.

Findeisen, Raoul. Lu Xun. Texte, Chronik, Bilder, Dokumente. Frankfurt a.M. & Basel: Stroemfeld/Nexus, 2002.

Hao, Ko. "Lu Hsun and Fang Chih-min." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 201-04.

Hong, Seok-Pyo. "Lu Xun, Shin Eon-jun, and Karashima Takeshi." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 354-73.

Hung, Eva. "Reading Between the Lines: The Life of Zhu An." In Christina Neder, ed. China in seinem biographische Dimensionen, Gedenkschrift fur Helmut Martin. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001, 245-58.

Jenner, W.J.F. "Lu Xun's Last Days and After." China Quarterly 91 (1982): 414-45.

von Kowallis, Jon Eugene. "Lu Xun." In Dictionary of Literary Biography--Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 129-50.

-----. "The Enigma of Su Xuelin and Lu Xun." Literature and Philosophy (Wen yu zhe) 16 (June 2010): 493-527.

Krebsova, Berta. Lu Sun: Sa vie et son oeuvre (Lu Xun: his life and works). Prague, 1953.

Kuang, Yu. "Lu Hsun and His Japanese Friend." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 193-96.

Last, Jef. Lu Hsun: Dichter und Idol, ein Bitrag zur Geistesgeschicte des neuen China. Berlin: Metzner, 1959.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "Genesis of a Writer: Notes on Lu Xun's Educational Experience." In Goldman, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: HUP, 1977, 161-88.

Li Helin, ed. Lu Xun nianpu (Chronicle of Lu Xun's life). 4 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 2000.

Li, Hsi-fan. "Landmarks in the Life of a Great Writer--On Rereading the Four Prefaces by Lu Hsun." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 18-26.

Lin Jiye. Lu Xun xiansheng yu Weiming she (Lu Xun and the Unnamed Society). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1984.

Lin Fei and Liu Zaifu. Lu Xun zhuan (Biography of Lu Xun). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1981.

Lin, Zhihao. La vie de Lu Xun. 2 vols. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1990.

Lu Xun Biography (Pegasos Website, Findland)

Lu Xun Page (Tim Gallaher) [contains biographical sketch and links to Lu Xun's works]

Lu Xun Museum Group. "A Wooden Board." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 188-92.

-----. "The History of a Sketch Map." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 197-200.

Lu Xun Posters (Stefan Landsberger's Propaganda Posters).

McDougall, Bonnie S. Love-Letters and Privacy in Modern China: The Intimate Lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002.

-----. “Brotherly Love: Lu Xun, Zhou Zuoren, and Zhou Jianren.” In Christina Neder et al. eds., China in Seinen Biographischen Dimension: Gedenkscrift fur Helmut Martin. Weisbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2001, 259-76.

Mills, Harriet. "Lu Xun: Literature and Revolution--From Mara to Marx." In Goldman, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: HUP, 1977, 189-220.

Ni Moyan. Lu Xun ge ming huo dong kao shu (An investigation of Lu Xun's revolutionary activities). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1984.

Scott, Paul. 1990. "Uchiyama Kanzo: A Case Study in Sino-Japanese Interaction." Sino-Japanese Studies 2, 2 (Ma, 1990): 47-56.

Pickowicz, Paul. "Lu Xun Through the Eyes of Qu Qiubai." Modern China 2, 3 (July 1976): 327-68.

Pollard, David E. "The Life of Lu Xun as Told in China." In Christina Neder, ed. China in seinem biographische Dimensionen, Gedenkschrift fur Helmut Martin. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2001, 239-44.

-----. The True Story of Lu Xun. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Nicholas Kaldis].

Scott, Paul. "Uchiyama Kanzô: A Case Study in Sino-Japanese Interaction." Sino-Japanese Studies 2, 2 (May 1990): 47-56.

Shih, Yi-ko. "Create a Host of New Fighters--Lu Hsun's Care for the Younger Generation." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 78-84.

-----. "The First Thunder in Spring." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 175-80.

-----. "In the Forefront of the Battle Against Confucianism." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 181-87.

-----. "Thinking of Yenan." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 205-07.

Wang, Chi-chen. "Lusin: A Chronological Record, 1881-1936." China Institute Bulletin 3 (Jan. 1939): 99-125.

Wang, Gungwu. "Lu Xun, Lim Boon Keng and Confucianism." Papers on Far Eastern History 39 (1989): 75-91.

Wang, Shiqing. Lu Xun, a Biography. Trs. Bonnie S. McDougall and Tang Bowen. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1984.

Wang Xiaoming. Wufa zhimian de rensheng: Lu Xun zhuan (A life that cannot be faced directly: a biography of Lu Xun). Taibei: Yeqiang, 1992.

Wang Zhenzhong. Shaoxing shi ye (Shaoxing political consultants). Fuzhou: Fujian renmin, 1994. [not a study of Lu Xun, but offers good background to the shi ye tradition, of which some see Lu Xun a part]

Weiss, Ruth. “The Early Years of Lu Hsun.” Eastern Horizon 14, 5 (1975).

-----. “The Last Decade of Lu Hsun’s Life.” Eastern Horizon 15, 4 (1976).

-----. Lu Xun: A Chinese Writer for All Times. Beijing: New World Press, 1985.

Xu Shoushang. Wo suo renshi de Lu Xun (The Lu Xun I knew). Beijing, 1952.

-----. Wangyou Lu Xun yinxiang ji (Impressions of my late friend Lu Xun). HK, 1973.

-----. "Lu Xun nianpu" (Lu Xun chronology). Xin Yusi website.

Zhou, Jianren (Chou Chien-jen). An Age Gone By: Lu Xun's Clan in Decline. Beijing: New World Press, 1988.

Zhou Shouxia (Zhou Zuoren). Lu Xun xiaoshuo li de renwu (Characters in Lu Xun's stories). Shanghai: Shanghai chuban gongsi, 1954.

-----. Lu Xun de gujia (Lu Xun's old home). HK: Datong shuju, 1962.


General Studies

Anderson, Marston. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: UCP, 1990.

Ah Q Performance Project.

Behrsing, Siegfried. “Lu Xun und das ‘kindliche Herz.’” Archiv Orientalni 59 (1991): 122-31.

Lu Xun: Le Legs d’un Ecrivain. Ed. Association Belgique-Chine. Brussels: Association Belgique-Chine, 1986.

Cao, Zhenhua. "My View on the Appropriation of Lu Xun." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 235-44.

Chen, Pearl Hsia. The Social Thought of Lu Hsun, 1881-1936. NY: Vantage, 1976.

Chen, Pingyuan. "Taste and Resistance: Lu Xun's Scholarly Style and Its Reception." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 1, 2 (May 2007): 213-49.

Chen, Shuyu. "Thoughts Provoked by the Shouhuo Essays: My View on the Hot Spots in Current Lu Xun Studies." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 217-26.

Cheng, Eileen. Literary Remains: Death, Trauma, and Lu Xun's Refusal to Mourn. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Lu Xun . . . is commonly cast in the mold of a radical iconoclast who vehemently rejected traditional culture. The contradictions and ambivalence so central to his writings, however, are often overlooked. Challenging conventional depictions, Eileen J. Cheng's innovative readings capture Lu Xun's disenchantment with modernity and his transformative engagements with traditional literary conventions in his "modern" experimental works. Lurking behind the ambiguity at the heart of his writings are larger questions on the effects of cultural exchange, accommodation, and transformation that Lu Xun grappled with as a writer: How can a culture estranged from its vanishing traditions come to terms with its past? How can a culture, severed from its roots and alienated from the foreign conventions it appropriates, conceptualize its own present and future? Literary Remains shows how Lu Xun's own literary encounter with the modern involved a sustained engagement with the past. His creative writings--which imitate, adapt, and parody traditional literary conventions--represent and mirror the trauma of cultural disintegration, in content and in form. His contradictory, uncertain, and at times bizarrely incoherent narratives refuse to conform to conventional modes of meaning making or teleological notions of history, opening up imaginative possibilities for comprehending the past and present without necessarily reifying them. Behind Lu Xun's "refusal to mourn," that is, his insistence on keeping the past and the dead alive in writing, lies an ethical claim: to recover the redemptive meaning of loss. Like a solitary wanderer keeping vigil at the site of destruction, he sifts through the debris, composing epitaphs to mark both the presence and absence of that which has gone before and will soon come to pass. For in the rubble of what remains, he recovered precious gems of illumination through which to assess, critique, and transform the moment of the present. Literary Remains shows how Lu Xun's literary enterprise is driven by a "radical hope"--that, in spite of the destruction he witnessed and the limits of representation, his writings, like the texts that inspired his own, might somehow capture glimmers of the past and the present, and illuminate a future yet to unfold.]

-----. "Records of a Minor Historian: Lu Xun on Zhang Taiyan." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 367-95.

[Abstract: Lu Xun, nearing his death, wrote two essays commemorating Zhang Taiyan. Both are rather unconventional eulogies, which engage the style, themes, and conventions of traditional biographies. Keenly aware of the depictions of his teacher as a conservative Confucian scholar and a political reactionary, Lu Xun provides a counter image. By associating his teacher with prominent revolutionaries and framing his idiosyncratic behaviors and political choices in later life as the product of failed ambition, Lu Xun harks back to the figure of the “mad genius” lauded as exemplars in the classical literary tradition, an image that resonates as well with the gallery of “modern” misanthropes and madmen in his short stories. Cast within a lineage of awakened eccentrics often deemed insane in their own times, Zhang emerges in Lu Xun’s essays as a revolutionary par excellence: an outspoken rebel who, after the founding of the Republic, remained a fearless critic of the establishment; an uncompromising radical at heart, who remained committed to the ideals of a true social transformation long since forgotten by those around him. In making the “worthiness” and relevance of Zhang Taiyan as a historical figure legible to modern readers through his engagement with traditional biographical conventions, Lu Xun also affirms the value of a traditional literati culture which continued to structure his worldview as a modern intellectual and writer. For his portrait of the “master of classical studies” as a radical revolutionary, however partial, was an attempt to ensure that Zhang’s name would remain relevant to posterity, leaving open the possibility that his teacher’s “precious records” might also be transmitted and still find knowing readers in later ages.]

Cheng Ma. Goutong yu gengxin: Lu Xun yu Riben wenxue guanxi fawei (Communication and renewal: exploring Lu Xun's relationship with Japanese literature). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1990.

Cheng, Maorong. "The Didactic and the Expressive: Some Reflections on Lu Xun's Conception of Literature." B.C. Asian Review 9 (1995/96).

Cheung, C[hiu].Y[ee]. "Lu Hsun and Nietzsche: Influence and Affinity after 1927." Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 18/19 (1986/87): 21-38.

-----. "Beyond East and West: Lu Xun's Apparent 'Iconoclasm' and his Understanding of the Problem of Chinese Traditional Culture." Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 20/21 (1988/89): 1-20.

-----. "Tracing the 'Gentle' Nietzsche in Early Lu Xun." In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

-----. "The Nietzsche of Chinese Lu Xun Studies: A Zigzag Road of the Reception of the 'Gentle' Nietzsche." In Ricardo K. S. Mak and Danny S. L. Paau, eds., Sino-German Relations since 1800: Multidisciplinary Explorations. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2000, 167-85.

-----. Lu Xun: The Chinese 'Gentle' Nietzsche. Frankfurt, et al.: Peter Lang, 2001.

-----. "Lu Xun's View of the Awakening of the Chinese People--Was There Really an 'Epistemological Break'?" Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 410-25.

Chou, Chien-jen [Zhou Jianren]. "Learn from Lu Hsun's Tenacity in Fighting and Forging Ahead." Chinese Literature 5-6 (1977): 61-65.

-----. "Learn From Lu Hsun--Repudiate Revisionism." Chinese Literature 6 (June 1971): 81-91.

Chou, Eva Shan. Memory, Violence, Queues: Lu Xun Interprets China. Ann Arbor: Association for Asian Studies, 2012.

[Abstract: takes a new look at the writer whose name is synonymous with the radical newness of modern Chinese literature. It identifies key moments in Lu Xun's creative development and places them in the context of the turbulent era in which China became a republic. The result is a fresh and nuanced interpretation of a range of works, from fiction and essays to classical poems. The analyses highlight the writer's engagement with epochal political events--the discarding of the queue style of hair, the failed monarchical restoration of Zhang Xun, the Five Martyrs incident of the leftist literary movement, and the parallel movement in art. A distinctive feature is the extensive use of visual materials and contemporary photographs. Through her original approach, Eva Shan Chou restores historical complexity to the literary conscience of modern China.

-----. "The Political Martyr in Lu Xun's Writings." Asia Major 12, 2 (2001).

-----. “Learning to Read Lu Xun, 1918-1923: The Emergence of a Readership.” The China Quarterly 172 (Dec. 2002): 1042-64.

-----. "Literary Evidence of Contnuities from Zhou Shuren to Lu Xun." The Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature 59, 2 (2005): 49-66.

[Abstract: This article presents new evidence showing connections between Zhou Shuren and the modern writer that he became. It identifies continuities between a classical-language essay by Zhou, "An Account of Excursions in the Year 1911," published in 1912, and two of Lu Xun's best-know vernacular language short stories: "Hometown" (1921) and "New Year's Sacrifice" (1924). The connnections show an obscure essay to be significant, they shed light on key moments in two much-analyzed sotries, and they increase our understanding of a major figure--from abstract].

-----. "'A Story about Hair': A Curious Mirror of Lu Xun's Pre-Republican Years." Journal of Asian Studies 66, 2 (May 2007): 421-59.

[Abstract: This article examines the subject of queues in the life and writings of Lu Xun (1881–1936), the most prominent figure in modern Chinese literature. The long-standing reluctance of readers and critics to associate this backward hairstyle with Lu Xun's iconic figure has restricted our understanding of the topic to two well-known satirical portraits in his short fiction, Ah Q and Sevenpounder. This article, however, proposes that the queue is of more than satiric interest—that the author's own experience raises fundamental questions about how he discloses and transmutes certain experiences in his writings. Starting from some little-studied events featuring queues in his pre-Republican years and a puzzling short story that recounts them, this essay analyzes the queue's autobiographical connections and their varied literary manifestations. It also makes a case for reexamining the uses of autobiography for a writer whose life story is an important part of his influence.]

Chow, Rey. Primitive Passions: Visuality, Sexuality, Ehtnography, and Contemporary Chinese Cinema. NY: Columbia UP, 1995. [part 1 contains a very interesting reading of Lu Xun's "Preface to Nahan" and his viewing of the execution slide]

Commemorating Lu Hsun: Our Forerunner in the Cultural Revolution. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1967. First published as "In Commemoration of Lu Hsun." Chinese Literature 1 (1967): 1-90. [contains memorials by Yao Wenyuan, Huang Pingwen, Liu Lu, Xu Guangping, Guo Moruo, and Chen Boda, as well as some essays by Lu Xun; excellent source for Cultural Revolution canonization of Lu Xun]

Davies, Gloria. Lu Xun's Revolution: Writing in a Time of Violence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Widely recognized as modern China’s preeminent man of letters, Lu Xun (1881–1936) is revered as the voice of a nation’s conscience, a writer comparable to Shakespeare and Tolstoy in stature and influence. Gloria Davies’s portrait now gives readers a better sense of this influential author by situating the man Mao Zedong hailed as “the sage of modern China” in his turbulent time and place. In Davies’s vivid rendering, we encounter a writer passionately engaged with the heady arguments and intrigues of a country on the eve of revolution. She traces political tensions in Lu Xun’s works which reflect the larger conflict in modern Chinese thought between egalitarian and authoritarian impulses. During the last phase of Lu Xun’s career, the so-called “years on the left,” we see how fiercely he defended a literature in which the people would speak for themselves, and we come to understand why Lu Xun continues to inspire the debates shaping China today. Although Lu Xun was never a Communist, his legacy was fully enlisted to support the Party in the decades following his death. Far from the apologist of political violence portrayed by Maoist interpreters, however, Lu Xun emerges here as an energetic opponent of despotism, a humanist for whom empathy, not ideological zeal, was the key to achieving revolutionary ends. Limned with precision and insight, Lu Xun’s Revolution is a major contribution to the ongoing reappraisal of this foundational figure.]

Dooghan, Daniel M. Literary Cartographies: Lu Xun and the Production of World Literature. Ph. D. diss. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2011. [Dissertations Review by Lucas Klein]

Farquhar, Mary Ann. “Lu Xun and the World of Children.” In Farquhar, Children's Literature in China from Lu Xun to Mao Zedong. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 26-90. [several chapters on Lu Xun]

Feng, Jicai. "Lu Xun's Acheivements and Weaknesses." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 202-08.

Feng, Peter. "The Question of Lu Xun's Right to Likeness: Intellectual Property and China." Harvard China Review.

Findeisen, Raoul. Lu Xun. Texte, Chronik, Bilder, Dokumente. Frankfurt a.M. & Basel: Stroemfeld/Nexus, 2002.

Fokkema, Douwe W. "Lu Xun: The Impact of Russian Literature." In Merle Goldman, ed., Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977, 89-103.

Foster, Paul B. Lu Xun, Ah Q, "The True Story of Ah Q" and the National Character Discourse in Modern China. Ph.D. diss. The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1996.

-----. "The Ironic Inflation of Chinese National Character: Lu Xun's International Reputation, Roman Rolland's Critique of 'The True Story of Ah Q,' and the Nobel Prize." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 140-68.

-----. "Ah Q Progeny--Son of Ah Q, Modern Ah Q, Miss Ah Q, Sequels to Ah Q--Post-1949 Creative Intersections with the Ah Discourse." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2, (Fall 2004): 184-234.

-----. "Jin Yong’s Linghu Chong Faces off against Lu Xun’s Ah Q: Complements to the Construction of National Character." Twentieth-Century China 30, 1 (Nov. 2004).

-----. Ah Q Archaeology: Lu Xun, Ah Q, Ah Q's Progeny, and the National Character Discourse in Twentieth Century China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005. [Lexington Books blurb]

-----. "Social Drama and Construction of the Ah Q Discourse: An Interdisciplinary Reading Strategy to the True Story of Ah Q and its Intertextual Derivations." China Information 20, 1 (March 2006): 69-101.

[Abstract: This article examines the relationship between narrative and discourse through application of Victor Turner’s theory of social dramas to Lu Xun’s A Q zhengzhuan (The true story of Ah Q). Turner’s four-phase model is expanded to a fifth phase of temporal discursive reflexivity as Ah Q’s dramas are reinterpreted and reperformed in stage adaptations and literary derivatives (progeny novels) over eight decades. Foregrounded by Turner’s model, such discursive reperformances yield a highly effective reading strategy which integrates the elements of story and discourse, and thus bridges the gap between fictional literary events and the “real” meaning of events. Ah Q characteristics are reified in the process of constructing literary and social meaning as the progeny works humorously, satirically, and scathingly challenge contemporary readings of social and political history.]

Ge, Baoquan. "Lu Xun and World Literature." Social Sciences in China 3 (1981): 62-90.

Goldman, Merle. "The Political Use of Lu Xun." China Quarterly 91 (1982): 446-61.

Gu Ming Dong. "Lu Xun, Jameson and Multiple Polysemia." Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (Dec. 2001): 434-53.

-----. "Lu Xun and Modernism/Postmodernism." Modern Language Quarterly 69, 1 (March 2008): 29-44.

[Abstract: Although Lu Xun (1881-1936) produced all his literary works in a period that coincided with the heyday of Western modernism (1910-30), scholars both inside and outside China have made few attempts to study them in the international context of the modernist movement. Because of Lu Xun's concern with the fate of the Chinese nation and his professed intention to be its spiritual physician, critical opinion holds that his writings are primarily political and cultural in thematics and realistic in formal representation. The scholarly consensus that he is a master of critical realism remains unchanged. However, Lu Xun's vision of literature and his writing techniques also draw on features common to symbolism, surrealism, supernatural realism, grotesque realism, magic realism, and other experimental forms. Since these are modernist, even postmodern, features, it would be of great interest to explore Lu Xun's relationship to the modernist movement that swept the West in the early twentieth century and the extent to which his writings anticipated postmodernism. I argue that his work should be viewed as a contribution to the international modernist movement from a non-Western, Third World country. Indeed, no history of international modernism is complete if it does not incorporate the incipient modernism that Lu Xun pioneered independently of the West.]

Ho, Felicia Jiawen. Full Spectrum of Selves in Modern Chinese Literature: From Lu Xun to Xiao Hong. Ph.d. diss. Los Angeles: University of California Lo Angeles, 2012.

Hsu, Raymond. The Style of Lu Hsun: Vocabulary and Usage. HK: Centre of Asian Studies, U of HK, 1979.

Huang, Alexander C. Y. "Tropes of Solitude and Lu Xun's Tragic Characters." Neohelicon 37, 2 (Dec. 2010): 349-57.

[Abstract: Much ink has been spilled over how Lu Xun’s (1881–1936) political views inform his creative writing and how politics and literature are mutually implicated, but the aesthetics of his tragic narratives remains marginal in literary studies. Often lauded as the father of modern Chinese literature, Lu Xun has not only made major contributions to the formation of literary realism but also put his unique vision of tragedy into practice. At the core of his tragic poems and narratives lie the tropes of solitude. The tragic is characterized, not by tragic incident, but by void thereof, by a state of speech-less solitude and nothingness (xuwu). The aesthetic implications of such a tragic vision are twofold. The creation and consumption of literature in China during the first half of the twentieth century focused on questions of the nation and society, but Lu Xun’s solitary characters in The Weeds ask fundamental existential questions while carving a space for a new genre of writing.]

Huang, Sung-k'ang. Lu Hsun and the New Culture Movement of Modern China. Amsterdam: Djambatan, 1957.

Jameson, Frederic. "Third World Literature in the Era of Multinational Capitalism." Social Text: Theory/Culture/Ideology 15 (1986): 65-88.

Jenner, W.J.F. "Lu Xun's Disturbing Greatness." East Asian History 19 (June 2000): 1-26.

Jones, Andrew F. Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: In 1992 Deng Xiaoping famously declared, "Development is the only hard imperative." What ensued was the transformation of China from a socialist state to a capitalist market economy. The spirit of development has since become the prevailing creed of the People’s Republic, helping to bring about unprecedented modern prosperity, but also creating new forms of poverty, staggering social upheaval, physical dislocation, and environmental destruction. In Developmental Fairy Tales, Andrew F. Jones asserts that the groundwork for this recent transformation was laid in the late nineteenth century, with the translation of the evolutionary works of Lamarck, Darwin, and Spencer into Chinese letters. He traces the ways that the evolutionary narrative itself evolved into a form of vernacular knowledge which dissolved the boundaries between beast and man and reframed childhood development as a recapitulation of civilizational ascent, through which a beleaguered China might struggle for existence and claim a place in the modern world-system. This narrative left an indelible imprint on China’s literature and popular media, from children’s primers to print culture, from fairy tales to filmmaking. Jones’s analysis offers an innovative and interdisciplinary angle of vision on China’s cultural evolution. He focuses especially on China’s foremost modern writer and public intellectual, Lu Xun, in whose work the fierce contradictions of his generation’s developmentalist aspirations became the stuff of pedagogical parable. Developmental Fairy Tales revises our understanding of literature’s role in the making of modern China by revising our understanding of developmentalism’s role in modern Chinese literature.]

Jullien, Francois. Fonctions d’un classique Luxun dans la Chine contemporaine, 1975-1977. Lausanne: A. Eibel, 1977.

-----. Lu Xun, écriture et révolution. Paris: Presses de l'École normale supérieure, 1979.

Keaveney, Christopher T. "Uchiyama Kanzô’s Shanghai Bookstore and Its Impact on May Fourth Writers." E-ASPAC 1 (2001).

Kelly, D.A. "Nietzsche in China: Influence and Affinity." Papers on Far Eastern History 27 (March 1983):143-72.

Kowallis, Jon. "Festivals for Lu Xun: The 'Lesser Tradition" and National Identity Construction." Chinoperl Papers 20-22 (1997-99): 139-58.

-----. "Interpreting Lu Xun." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 18 (1996). [review of W. Kubin's German translations of Lu Xun]

-----. "Lu Xun and Terrorism: A Reading of Revenge and Violence in Mara and Beyond." In Peter Zarrow, ed., Creating Chinese Modernity: Knowledge and Everyday Life, 1900-1940. NY: Peter Lang, 2007, 83-98.

-----. "Rethinking China, Confucianism and the World from the Late Qing: A Special Issue on Zhang Taiyan and Lu Xun." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 325-32.

Krebsova, Berta. "Lu Hsun's Contribution to Modern Chinese Thought and Literature." New Orient 7 (1968): 9-13.

-----. Lu Sun, sa vie et son oeuvre. Prague: Nakladatelstvi Ceskoslovenske Akademic Ved, 1953.

Kubin, Wolfgang, ed. Aus dem Garten der Wildnis: Studien zur Lu Xun (1881-1936). Bonn: Bouvier, 1989.

Kubin, Wolfgang. "Lu Xun’s Dreams on the Eve of May Fourth and Thereafter." In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 59-65.

-----. The Unfinished Text or Literature as Palimpsest towards Lu Xun and His Relevance to the Present." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China. 7, 4 (20113): 541-50.

Larson, Wendy. Literary Authority and the Modern Chinese Writer: Ambivalence and Autobiography. Durham: DUP, 1991. [Chap 4 discusses Lu Xun's views of literature and his autobiographical writings in Zhaohua xishi]

Lee, Haiyan. "Sympathy, Hypocrisy, and the Trauma of Chineseness." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 76-122.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. Voices from the Iron House: A Study of Lu Xun. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

-----, ed. Lu Xun and his Legacy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.

-----. "Tradition and Modernity in the Writings of Lu Xun." In Lu Xun and his Legacy. Berkeley: UCP, 1985, 3-31.

-----. "Literature on the Eve of Revolution: Reflections on Lu Xun's Leftist Years, 1927-1936." Modern China 2, 3 (1976): 277-326.

Lee, Mabel. "Suicide of the Creative Self: The Case of Lu Hsun." In A.R. Davis and A. D. Stefanowska, eds. Austrina. Marricksville: Oriental Society of Australia, 1982, 140-167.

-----. "From Chuang-tzu to Nietzsche: On the Individualism of Lu Hsun." Journal of Oriental Society of Australia 17 (1985): 21-38.

Leys, Simon. "Fire Under the Ice: Lu Xun." In Leys, The Burning Forest: Essays on Chinese Culture and Politics. NY: Holt, 1983, 100-7.

Li Changzhi. Lu Xun pipan (Critique of Lu Xun). Shanghai: Beixin, 1936.

Li, Xia. "Nora and Her Sisters: Lu Xun's Reflections on the Role of Women in Chinese Society with Particular Reference to Elfriede Jelinek's What happened after Nora Left Her Husband or Pillars of Society (1979)." Neohelicon 35 (2008): 217-235.

Li Zehou. "Luelun Lu Xun sixiang de fazhan" (A sketch of the development of Lu Xun's thought). Zhongguo jindai sixiang shilun (Essays on the history of modern Chinese thought). Renmin, 1979, 439-471.

Lin, Chih-hao. "Lu Hsun, a Great Fighter Against Confucianism." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 142-49.

Lin, Jui-ming. "Where There Is Rock, There Is the Seed of Fire: Lu Xun and Lai Ho." Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 185-98.

Lin, Qingxin. "Reloading the Canon: The Fin-de-siecle Controversies over Lu Xun." In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 181-92.

Lin, Xianzhi. "How Was Lu Xun Appropriated?" Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 229-34.

Lin, Yu-sheng. The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Anti-Traditionalism in the May Fourth Era. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979. [deals extensively with Lu Xun, especially chapter 6]

Liu, Jianmei. "Lu Xun's Refusal of Zhuangzi." Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 2 (2012): 149-190.

Liu, Lydia. "Rethinking Culture and National Essence." In Liu, Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture, and Translated Modernity in China, 1900-1937. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995, 239-58.

-----. "Life as Form: How Biomimesis Encountered Buddhism in Lu Xun." Journal of Asian Studies 68, 1 (Feb. 2009): 21-54.

[Abstract: The fraught encounters between biological sciences and religions such as Buddhismhave raised philosophical issues for many. This essay will focus on one of them: Can form ground the truth of life? The author suggests that, along with the introduction of evolutionary biology from Europe, literary realism in China has emerged as a technology of biomimesis, among other such technologies, to grapple with the problem of "life as form." Focusing on Lu Xun’s early interest in Ernst Haeckel and science fiction, especially his translation of "Technique for Creating Humans” and his narrative fiction "Prayers for Blessing,"which drew extensively on a Buddhist avadana, the essay seeks to throw some new light on the familiar as well as unfamiliar sources relating to Lu Xun’s life and works and to develop a new understanding of how the debates on science and metaphysics have developed in modern China.]

Loi, Michelle. Un intellectual dans la revolution chinoise. Paris: Maspero,1977.

Lu Xun Criticism (Xin Yusi website) [contains numerous essays and articles in Chinese on Lu Xun, including Liang Shiqiu, Zhou Zuoren, Li Zehou, Qian Liqun, Can Xue, and Wang Shuo]

Lyell, William A. Lu Hsun's Vision of Reality. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

-----. "Lu Xun Today." Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 20, 2 (1985): 91-100.

Macdonald, Sean. "Montage as Chinese: Modernism, the Avant-garde, and the Strange Appropriation of China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 151-99.

McDougall, Bonnie S. "Lu Xun Hates China, Lu Xun Hates Lu Xun." In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 385-440.

-----. Love-Letters and Privacy in Modern China: The Intimate Lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002.

Medvedeva, Olga. "Lu Xun in the Rhetoric of the Sino-Soviet Split: A View from Contemporary Russia." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 483-93.

[Abstract: The historical role of the prominent Chinese writer, social activist and thinker Lu Xun (1881–1936), is difficult to overestimate. His works influenced social change within China and became recognized internationally. For these and other reasons, he was of particular interest in the Soviet Union. Since 1932, his works have been published in numerous editions in Russian and have received a great deal of scholarly attention in the Soviet Union. Such unprecedented attention was initially based on the idea that he held similar revolutionary sentiments to those prevailing in the Soviet Union. Later, from the second half of the 1960s to the early 1970s, the ideological disagreements between the Soviet Union and China influenced the direction of Lu Xun studies in the Soviet Union. Soviet leader Khrushchev called for peaceful coexistence with the capitalist West, while Mao Zedong stressed the universal character of the proletarian revolution. Lu Xun was highly respected in both the USSR and China, and thus became an influential tool in this polemic. But, for Soviet scholars, this renewed focus on Lu Xun offered an opportunity to provide a new perspective on the writer’s works. This paper analyzes how the Sino-Soviet split influenced Russian academics’ positions on Lu Xun. The focus is on the three main points of contention in the ideological disagreements between the PRC and the USSR. First, Soviet critics focused on the psychological aspects and individualism in the Lu Xun’s works. Second, a special focus on humanistic elements in the writer’s ideas can be seen as a result of the Soviet disagreement with the Cultural Revolution’s period. Third, by pointing to the internationalist aspects of Lu Xun’s writings, Soviet scholars attempted to expose the Sinocentric political attitudes of the ruling circles in China.]

Park, Min-woong. "On Lu Xun's Attitude Toward the Masses." Chinese Culture 39, 1 (1998): 93-108.

Pickowicz, Paul. "Lu Xun through the Eyes of Qu Qiubai: New Perspectives on Chinese Marxist Literary Polemics of the 1930s."Modern China 2, 2 (April 1976): 327-68.

Prusek, Jaroslav. "Lu Hsun the Revolutionary and the Artist." Orientalische Literaturzeitung 5/6 (May-June 1960): 230-36.

Pusey, James Reeves. Lu Xun and Evolution. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Qian, Liqun. "Refusing to Forget." Tr. Eileen Cheng. In Chaohua Wang, ed., One China, Many Paths. London: Verso, 2003, 292-309.

-----, "The Historical Fate of Lu Xun in Today's China." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 4 (2013): 521-40.

Rojas, Carlos. "Of Canons and Cannibalism: A Psycho-Immunological Reading of "Diary of a Madman." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 47-76.

Ruhlman, Robert. "Les nouvelles de Lou Sin (1881-1936)." In Etienne Balazs et al., eds., Aspects de la Chine, vol. 13 Epoque Contemporaine. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1959-62, 617-628.

-----. "Lou Siun, grand ecrivain chinois du Xxe siecle." Comptes Rendus Mensuels des Seances 24 (1964): 363-379.

Schwarcz, Vera. "Writing in the Face of Necessity: Lu Xun, Brecht, and Satire." Modern China 7, 3 (July 1981): 289-316.

-----. "A Curse on the Great Wall: The Problem of Enlightenment in Modern China." Theory and Society 13 (1984): 455-70.

Semanov, V. I. Lu Hsun and his Predecessors. Trs. Charlers Alber. White Plains: M. E. Sharpe, 1980.

Shih, Shu-mei. "Evolutionism and Experimentalism: Lu Xun and Tao Jingsun." In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, 73-95.

Spence, Jonathan. "On Chinese Revolutionary Literature." Yale French Studies 39 (1967): 215-225.

Sun, Lung-kee. The Chinese National Character: From Nationhood to Individuality. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2001. [various sections deal with Lu Xun]

Sun, Shirley. Lu Xun and the Chinese Woodcut Movement, 1929-1935. Ph.D. diss. Stanford University, 1974.

Takeuchi, Yoshimi (Zhunei hao). Lu Xun. Tr. Li Xinfeng. Hangzhou: Xinhua, 1986. [originally published in Japanese in 1944]

-----. "Ways of Introducing Culture (Japanese Literature and Chinese Literature II)--Focussing Upon Lu Xun." In Yoshimi Takeuchi, What Is Modernity? Writings of Takeuchi Yoshimi. Tr. Richard Calichman. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005, 43-52.

Tao, Jeanne. Breaking with the Past: Memory, Mourning, and Hope in Lu Xun's Writing. M. A. thesis. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 2005.

Tsau, Shu-ying. "'They Learn in Suffering What They Teach in Song': Lu Xun and Kuriyagawa Hakuson's Symbols of Anguish." In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 441-69.

Wang, Ban. The Sublime Figure of History. Stanford UP, 1997. [contains discussion of "On the Power of Mara Poetry" and Wild Grass]

Wang, David Der-wei. Fictional Realism in 20th Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen. NY: CUP, 1992. [the Introduction is centered around Lu Xun]

-----. "Lu Xun, Shen Congwen, and Decapitation." In Xiaobin Tang and Liu Kang, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 278-99.

Wang, Ping. "The Inner Workings of Lu Xun's Mind: Behin the Author's Pen-Names." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 459-82.

[Abstract: Lu Xun is arguably the most prolific user of pseudonyms of all writers in the world. The question, then, is why. While the diversity and multiplicity of Lu Xun’s pseudonyms defy clear classification, a close examination reveals much more than just the erstwhile political justifications for anonymity. This article argues that Lu Xun’s pseudonyms, with their rich literary allusions, satire, and humour, shed light on his complex character, and contributed to his sophisticated writing style. Through the author’s choice of pseudonyms, we see the inner workings of his mind, hear a voice of a national conscience, and feel his intense—albeit at times ambivalent—emotions. The pen-names Lu Xun ingeniously employed constructed his image as a solitary thinker and fighter embarked on a long and difficult journey in search of light in the darkness. Indeed, not only have the pseudonyms enriched the layered significance of his writing, they also have much to tell about Lu Xun both as an author and a person: his keen awareness of social and political issues, his deep insight into the weakness of the national character, and his passionate concern for the nation, as well as his eclectic approach to both classical discourse and modern narrative. And as such, these pseudonyms should form an integral part of the many queries posed and pondered by Lu Xun studies.]

Wang, Qi. "The Chinese Recption of Kierkegaard." Kierkegaard Research: Sources, Recption, and Resources Vol. 8, Tome 3 (2009): 103-24.

Veg, Sebastian. "Sortir du regne de la critique." In Lu Xun, Cris. Paris: Editions Rue d'Ulm, 2010, 257-94.

-----. "Democratic Modernism: Rethinking the Politics of Early Twentieth-Century Fiction in China and Europe." boundary 2 38, 3 (2011): 27-65.

Wang, Eugene Y. “Tope and Topos: The Leifeng Pagoda and the Discourse of the Demonic.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 488-552. [deals only in part with LX’s views of the collapse of the Leifeng Pagoda]

Wang, Hui. "Dead Fire Rekindled." Tr. Julia Chan. boundary 2 34, 3 (Fall 2007): 1-21.

Wang, Pu. "Poetics, Politics, and Ursprung/yuan: On Lu Xun's Conception of 'Mara Poetry." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 34-63.

Wang Shuo. "Lu Xun as I See Him." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 193-201.

Wang Yao. Lu Xun yu Zhongguo wenxue (Lu Xun and Chinese literature). Shanxi renmin, 1982.

-----. "Lun Lu Xun zuopin yu Zhongguo gudian wenxue de lishi lianxi" (On the relationship between Lu Xun's works and Chinese classical literature). Wenyi bao.

Wong, Kam-ming. "Dotting the 'I': Reading Lu Xun Through the Eyes of Darwin and Nietzsche." Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Asian Studies. HK: Asian Research Service, 1991, 189-210.

-----. "Retroactive Lyricism/Eternal Return: Lu Xun, Darwin, and Nietzsche,(co-authored with Chung-min Tu). In Luibava Moreva, ed., International Readings in Theory, History and Philosophy of Culture. St. Petersburg, Russia: EIDOS, 2001, vol. 11: 215-256.

Xie, Yong. "Some Unavoidable Questions in Lu Xun Studies." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 227-28.

Zhang, Fugui and Chuangong Ren. "The Spread of Cosmopolitanism in China and Lu Xun's Understanding of the 'World Citizen.'" Frontiers of Literary Study in China 6, 4 (2012): 553-69.

[Abstract: The concept of World Citizen was not introduced to China by Lu Xun, but it is an important term in his thought. The most obvious difference between Lu Xun and other cultural pioneers during the May Fourth period is that rather than understanding and promoting cosmopolitanism as a social or systematic phenomenon, he was mainly interested in human nature and therefore attempted to formulate the concept of World Citizen in terms of a humanistic or spiritual dimension. In so doing, he profoundly expressed an ideological appeal for the significance of the human consciousness, understood within its historical context. This particular conception of cosmopolitanism is symbolically valuable and relevant to the present ideological reality.]

Zhang, Longxi."Revolutionary as Christ: The Unrecognized Savior in Lu Xun's Works." Christianity and Literature 45, no. 1 (Autumn 1995): 81-93.

Zhang, Quanzhi. "Lu Xun and Orientalism." Tr. Lin Qingxin. In Q. S. Tong, Wang Shouren, and Douglass Kerr, eds. Critical Zone 2: A Forum of Chinese and Western Knowledge. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2006, 209-15.

Zhong, Xueping. "Who Is Afraid of Lu Xun? Politics of 'Lu Xun lunzheng' and the Question of His Legacy in Post-Revolution China." In Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scene at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 81-102.

Zhu Tong. Lu Xun chuangzuo de yishu jiqiao (The artistic techniques of Lu Xun's creative writing). Shanghai: Xin wenyi, 1958.


Fiction

Anderson, Marsten. "Lu Xun, Ye Shaojun, and the Moral Impediments to Realism." In Anderson, The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 76-118.

-----. "Lu Xun's Facetious Muse: The Creative Imperative in Modern Chinese Fiction." In E. Widmer and D. Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: HUP, 1993, 249-68.

Brown, Carolyn. "The Paradigm of the Iron House: Shouting and Silence in Lu Xun's Stories." Chinese Literature Essays Articles Reviews 6.1-2 (1984):101-20.

----- "Woman as Trope: Gender and Power in Lu Xun's 'Soap.'" Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1-2 (1988): 55-70.

Button, Peter. "Lu Xun's Ah Q as 'Gruesome Hybrid.'" In Peter Button, Configurations of the Real in Chinese Literary and Aesthetic Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center Publications review by Thomas Moran]

Chan, Stephen. "The Language of Despair: Ideological Representations of the 'New Woman' by May Fourth Writers." In Barlow, ed. Gender Politics in Modern China: Writing and Feminism. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 13-32. [discussion of Lu Xun's representation of Zijun in "Regret for the Past"]

Chang, Heng-hao. "A Pervasive and Profound 'Vision of the Times'--A Comparison between Lai Ho's Guijia [Going Home] and Lu Xun's Guxiang [My Hometown]. Taiwan Literature: English Translation Series 21 (July 2007): 123-40.

Chang, Shuei-may. "Lu Hsun's 'Regret for the Past' and the May Fourth Movement." Tamkang Review 31,4-32, 1 (Summer-Autumn 2001): 173-203.

Cheng, Eileen J. "Gendered Spectacles: Lu Xun on Gazing at Women." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 1-36.

-----. "Recycling the Scholar-Beauty Narrative: Lu Xun on Love in the Age of Mechanical Reproductions." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 1-38.

Cheng, Eileen. Literary Remains: Death, Trauma, and Lu Xun's Refusal to Mourn. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Lu Xun . . . is commonly cast in the mold of a radical iconoclast who vehemently rejected traditional culture. The contradictions and ambivalence so central to his writings, however, are often overlooked. Challenging conventional depictions, Eileen J. Cheng's innovative readings capture Lu Xun's disenchantment with modernity and his transformative engagements with traditional literary conventions in his "modern" experimental works. Lurking behind the ambiguity at the heart of his writings are larger questions on the effects of cultural exchange, accommodation, and transformation that Lu Xun grappled with as a writer: How can a culture estranged from its vanishing traditions come to terms with its past? How can a culture, severed from its roots and alienated from the foreign conventions it appropriates, conceptualize its own present and future? Literary Remains shows how Lu Xun's own literary encounter with the modern involved a sustained engagement with the past. His creative writings--which imitate, adapt, and parody traditional literary conventions--represent and mirror the trauma of cultural disintegration, in content and in form. His contradictory, uncertain, and at times bizarrely incoherent narratives refuse to conform to conventional modes of meaning making or teleological notions of history, opening up imaginative possibilities for comprehending the past and present without necessarily reifying them. Behind Lu Xun's "refusal to mourn," that is, his insistence on keeping the past and the dead alive in writing, lies an ethical claim: to recover the redemptive meaning of loss. Like a solitary wanderer keeping vigil at the site of destruction, he sifts through the debris, composing epitaphs to mark both the presence and absence of that which has gone before and will soon come to pass. For in the rubble of what remains, he recovered precious gems of illumination through which to assess, critique, and transform the moment of the present. Literary Remains shows how Lu Xun's literary enterprise is driven by a "radical hope"--that, in spite of the destruction he witnessed and the limits of representation, his writings, like the texts that inspired his own, might somehow capture glimmers of the past and the present, and illuminate a future yet to unfold.]

Cheung, Chiu-yee. "The Love of a Decadent 'Superman': A Re-reading of Lu Xun's 'Regret for the Past.'" Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 30 (1998): 26-46.

Chinnery, J.D.. "The Influence of Western Literature on Lu Xun's 'Diary of a Madman.'" Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies vol 23, part 2 (1960): 309-322.

Chou, Eva Shan. Memory, Violence, Queues: Lu Xun Interprets China. Ann Arbor: Association for Asian Studies, 2012.

[Abstract: takes a new look at the writer whose name is synonymous with the radical newness of modern Chinese literature. It identifies key moments in Lu Xun's creative development and places them in the context of the turbulent era in which China became a republic. The result is a fresh and nuanced interpretation of a range of works, from fiction and essays to classical poems. The analyses highlight the writer's engagement with epochal political events--the discarding of the queue style of hair, the failed monarchical restoration of Zhang Xun, the Five Martyrs incident of the leftist literary movement, and the parallel movement in art. A distinctive feature is the extensive use of visual materials and contemporary photographs. Through her original approach, Eva Shan Chou restores historical complexity to the literary conscience of modern China.

-----. "'A Story about Hair': A Curious Mirror of Lu Xun's Pre-Republican Years." Journal of Asian Studies 66, 2 (May 1007): 421-59.

[Abstract: This article examines the subject of queues in the life and writings of Lu Xun (1881–1936), the most prominent figure in modern Chinese literature. The long-standing reluctance of readers and critics to associate this backward hairstyle with Lu Xun's iconic figure has restricted our understanding of the topic to two well-known satirical portraits in his short fiction, Ah Q and Sevenpounder. This article, however, proposes that the queue is of more than satiric interest—that the author's own experience raises fundamental questions about how he discloses and transmutes certain experiences in his writings. Starting from some little-studied events featuring queues in his pre-Republican years and a puzzling short story that recounts them, this essay analyzes the queue's autobiographical connections and their varied literary manifestations. It also makes a case for reexamining the uses of autobiography for a writer whose life story is an important part of his influence.]

-----. "Confucian Elements in an Icon of Iconoclasm: ‘Dairy of a Madman.'" minima sinica 2 (2009): 62-78.

[Abstract: Confucius has been experiencing a comeback in China after nearly a century in the cold: his name and teachings have been invoked in many spheres, from official circles to the consumer vote of the bestsellers list, suggesting the receptivity of contemporary culture to a name that has been long denounced. This article looks back to the time of his initial expulsion in the early twentieth century and points to evidence suggesting that it was not easy at that time to make a wholesale rejection of Confucius or Confucianism. It shows that at the heart of an iconoclastic literary work that encapsulated this rejection, Lu Xun's 1918 short story "Diary of a Madman," can be found positive portrayals of Confucian values, specifically in familial relations. These portrayals suggest, among other things, how hard it is to get rid of all Confucian traits, no matter how much that is desired and thus perhaps provide an insight into their revival today.]

Chinnery, John. "Lu Xun and Contemporary Chinese Literature." China Quarterly 91 (1982): 411-23.

Chu, Madeline. "Lu Xun's Women Characters." Journal of Chinese Studies 1, 1 (Feb. 1984): 25-37.

Davies, Gloria. "The Problematic Modernity of Ah Q." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 13 (1991): 57-76.

-----. Lu Xun's Revolution: Writing in a Time of Violence. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Widely recognized as modern China's preeminent man of letters, Lu Xun (1881–1936) is revered as the voice of a nation's conscience, a writer comparable to Shakespeare and Tolstoy in stature and influence. Gloria Davies's portrait now gives readers a better sense of this influential author by situating the man Mao Zedong hailed as “the sage of modern China” in his turbulent time and place. In Davies's vivid rendering, we encounter a writer passionately engaged with the heady arguments and intrigues of a country on the eve of revolution. She traces political tensions in Lu Xun's works which reflect the larger conflict in modern Chinese thought between egalitarian and authoritarian impulses. During the last phase of Lu Xun's career, the so-called “years on the left,” we see how fiercely he defended a literature in which the people would speak for themselves, and we come to understand why Lu Xun continues to inspire the debates shaping China today. Although Lu Xun was never a Communist, his legacy was fully enlisted to support the Party in the decades following his death. Far from the apologist of political violence portrayed by Maoist interpreters, however, Lu Xun emerges here as an energetic opponent of despotism, a humanist for whom empathy, not ideological zeal, was the key to achieving revolutionary ends. Limned with precision and insight, Lu Xun's Revolution is a major contribution to the ongoing reappraisal of this foundational figure.]

Decker, Margeret. "Living in Sin: From May Fourth via the Antirightist Movement to the Present." In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 221-46.

Dolezelova-Velingerova, Milena. "Lu Xun's 'Medicine.'" In Merle Goldman, ed. Modern Chinese Literature in the May Fourth Era. Cambridge: HUP, 1977. pp. 221-32.

Dong Rui. Lu Xun Gushi xinbian qianxi (A simple explication of Lu Xun's Old Tales Retold). HK: Zhongliu, 1979.

Du, Daisy Yan. "The Failed Madman in ‘Dead Quiet and Emptiness:’ Death Drive and the Gendered Melancholic Subject in Lu Xun’s ‘Regret for the Past.’" East Asia Forum 13 (Autumn 2010): 88-106.

Feng, Jin. "Books and Mirrors: Lu Xun and 'the Girl Student.'" In Feng, The New Woman in Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 2004, 40-59.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. "Text, Intertext, and the Representation of Self in Lu Xun, Yu Dafu, and Wang Meng." In E. Widmer and D. Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: HUP, 1993, 167-93.

Foley, Todd. "Between Human and Animal: A Study of New Year's Sacrifice, Kong Yiji, and Diary of a Madman." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 374-92

Foster, Paul. Lu Xun, Ah Q, "The True Story of Ah Q" and the National Character Discourse in Modern China. Ph.D. diss. Ohio State University, 1996.

-----. "The Ironic Inflation of Chinese National Character: Lu Xun's International Reputation, Roman Rolland's Critique of 'The True Story of Ah Q,' and the Nobel Prize." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 140-68.

-----. "Ah Q Progeny--Son of Ah Q, Modern Ah Q, Miss Ah Q, Sequels to Ah Q--Post-1949 Creative Intersections with the Ah Discourse." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2, (Fall 2004): 184-234.

-----. "Jin Yong’s Linghu Chong Faces off against Lu Xun’s Ah Q: Complements to the Construction of National Character." Twentieth-Century China 30, 1 (Nov. 2004).

-----. Ah Q Archaeology: Lu Xun, Ah Q, Ah Q's Progeny, and the National Character Discourse in Twentieth Century China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2005. [Lexington Books blurb]

-----. "Social Drama and Construction of the Ah Q Discourse: An Interdisciplinary Reading Strategy to the True Story of Ah Q and its Intertextual Derivations." China Information 20, 1 (March 2006): 69-101.

[Abstract: This article examines the relationship between narrative and discourse through application of Victor Turner’s theory of social dramas to Lu Xun’s A Q zhengzhuan (The true story of Ah Q). Turner’s four-phase model is expanded to a fifth phase of temporal discursive reflexivity as Ah Q’s dramas are reinterpreted and reperformed in stage adaptations and literary derivatives (progeny novels) over eight decades. Foregrounded by Turner’s model, such discursive reperformances yield a highly effective reading strategy which integrates the elements of story and discourse, and thus bridges the gap between fictional literary events and the “real” meaning of events. Ah Q characteristics are reified in the process of constructing literary and social meaning as the progeny works humorously, satirically, and scathingly challenge contemporary readings of social and political history.]

Galik, Marian. "Lu Hsun's Call to Arms: Creative Confrontation with Garshin, Andreev and Nietzsche." In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 19-42.

Ge, Baoquan. "On the World Significance of 'The True Story of Ah Q.'" Chinese Literature 7 (July 1981): 110-23.

Gushi xinbian xintan (New discussions on Old Tales Retold). Jinan: Shandong wenyi, 1984.

Gushi xinbian yanjiu ziliao (Research materials on Old Tales Retold). Jinan: Shandong wenyi, 1984.

Halfmann, Roman. "De-Exotization' as Approach to Re-creation: The Chinese Critical Reception of Diaries of a Madman." Lili-Zeitschrift fur Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 39 (March 2009): 171-82.

Hanan, Patrick. "The Techniques of Lu Hsun's Fiction." Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 34 (1974): 53-96. Rpt. in Hanan, Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

Heinrich, Ari Larissa. "Zoology, Celibacy, and the Heterosexual Imperative: Notes on Teaching Lu Xun's 'Loner' as a Queer Text." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 441-458.

[Abstract: This essay reflects on the reception of Lu Xun’s short story “The Loner” (Gudu zhe, alternately translated as “The Lone Wolf,” “The Misanthrope,” and “The Isolate”) in American classrooms, where students have sometimes wondered whether that character might be read as “queer.” It suggests that the title character’s unusual and self-imposed celibacy is probably best explained by his belief, in a very general sense, in the foundational values of zoology as practiced in Japan and China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and thus that the story may be a better gateway to understanding the ways in which Lu Xun envisioned the mixed impact of new political economies on private life than a source text for queer studies. At the same time, however, this essay emphasizes that in “The Loner,” as elsewhere, accounting for the “heterosexual imperative” of early zoology (e.g., with its emphases on animal husbandry, propagation, reproduction) can have meaningful consequences for “queering” interpretations of received texts from literature, history of science, and beyond.

Ho, Felicia Jiawen. Full Spectrum of Selves in Modern Chinese Literature: From Lu Xun to Xiao Hong. Ph.d. diss. Los Angeles: University of California Lo Angeles, 2012.

Hockx, Michel. "Mad Women and Mad Men: Intraliterary Contact in Early Republican Literature." In Findeison and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Huang, Alexander C. Y. "Tropes of Solitude and Lu Xun's Tragic Characters." Neohelicon 37, 2 (Dec. 2010): 349-57.

[Abstract: Much ink has been spilled over how Lu Xun’s (1881–1936) political views inform his creative writing and how politics and literature are mutually implicated, but the aesthetics of his tragic narratives remains marginal in literary studies. Often lauded as the father of modern Chinese literature, Lu Xun has not only made major contributions to the formation of literary realism but also put his unique vision of tragedy into practice. At the core of his tragic poems and narratives lie the tropes of solitude. The tragic is characterized, not by tragic incident, but by void thereof, by a state of speech-less solitude and nothingness (xuwu). The aesthetic implications of such a tragic vision are twofold. The creation and consumption of literature in China during the first half of the twentieth century focused on questions of the nation and society, but Lu Xun’s solitary characters in The Weeds ask fundamental existential questions while carving a space for a new genre of writing.]

Huang, Martin Weizong. "The Inescapable Predicament: The Narrator and His Discourse in 'The True Story of Ah Q.'" Modern China 16, 4 (Oct. 1990):430-49.

Huss, Ann. "The Madman That Was Ah Q: Tradition and Modernity in Lu Xun's Fiction." In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 385-94.

Huters, Theodore. "Blossoms in the Snow: Lu Xun and the Dilemma of Modern Chinese Literature." Modern China 10, 1 (Jan. 1984): 49-77.

-----. "Lives in Profile: On the Authorial Voice in Modern and Contemporary Chinese Literature." In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 269-94.

-----. "The Stories of Lu Xun." In Barbara Stoler Miller, ed., Masterworks of Asian Literature in Comparative Perspective: A Guide for Teaching. Armonk, NY: Sharpe, 1994, 309-320.

-----. "Lu Xun and the Crisis of Figuration." In Huters, Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 252-74.

Idema, Wilt. "Free and Easy Wanderings: Lu Xun's 'Resurrecting the Dead' and Its Precursors." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews (Dec. 2012).

Krebsova, Berta. "Lu Hsun and His Old Tales Retold." Archiv Orientalni 28 (1960): 225-81, 640-56.

Kuoshu, Harry H. "Visualizing Ah Q: An Allegory's Resistance to Representation." In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 17-49.

-----. "Visualizing Ah Q: An Allegory's Resistance to Representation." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 2 (Jan. 1999): 1-36.

-----. "Dramatizing Xianglin Sao: Light Cast on an Opaque Figure." In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 51-70.

Lee, Haiyan. "Sympathy, Hypocrisy, and the Trauma of Chineseness." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 76-122.

Li Sangmu. Gushi xinbian de lunpian he yanjiu (Essays and research on Old Tales Retold). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1984.

Li, Wallace. "History and Fiction: A New Interpretation of 'The True Story of Ah Q.'" Fu Jen Studies 17 (1984): 69-89.

Lian, Xinda. "Re-dreaming the Butterfly Dream." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 1 (July 1999): 103-29. [deals in part with "Diary of a Madman," and the influence of Zhuangzi on it]

Lin Fei. Lun Gushi xinbian de sixiang, yishu, ji lishi yiyi (On the thought, art, and historical meaning of Old Tales Retold). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin, 1984.

Lin, Yu-sheng. The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Anti-Traditionalism in the May Fourth Era. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979. [sections deal with "Zai jiulou shang," "Ah Q," etc.]

Liu, Lydia. "The Deixis of Writing in the First Person." In Liu, Translingual Practice: Literature, National Culture, and Translated Modernity in China, 1900-1937. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995, 150-82. [deals, in part, with "Regret for the Past"]

-----. "Life as Form: How Biomimesis Encountered Buddhism in Lu Xun." Journal of Asian Studies 68, 1 (Feb. 2009): 21-54.

[Abstract: The fraught encounters between biological sciences and religions such as Buddhismhave raised philosophical issues for many. This essay will focus on one of them: Can form ground the truth of life? The author suggests that, along with the introduction of evolutionary biology from Europe, literary realism in China has emerged as a technology of biomimesis, among other such technologies, to grapple with the problem of "life as form." Focusing on Lu Xun’s early interest in Ernst Haeckel and science fiction, especially his translation of "Technique for Creating Humans” and his narrative fiction "Prayers for Blessing,"which drew extensively on a Buddhist avadana, the essay seeks to throw some new light on the familiar as well as unfamiliar sources relating to Lu Xun’s life and works and to develop a new understanding of how the debates on science and metaphysics have developed in modern China.]

Lu, Junhua. "Ah Q's Spiritual Victory: The Philosophical and Psychological Implications." Social Scienes in China 3 (1981): 21-60.

Masi, Edoarda. "Ah Q (Lu Hsun, 1921-1922)." In Franco Moretti, ed., The Novel: Volume 2: Forms and Themes. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2006, 469-75.

Meng Guanglai and Han Rixin, eds. Gushi xinbian de yanjiu ziliao (Research materials on Old Tales Retold). Jinan: Shandong wenyi, 1984.

Prusek, Jaroslav. "'Huai Chiu': A Precursor of Modern Chinese Literature." In The Lyrical and the Epic: Studies in Modern Chinese Literature. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980, 102-9.

Qiu, Sha. "On the Death of Sister Xianglin." Modern Chinese Literature 3, 1-2 (Spring 1987): 107-12.

Rojas, Carlos. "Cannibalism and the Chinese Body Politic: Hermeneutics and Violence in Cross-Cultural Perception." PMC 13, 3 (May 2002).

-----. "Of Canons and Cannibalism: A Psycho-Immunological Reading of "Diary of a Madman." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 47-76.

Shih, Shu-mei. "Evolutionism and Experimentalism: Lu Xun and Tao Jingsun." In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: UC Press, 2001, 73-95.

Sun Lung-kee. "To Be or Not to Be 'Eaten': Lu Xun's Dilemma of Political Engagement." Modern China 14.4 (1986): 459-485.

Tambling, Jeremy. Madmen and Other Survivors: Reading Lu Xun's Fiction. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2007.

[Abstract: puts the short stories written by this outstanding Chinese writer between 1918 and 1926 into a broad context of Modernism. The fiction of Lu Xun (1881–1936) deals with the China moving beyond the 1911 Revolution. He asks about the possibilities of survival, and what that means, even considering the possibility that madness might be a strategy by which that is possible. Such an idea calls identity into question, and Lu Xun is read here as a writer for whom that is a wholly problematic concept. The book makes use of critical and cultural theory to consider these short stories in the context of not only Chinese fiction, but in terms of the art of the short story, and in relation to literary modernism. It attempts to put Lu Xun into as wide a perspective as possible for contemporary reading. To make his work widely accessible, he is treated here in English translation.]

Tang, Tao. "Two Portrayals of Chinese Women in Lu Hsun's Stories." Chinese Literature 9 (1973): 83-90. Rpt. in Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 109-16.

Tang, Xiaobing. "Lu Xun's 'Diary of a Madman' and a Chinese Modernism." PMLA 107, 5 (1992): 1222-34.

-----. "'Diary of a Madman' and a Chinese Modernism." In Chinese Modernism: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 49-73.

-----. "Beyond Homesickness: An Intimate Reading of Lu Xun's 'My Native Land.'" In Chinese Modernism: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 49-96.

Trappl, Richard. “Die Ironie des Zeitlichen: Rezeptionspragmatische Uberlegungen zu Alte Geschicten neu erzaht” (The irony of time: reception-pragmatic reflection on Old Stories Retold). In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Aus dem Garten der Wildnis: Studien zu Lu Xun (1881-1936). Bonn: Bouvier Verlag, 1989, 165-76.

Veg, Sebastian. Fictions du pouvoir chinois: Littérature, modernisme et démocratie au début du XXe siècle. Paris: Editions EHESS, 2009.

-----. "Democratic Modernism: Rethinking the Politics of Early Twentieth-Century Fiction in China and Europe." boundary 2 38, 3 (2011): 27-65.

Wang, Alfred S. "Lu Hsun and Maxine Hong Kingston: Medicine as a Symbol in Chinese and Chinese American Literature." Literature and Medicine 8 (1989): 1-21.

Wang, Ban. "Irony and Social Criticism in Lu Xun's Fiction." In Wang, Narrative Perspective and Irony in Selected Chinese and American Fiction. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.

-----. "Rhetoric of the Absurd: the Grotesque in Yu Hua and Lu Xun." In Wang, Narrative Perspective and Irony in Selected Chinese and American Fiction. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.

Weakland, John. "Lusin's 'Ah Q': A Rejected Image of Chinese Character." Pacific Spectator 10 (1956): 137-46.

Wong, Kam-ming. "The Madman and the Everyman Self and Other in Lu Xun." Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Asian Studies. HK: Asian Research Service, 1990, 293-310.

Wong, Yoon-wah. "The Influence of Western Literature on China's First Modern Story." Nanyang University Journal 8/9 (1974-75): 144-56. Rpt. In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 52-66.

-----. "Lu Xun's Medical Studies in Japan and His Fiction: A Deconstructive Reading." In Dennis Haskell and Ron Shapiro, eds., Interactions: Essays in the Literature and Culture of the Asia-Pacific Region. Nedlands: University of Western Australia Press, 2000, 152-63.

Wu, Yenna. "Pitfalls of the Postcolonialist Rubric in the Study of Modern Chinese Fiction Featuring Cannibalism: From Lu Xun's 'Diary of a Madman' to Mo Yan's Boozeland." Tamkang Review 30, 3 (Spring 2000): 51-88.

Xu, Jian. "The Will to the Transaethetic: The Truth Content of Lu Xun's Fiction." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 1 (Spring 1999): 61-92.

-----. "Retrieving the Working Body in Modern Chinese Fiction: The Question of the Ethical in Representation." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 115-52. [deals with stories by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Lao She, and Xiao Hong]

Xu Qinwen. Nahan fenxi (Analysis of Outcry). HK: Wencai reprint, 1970.

-----. Panghuang fenxi (Analysis of Wandering). HK: Wencai reprint, 1970.

Yang, Shuhui. "The Fear of Moral Failure: An Intertextual Reading of Lu Hsun's Fiction." Tamkang Review 21, 3 (1991): 239-54.

Yin, Xiaoling. "Lu Xun’s Parallel to Walter Benjamin: The Consciousness of the Tragic in ‘The Loner.’" Tamkang Review 26, 3 (Spring 1996): 53-68.

-----. "The Paralyzed and the Dead: A Comparative Reading of 'The Dead' and 'In a Tavern.'" Comparative Literature Studies 29, 3 (1992): 276-95.

Yue, Gang. "Lu Xun and Cannibalism." In The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 67-100.

Zhu, Ping. "Traversing the Sublime: A Zizekian Reading of Lu Xun's 'Regrets for the Past.'" International Journal of Zizek Studies 3, 1 (2009).


Poetry

Admussen, Nick. "A Music for Baihua: Lu Xun's Wild Grass and 'A Good Story.'" CLEAR 31 (Dec. 2009).

Akiyoshi, Shu. "Zhou Zuoren's Influence on Lu Xun's 'The Shadow's Leave-Taking." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 4 (2013): 551-72.

Alber, Charles. "Wild Grass, Symmetry and Parallelism in Lu Hsun's Prose Poems." In William Nienhauser, ed. Critical Essays on Chinese Literature. HK: CUHKP, 1976. pp. 1-20.

Bieg, Lutz. “Unkraut oder vom ‘verzweifelten Widerstandskampt’ gegen das Nichts: Vorlaufige Bemerkungen zu Lu Xuns Prosadichtung Yecao.” Weeds or a desperate opposition of void: preliminary notes on Lu Xun’s prose poetry Yecao). In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Aus dem Garten der Wildnis: Studien zu Lu Xun (1881-1936). Bonn: Bouvier Verlag, 1989, 149-64.

Brown, Carolyn. "Lu Xun's Interpretation of Dreams." In Carolyn Brown, ed. Psycho-Sinology: The Universe of Dreams in Chinese Culture. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1988. pp. 67-79.

Feng Xuefeng. Lun Yecao (On Wild Grass). Shanghai: Xin wenyi, 1956.

Hsia, T.A. "Aspects of the Power of Darkness in Lu Hsun." The Gate of Darkness: Studies on the Leftist Literary Movement. Seattle: UWP, 1968. pp. 146-62.

Huang, Alexander C. Y. "Tropes of Solitude and Lu Xun's Tragic Characters." Neohelicon 37, 2 (Dec. 2010): 349-57.

[Abstract: Much ink has been spilled over how Lu Xun’s (1881–1936) political views inform his creative writing and how politics and literature are mutually implicated, but the aesthetics of his tragic narratives remains marginal in literary studies. Often lauded as the father of modern Chinese literature, Lu Xun has not only made major contributions to the formation of literary realism but also put his unique vision of tragedy into practice. At the core of his tragic poems and narratives lie the tropes of solitude. The tragic is characterized, not by tragic incident, but by void thereof, by a state of speech-less solitude and nothingness (xuwu). The aesthetic implications of such a tragic vision are twofold. The creation and consumption of literature in China during the first half of the twentieth century focused on questions of the nation and society, but Lu Xun’s solitary characters in The Weeds ask fundamental existential questions while carving a space for a new genre of writing.]

Kaldis, Nicholas. The Prose Poem and Aesthetic Insight: Lu Xun's Yecao. Ph. diss. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1998.

-----. "The Prose Poem as Aesthetic Cognition: Lu Xun's Yecao." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 2 (Jan. 2000): 43-82.

-----. The Chinese Prose Poem: A Study of Lu Xun's Wild Grass (Yecao). Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2014.

[Abstract: This study remedies the absence of a comprehensive English-language study of Lu Xun’s Yecao and is the perfect companion to the reading and study of Yecao. It is not only a useful reference work and bibliographical source but also an informative contribution to and dialogue with the extant scholarship. Most importantly, this study engages with the Yecao prose poems in a rigorous scholarly fashion while simultaneously allowing each prose poem to influence its reader and determine directions and conclusions made during the interaction of interpretation. This book deftly addresses in detail key aspects of context and content integral to interpreting Yecao. As the first English-language companion to Yecao (providing bibliographical resources, historical context, background on the prose poem genre, an elaboration of Lu Xun’s mature aesthetic praxis and philosophical outlook), the book’s interpretations of Lu Xun’s prose poems will further aspire to bring Yecao and a psychoanalytically informed practice of close reading closer to the fore of Lu Xun studies specifically and Chinese literary studies in general.]

von Kowallis, Jon Eugene. "Lu Xun's Classical Poetry." Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 13 (1991): 101-18.

-----. The Lyrical Lu Xun: A Study of His Classical Style Verse. Honolulu: U. of Hawaii Press, 1996.

-----. "Lu Xun's Classical-style Poetry and the 1911 Revolution." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 112-130.

Lee, Mabel. "Solace for the Corpse with its Heart Gouged Out: Lu Xun's Use of the Poetic Form." Papers on Far Eastern History 26 (1982): 145-74.

-----. "May Fourth: Symbol of the Spirit of Bring-It-Here-ism for Chinese Intellectuals." Papers on Far Eastern History 41 (March 1990): 77-96.

Li Helin. Lu Xun Yecao zhujie (Interpretations of Lu Xun's Wild Grass). Xian: Shanxi renmin, 1975.

Min Kangsheng. Diyu bianyan di xiaohua: Lu Xun sanwenshi chutan (Small flowers on the edge of hell: a preliminary investigation of Lu Xun's prose poems). Xian: Shanxi renmin, 1981.

Ng, Mau-sang. "Symbols of Anxiety in Wild Grass." Renditions 26 (1986): 155-64.

Qian Liquan. Xinling de tansuo (In search of the soul). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi.

Sun Yushi. Yecao yanjiu (Study of Wild Grass). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1982.

Zhang Longxi, "Revolutionary as Christ: The Unrecognized Savior in Lu Xun's Works." Christianity and Literature 45:1 (Autumn 1995): 81-93.


Essay/Prose

Chou, Eva Shan. "The Political Martyr in Lu Xun's Writings." Asia Major 12, 2 (1999): 139-62. [with a focus on Lu Xun's essay "In Memory of Liu Hezhen"]

Chung, Wen. "On Lu Hsun's Essay 'Forgetting Meat and Forgetting Water.'" In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 130-33.

-----. "On Lu Hsun's Long Lost Essay." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 154-57. [about "The Other Side of Celebrating the Recovery of Shanghai and Nanking"]

Kowallis, Jon. "Lu Xun's Wenyan Essay Moluo shi li shuo (On the Power of Mara Poetry) and the Concerns of the May Fourth." In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 45-58.

-----. "Lu Xun and Terrorism: A Reading of Revenge and Violence in Mara and Beyond." In Peter Zarrow, ed., Creating Chinese Modernity: Knowledge and Everyday Life, 1900-1940. NY: Peter Lang, 2007, 83-98.

-----. "Re-reading Lu Xun`s Early Wenyan Essays in the Shadow of the Beijing Olympics." In Bei Ling, ed., Literature as Witness. Taipei: Free Culture Press, 2009, 42-49.

-----. "Translating Lu Xun's Mara: Determining the 'Source' Text, the 'Spirit' versus 'Letter' Dilemma and Other Philosophical Conundrums." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 422-40.

[Abstract: Not long after he withdrew from medical studies at Sendai and returned to Tokyo in 1906, Lu Xun began research on the history and philosophy of science, modern European thought, and comparative literature which produced five treatises he eventually published in an archaistic classical prose style influenced by that of Zhang Taiyan. Central to, and the longest among these essays is Moluo shi li shuo (On the power of Māra Poetry), which focuses on literature East and West and, in particular, the Byronic poets and their international legacy. In translating, annotating, and analyzing this essay, one meets with a number of quotations and terms derived originally from Western sources, sometimes through a secondary Japanese, German, or English translation. This article will focus on issues that arise in the translation and interpretation of that essay, in particular on the question of determining the source text, what bearing that has or should have on scholarly translation and how the study of textual issues can shed light not only on texts but also on literary and intellectual history. It offers an analysis of Lu Xun’s own interpretation of the source texts as well as conclusions reflecting on the significance of his literary career and broader mission.]

Jiang, Hongsheng. "The Ancient Wellspring and the Source of the Future: The Creation of New Poetry and the New Man in Lu Xun's On the Power of Mara Poetry." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 337-53.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan . "Literature on the Eve of Revolution: Reflections on Lu Xun's Leftist Years, 1927-1936." Modern China 2, 3 (1976): 277-326.

Li, Hsi-fan. "Writing for the Revolution--An Appraisal of Lu Hsun's Essays." In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun, 1976, 43-56.

Ng, Janet. "Names and Destiny: Hu Shi's and Lu Xun's Self-Nomination through Autobiography." In Ng, The Experience of Modernity: Chinese Autobiography in the Early Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003, 91-118.

Palermo, A. “Lu Xun against the ‘Enemies of Poetry.’” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 67-82.

Pollard, David. "Lu Xun's Zawen." In Leo Ou-fan Lee, ed., Lu Xun and His Legacy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985, 54-89.

Wang, Pu. "Poetics, Politics, and Ursprung/yuan: On Lu Xun's Conception of 'Mara Poetry." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 34-63.

Yan Qingsheng. Lu Xun zawen de yishi tezhi (The special artistic qualities of Lu Xun's essays). Xi'an: Shanxi renmin, 1983.

Yuan, Liang-chun. "On Lu Hsun's Essay 'Propriety.'" In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun Press, 1976, 124-29.


Literary Criticism

Galik, Marian. "Lu Hsun's Contribution to the History of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism and His Struggle for a United Marxist Front." In Galik, The Genesis of Modern Chinese Literary Criticism, 1917-1930. London: Curzon Press, 1980, 236-84.

Liu Zaifu. Lu Xun meixue sixiang lungao (Draft study of Lu Xun's aesthetic thought). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1981.

Wang, Ban. The Sublime Figure of History. Stanford: SUP, 1997. [contains discussion of Lu Xun's late Qing views of literature]


Translation

Chan, Leo Tak-hung. "What’s Modern in Chinese Translation Theory? Lu Xun and the Debates on Literalism and Foreignization in the May Fourth Period." TTR: Traduction, Terminologie et Redaction 14, 2 (2001).

Cui, Wenjin. "'Literal Translation' and the Materiality of Language: Lu Xun as a Case." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 393-409.

Farquhar, Mary Ann. “Lu Xun and the World of Children.” In Farquhar, Children's Literature in China from Lu Xun to Mao Zedong. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999, 26-90. [contains discussion of Lu Xun’s late Qing and May Fourth involvement in translation of children’s literature]

von Kowallis, Jon Eugene. "Translation and Originality: Reexamining Lu Xun as a Translator." Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 40 (2008): 320-333.

Lundberg, Lennart. Lu Xun as a Translator: Lu Xun's Translation and Introduction of Literature and Literary Theory, 1903-1936. Stockholm: Orientaliska Studier, Stockholm University, 1989.

Tsau, Shu-ying. "'They Learn in Suffering What They Teach in Song': Lu Xun and Kuriyagawa Hakuson's Symbols of Anguish." In Wolfgang Kubin, ed., Symbols of Anguish: In Search of Melancholy in China. Bern: Peter Lang, 2001, 441-69.

Uhl, Christian. "Translation and Time: A Memento of the Curvature of the Poststructuralist Plane." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 3 (2012): 426-68.

Wang, Pu. "The Promethean Translator and Cannibalistic Pains: Lu Xun’s ‘Hard Translation’ as a Political Allegory." Translation Studies 6, 3 (2013): 324-38.

[Abstract: This essay revisits a crucial moment in the modern Chinese history of translation: Lu Xun's "hard translation" of Marxist theories in the late 1920s and the ensuing debate on translation in the early 1930s. It questions the simplistic application of the paradigm of literalism to the case of "hard translation," and focuses instead on the translator's self-allegorization as a vital rhetorical surplus of Lu Xun's translation practice. In particular, this essay scrutinizes Lu Xun's rewriting of the Prometheus myth in his response to his critic, Liang Shiqiu. Lu Xun's Prometheus is a translator embodying cannibalistic self-torment. I trace the theme of cannibalism in his other works, and compare the allegory of the cannibalistic translator to the Brazilian theory of translation as cannibalism. I argue that it is within this self-referential rhetoric that "hard translation" becomes a figure of the translator's subjectivity and "labor of the negative."]

Zhu, Ping. "The Masquerade of Male Masochists: Two Tales of Translaiton of the Zhou Brothers (Lu Xun and Zhou Zuoren) in the 1910s." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 31-51.

[Abstract: Through reading two creatively translated stories by the Zhou brothers, Lu Xun's (Zhou Shuren) “The Soul of Sparta” (Sibada zhi hun, 1903) and Zhou Zuoren's “The Chivalrous Slave Girl” (Xia nünu, 1904), this paper takes a close look at the intellectual trend in the first decade of the twentieth-century China of constructing strong and heroic women as the emblem of national power while rendering men as powerless. By focusing on a foreign heroine with traditional Chinese virtues, both translations creatively Sinicized and feminized the foreign power in the original tales. At the same time, male characters, prospective readers of the stories, and even authors themselves were marginalized, diminished, and ridiculed vis-à-vis the newly constructed feminine authority. Comparing this form of cultural masochism to other literary masochisms in modern China analyzed by Rey Chow and Jing Tsu respectively, this paper endeavors to excavate a hybrid model of nationalist agency grounded in the intertwined relationship of race, gender and nation. In my analysis, Gilles Deleuze's discussion on masochism is utilized as a heuristic tool to shed light on the revolutionary potential embedded in the “strong women, weak men” complex in the 1910s. I argue that the cultural masochism in late Qing represents one of the earliest attempts of the Chinese intellectuals to creatively use Chinese traditional gender cosmology to absorb the threat of Western imperialism and put forward a hybrid model of nationalist agency.]


Scholarship

Kuo, Yu-heng. "Lu Hsun's Comments on the Novel 'Water Margin.'" In Lu Hsun: Writing for the Revolution. San Francisco: Red Sun Press, 1976, 167-74.

Liu Ts'un-yan. "Lu Xun and Classical Studies." Papers on Far Eastern History 26 (Sept 1982): 119-44.

Wang, John C.Y. "Lu Xun as a Scholar of Traditional Chinese Literature." In Leo Ou-fan Lee, ed. Lu Xun and His Legacy. Berkeley: UC Press, 1985.


Letters

McDougall, Bonnie S. Love-Letters and Privacy in Modern China: The Intimate Lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2002.

Letters Between Two: Correspondence Between Lu Xun and Xu Guangping. Tr. Bonnie McDougall. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 2000. [an incorrect version of the index was mistakenly published in this book; for the correct version, see the MCLC Resource Center publication "Index to Letters between Two"]

McDougall, Bonnie S. "Functions and Values of Privacy in the Correspondence between Lu Xun and Xu Guangping, 1925-1929." In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds., Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002, 147-68.

Wang Dehou. Liang di shu yanjiu (Research into Letters between two). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin, 1982.


Visual Arts

Ding Cong. Lu Xun xiaoshuo chatu (Illustrations of Lu Xun’s fiction). Beijing: Renmin meishu, 1978.

Fan Zeng. Lu Xun xiaoshuo chatu ji (Illustrations to Lu Xun’s fiction). Beijing: Xinhua shudian, 1978.

Huiyi Lu Xun de meishu huodong (Remembering Lu Xun’s fine arts activities). Beijing: Renmin meishu,1979.

Lu Xun bianyin huaji jicun (Illustration collections edited by Lu Xun. 3 vols. Shanghai: Shanghai renmin meishu, 1981. [vol.1: Carl Meffert’s “Cement” series; Kathe Kollwitz selected woodcuts; and “Muke jicheng: vol. 2: “Yinyu ji”; vol. 3: contains the five issues of the Yiyuan Zhaohua series]

Lu Xun cang Zhongguo xiandai muke quanji (Complete modern woodcuts in Lu Xun’s collection). 5 vols. Nanjing: Jiangsu guji, 1991.

Lu Xun lun lianhuanhua (Lu Xun on serial picture books). Beijing: Renmin meishu, 1982. [contains LX’s writings on serial picture books]

Lu Xun yu dianying: ziliao huibian (Lu Xun and film: collected materials). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1981.

Peng Guoliang and Yang Li'ang eds., Gen Lu Xun pingtu pinhua (An appreciation of paintings with Lu Xun). Changsha: Yueli shushe, 2004.

Qiu Sha and Wang Weijun. Lu Xun zhi shijie quanji (Lu Xun’s world—complete works). 3 vols. Guangzhou: Guangdong jiaoyu, 1996. [paintings and illustrations to Lu Xun’s writings by Qiu Sha and Wang Weijun, with a preface by Michelle Loi; vol. 1: essays; vol. 2: stories and prose; vol. 3: stories and other works]

Sun, Shirley Hsiao-ling. Lu Hsün and the Chinese Woodcut Movement, 1929-1936. Ph.d. diss. Stanford University, 1974.

Wang, Guanquan. Lu Xun yu meishu (Lu Xun and fine arts). Shanghai: Shanghai renmin meishu, 1979.


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