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General Reference

An Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Film Studies. Ed. Jim Cheng. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004.

The Chinese Filmography. Ed. Donald J. Marion. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1997. [includes descriptive information of 2444 PRC feature films from 1949-1995]

Donald, Stephanie. "Chinese Taipei Film Archive." Screeing the Past 4 (1998).

Encyclopedia of Chinese Film. Eds. Yingjin Zhang and Zhiwei Xiao. London and NY: Routledge, 1998.

The Encyclopedia of Martial Arts Movies. Ed. Bill Palmer. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995.

Historical Dictionary of Chinese Film. Eds. Tan Ye and Yun Zhu. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2012.

[Abstract: Motion pictures were first introduced to China in 1896 and today China has become a major player in the film industry. However, the story of how Chinese cinema became what it is today is an exceptionally turbulent one. It encompasses incursions by foreign powers, warfare among contending rulers, the collapse of the Chinese empire, and the massive setback of the Cultural Revolution. The Historical Dictionary of Chinese Cinema covers the history of Chinese cinema from its very beginning in 1896 to the present. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section contains several hundred cross-referenced dictionary entries on films, directors, and historical figures. This book is an excellent access point for anyone interested in Chinese cinema and for scholars interested in investigating ideas for future research.]

Historical Dictionary of Hong Kong Film. Ed. Lisa Odham Stokes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.

[Abstract: provides essential facts and descriptive evaluation concerning Hong Kong filmmaking and its filmmaking community. This is accomplished through the use of a chronology, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, an introductory essay, illustrations of individuals and film stills, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on directors, producers, writers, actors, films, film companies, genres, and terminology. Having perused this, readers will not only know considerably more about a rather amazing place, they will have an almost palpable feeling for how it works.]

The Hong Kong Filmography, 1977-1997: A Complete Reference to 1,100 Films Produced by British Hong Kong Studios. By John Charles. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.

The Hong Kong Filmography. 3 vols. [vol. I: 1913-1941, vol. II: 1941-1949, vol. III: 1950-1952]. HK: HK Film Archive, 1997.

Once Upon a Time in China: A Guide to Hong Kong, Taiwanese, and Mainland Chinese Cinema. Ed. Jeff Yang. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Quanguo baokan dianying wenzhang mulu suoyin 1949-1979 (Index of articles on film from periodicals around the country). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1983.

Quanguo baokan dianying wenzhang mulu suoyin 1980-1989 (Index of articles on film from periodicals around the country). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1994.

Quanguo baokan dianying wenzhang mulu suoyin 1990-1994 (Index of articles on film from periodicals around the country). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1999.

Renmin daxue shubao ziliao zhongxin baokan ziliao xuanhui: dianying, dianshi yanjiu. Beijing: Renmin daxue.

Shanghai dianying zhi (Record of Shanghai film). Shanghai: Shanghai shehui kexue yuan, 1999.

Yang Yuanying, ed. Tamen de shengyin (Their voices). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui, 1996. [autobiographies of Chinese women directors]

Zhang Wei, Ying Xian, and Chen Jing. "Zhongguo xiandai dianying chubanwu zongmu tiyao" (A concise listing of modern Chinese film publications). Shanghai dianying 1 (Oct. 1992): 212-34; 2/3 (May 1993): 289-344.

Zhongguo dabaike quanshu: dianying (The complete encyclopedia of China: film). Beijing: Zhongguo dabaike quanshu, 1991.

Zhongguo dianying da cidian (Encyclopedia of Chinese film). Eds. Zhang Junxiang and Cheng Jihua. Shanghai: Shanghai cishu, 1995.

Zhongguo dianying haibao yishu jingcui (Selections of poster arts in Chinese film). Guangzhou: Guangzhou chubanshe, 1996.

Zhongguo dianyingjia liezhuan (Biographies of Chinese filmmakers). 10 volumes. Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1982-86.

Zhongguo dianying nianjian (Yearbook of Chinese film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying.

Zhongguo dianying tuzhi (Illustrated record of Chinese film). Ed. Cheng Ping. Zhuhai: Zhuhai chubanshe, 1995. [this is a wonderful illustrated book, with numerous film stills, posters, photographs, etc, of the history of Chinese film.]

Zhongguo renmin gongheguo dianying shiye sanshiwunian, 1949-84. (Thirty-five years of the Chinese film industry 1949-84). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1985.

Zhongguo shaoshu minzu dianying (Chinese minority films). Kunming: Yunnan renmin, 1996.

Zhongguo xiandai xiju dianying yishujia zhuan (Biographies of modern Chinese theater and film artists). Jiangxi renmin, 1981.

Zhongguo yingpian dadian (Encyclopedia of Chinese film). 4 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1996-98. [v. 1. 1905-1930; v. 2. 1931-1949; v. 3. 1949-1976; v. 4. 1977-1994].

Zhongguo yishu yingpian bianmu 1949-1979 (A catalogue of Chinese art films 1949-79). 2 vols. Beijing: Wenhua yishu, 1981.

Zhongguo yintan xin ren lu (New faces in the Chinese film scene). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1984.

Zhongguo zaoqi dianying huakan (Illustrated magazines of Chinese early film). 12 vols. Beijing: Quan guo tushuguan wenxiansuowei fuzhi zhong xin, 2004-. [reprints of important Republican era film journals: Yingxi zazhi, Dianying zazhi, Dianying yuekan, Xin yinxing, Xiandai dianying, Wenyi dianying, Dianying shenghuo, Dianying xinwen, Shidai dianying, Xin yingtan, Shanghai yingtan, Dianying shijie, Ying xun, Dianying, Qingnian dianying, Yingju yishu, Yinmu zazhi, Kangzhan dianying]


Interviews (interviews with directors who have individual sections in the bibliography are listed in the relevant section)

Aguilar, Claire and Chris Berry. "Cheng Jihua and Chen Mei Interviewed: China's Film Policy Now." Jump Cut 31 (1986): 51-53.

Berry, Chris. "Interview with Zhang Nuanxin." Camera Obscura 18 (Sept. 1988):20-25.

----- "Interview with Peng Xiaolian." Camera Obscura 18 (Sept. 1988): 26-31.

----- "Interview with Hu Mei." Camera Obscura 18 (Sept 1988):32-41.

-----. "Dis-located: Huang Jianxin Talks to Chris Berry." Cinemaya 11 (1991): 20-23.

Berry, Michael, ed. Speaking in Images: Interviews with Contemporary Chinese Filmmakers. NY: Columbia University Press, 2005. [CUP abstract]

Lent, John. "Teach for a While, Direct for a While: An Interview with Xie Fei." Asian Cinema 8, 2 (Winter 1996-97): 91-97.

Reid, Craig D. "An Evening with Jackie Chan." Bright Lights Film Journal 13 (1994): 18-25.

Semsel, George. "An Interview with Teng Wenji." Jump Cut 34 (1988):110-116.

-----. "Cheng Jihua and Li Shaobai, Pioneers in Chinese Film Studies: Interview II." Asian Cinema 10, 2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 91-95.

Shen, Vivian. "Cheng Jihua, Pioneer in Chinese Film Studies: Interview I." Asian Cinema 10, 2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 87-90.

Sterritt, David. "Exploring Women's Lot in Changing Culture: Interview with Chinese Director Xie Fei." Christian Science Monitor 1 (Apr. 1997): 14.

Stone, Judy. Eye on the World: Conversations with International Filmmakers. Los Angeles: Silman-James Press, 1997. (Contains interviews with: Chang Chun-hsiang, Chen Kaige, Ding Jiao, Carma Hinton, Hu Mei, Li Jun, Tian Zhuangzhuang, Wu Tianming, Zhang Yimou, Zhou Xiaowen; Ang Lee)

Sun, Shaoyi and Li Xun, eds. Lights! Action! Kai shi!: In Depth Interviews with China's New Generation of Move Directors. Norwalk, CT: Eastbridge, 2008. [includes interviews with Guan Hu, Jia Zhangke, Jiang Wen, Jin Chen, Li Xin, Liu Binjian, Lou Ye, Lu Chuan, Lu Xuecheng, Ma Liwen, Meng Qi, Shi Runjiu, Tang Danian, Wang Chao, Wang Guangli, Wang Quanan, Wang Xiaoshuai, Xu Jinglei, Zhang Ming, Zhang Yang, and Zhang Yuan]


Film Scripts

Bashan yeyu: cong juben dao dianying (Night Rain of the River: from play to film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1982.

Chen, Kaige. The Yellow Earth: A Film by Chen Kaige with a Complete Translation of the Filmscript. Tr. Bonnie S. Mcdougall. HK: Chinese University Press, 1991.

Chen, Kaige and Wan Zhi. King of the Children. London: Faber, 1989.

Dianying wenxue juben xuan (Selection of literary film scripts). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1982. [contemporary PRC films scripts]

Girl Basketball Player No. 5--Film Script. Dir. Xie Jin. Trs. Tim McCahill and Tom Moran. (a translation with stills of Xie Jin's 1957 film Nulan wuhao). MCLC Resource Center Publication, December 2005.

The Girl in Red: A Study Guide for the Film. Ed. Vivian Ling. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1994.

The Goddess. Dir. Wu Yonggang. Tr. Yomi Braester (University of Washington, Seattle)

Hai Mo. Hai Mo dianying juben xuanji (Selected film scripts of Hai Mo). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1979.

Heipao shijian: cong xiaoshuo dao dianying (Black Cannon Incident: from novel to film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1988.

Jiangxi dianying juben xin zuo xuan (Selection of recent film scripts from Jiangxi). Pub? [includes articles about the films]

Ke Ling. Ke Ling dianying juben xuanji (Selected film scripts of Ke Ling). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1980.

New Woman. Dir. Cai Chusheng. Tr. Eileen Chow. MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2004.

"The Opium War--A Film Story." Chinese Literature (Autumn 1998).

Pai Hua [Bai Hua]. Pai Hua's Cinematic Script 'Unrequited Love': With Related Introductory Materials. Taipei: Institute of Current China Studies, 1981.

Stanley Rosen, ed. "'The Troubleshooters,' by Wang Shuo." Chinese Education and Society 31, 1 (January-February 1998). [translation of the filmscript with an editorial introduction]

Spring in a Small Town. Dir Fei Mu. Tr. Andrew Jones. MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2000.

Street Angel. Dir. Yuan Muzhi. Tr. Andrew Jones. MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2000.

A Study Manual for the Movie, To Live. Ed. Delin Zhao. Oberlin, OH: Oberlin College, 1996.

Tansuo dianying ji (A collection of exploratory films). Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1987. [contains films scripts of several Fifth Generation films (including Heipao shijian)]

Tian Han. Tian Han wenji (The works of Tian Han). 12 vols. [contains 8 scripts by Tian Han; includes critical articles and reminiscences]

-----. Tian Han dianying juben xuanji (Selected films scripts of Tian Han). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1983.

Tianyunshan chuanqi: cong xiaoshuo dao dianying (The Legend of Tianyun Mountain: from novel to film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1983.

Under the Bridge: A Study Guide for the Film. Ed. Vivian Ling. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 1994.

The White-Haired Girl--Film Script. Trs. Pete Nestor and Tom Moran. MCLC Resource Center Publication (February 2006). [a translation with stills of the 1950 classic Bai mao nu]

Writing with Shadows: The Special Role of Film Scripts. Special issue of Renditions 71 (Spring 2009). [with translations of excerpts from the following films: The New Woman; Spring in a Small Town; Stage Sisters; Chunmiao; Sha Ou; Neighbours; Blood-Red Morning; In the Heat of the Sun; Made in Hong Kong; Hero] [Table of Contents]

Wu Si yilai dianying juben xuanji (Selections of films scripts from the May Fourth on). 2 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1979. [contains scripts of important progressive films of the 30s and 40s]

Xijupian juben xuanji (Selected scripts of comedy films). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1982.

Xiaoshuo, shi, ying, shi (Fiction, poetry, film and television). Shanxi renmin, 1986. [contains literary versions for several important post-Mao films]

Yang Hansheng. Yang Hansheng dianying juben xuanji (Selected films scripts of Yang Hansheng). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1981.

Zheng, Yi and Wu Tianming. "Old Well" (Laojing). In Haiping Yan, ed., Theater and Society: An Anthology of Contemporary Chinese Drama. Armonk: M.E.Sharpe, 1998, 262-335.

Zhongguo dianying juben xuanji (Selected Chinese film scripts). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1959- [this is a multi-volumed set of PRC film scripts from 1950 to the present]

Zhongguo wusheng dianying juben (Film scripts of Chinese silent movies). 3 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1996.

Zhongguo xin wenxue daxi (Comprehensive anthology of modern Chinese literature). 10 vols. Hongkong: Hongkong wenxue yanjiu she, [vol. 10 of this series contains scripts of classic leftist films of of the thirties]

Zhongguo xin wenxue daxi (Anthology of modern Chinese literature). 20 vols. Shanghai: Shanghai wenyi, 1984. [vols. 17 and 18 contains scripts of films of the 30s; more comprehensive and ideologically liberal than the above]

Zhufu: cong xiaoshuo dao dianying (New Year's Sacrifice: from short story to film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1959.


Film Theory

Andrew, Dudley. The Major Film Theories: An Introduction. London: Oxford UP, 1976.

-----. Concepts in Film Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Arnheim, Rudolf. Film as Art. Berkeley: U.C. Press, 1957.

Balazs, Bela. Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art. London: Dobson, 1952.

Bazin, Andre. What is Cinema I and II. Berkeley: U.C.Press, 1967, 1971.

Bordwell, David. Film Art: An Introduction. N.Y: Alfred Knofp, 1990.

Browne, Nick. "On Western Critiques of Chinese Film." Asian Cinema 16, 2 (Fall/Winter 2005): 23-35.

Burton, Julianne. "Marginal Cinemas and Mainstream Critical Theory." Screen (?): 2-21.

Chen Xihe. "Shadowplay: Chinese Film Aesthetics and Their Philosophical and Cultural Fundamentals." Semsel, Chinese Film Theory 192-204.

Cavell, Stanley. The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Collier, Joelle. "A Repetition Compulsion: Discontinuity Editing, Classical Chinese Aesthetics, and Hong Kong's Culture of Disappearance." Asian Cinema 10, 2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 67-79.

Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film. NY: Norton, 1990.

Eco, Umberto. "Casablanca: Cult Movie and Intertextual Collage." Substance: A Review of Theory and Literary Criticism 14.2 (1985):3-12.

Eisenstein, Sergei. Film Sense. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1947.

Gabriel, Teshome H. Third Cinema in the Third World: The Aesthetics of Liberation. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982.

Hu, Ke. "Contemporary Film Theory in China." Trs. Ted Wang, Chris Berry and Chen Mei. Screening the Past 3 (1997). First appeared in Dangdai dianying 2 (1995): 65-73.

Kaplan, Ann. Women and Film: Both Sides of the Camera. New York: Methuen, 1983.

Kracauer, Siegfried. Theory of the Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1960.

de Lauretis, Teresa. Alice Doesn't: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1984.

-----. "Rethinking Women's Cinema: Aesthetics and Feminist Theory." New German Critique 34 (1985).

Li Daoxin, ed. Zhongguo dianying piping shi, 1897-2000 (History of Chinese film criticism, 1897-2000). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 2002.

Mayne, Judith. The Woman at the Keyhole. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Mast, Gerald and Marshall Cohen, eds. Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (third edition). New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Metz, Christian. Film Languages: A Semiotics of the Cinema. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1990.

-----. The Imaginary Signifier: Psychoanalysis and the Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

-----. Language and Cinema. Mouton de Gruyter, 1974.

Mulvey, Laura. Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Rosen, Philip ed. Narrative, Appartus, Ideology: A Film Theory Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

Semsel, George, ed. Chinese Film: The State of the Art in the People's Republic. New York: Praeger, 1987.

-----. Chinese Film Theory: A Guide to the New Era. New York: Praeger, 1990.

-----. Film in Contemporary China: Critical Debates, 1979-1989. Westport: Praeger, 1993.

Silverman, Kay. The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema. Bloomington: UI Press, 1988.


Film Review Indices

Film Literature Index (REF Z5784 M9 F45)

Film Review Annual

Film Review Index (Z578 M9 F5135 1986)

New York Times Film Review Index


On-Line Film Resources


Print Culture/Journalism

A Ying. Wang Qing wenyi baokan shulue (An introduction to late Qing literary publications). Shanghai: Gudian wenxue, 1958.

Andrews, Julia F. and Kuiyi Shen. "The New Chinese Woman and Lifestyle Magazines in the Late 1990s." In Perry Link, Richard P. Madsen, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds., Popular China: Unofficial Culture in a Globalizing Society. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 137-62.

Bady, Paul. "The Modern Chinese Writer: Literary Incomes and Best-sellers." The China Quarterly 88 (Dec. 1981): 645-57.

Baensch, Robert E., ed. The Publishing Industry in China. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003.

Barme, Geremie. "Notes on Publishing in China, 1976-1979." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 4 (1980): 167-74.

Bao Tianxiao. Chuanying lou huiyilu (Reminiscences of the bracelet shadow studio). HK: Dahua, 1971.

Bao, Yaming. "Shanghai Weekly: Globalization, Consumerism, and Shanghai Popular Culture." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 9, 4 (Dec. 2008).

Beahan, Charlotte L. "Feminism and Nationalism in the Chinese Women's Press, 1902-1911." Modern China 1, 4 (Oct. 1975): 379-416.

Bennett, Bruce. "Winds of Change: Literary Magazines in China." Westernly 3 (Sept. 1981): 99-106.

Berg, Daria. "Consuming Secrets: China's New Print Culture at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 313-32.

Britton, Roswell S. The Chinese Periodical Press, 1800-1912. Shanghai: Kelley and Walsh, 1933.

Brodsgaard, Kjeld Erik. "The Democracy Movement in China, 1978-79: Opposition Movements, Wall Poster Campaigns, and Underground Journals." Asian Survey 21, 7 (July 1981): 747-73.

Brokaw, Cynthia. Commerce in Culture: The Sibao Book Trade in the Qing and Republican Periods. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2007.

-----. "Commercial Woodblock Publishing in the Qing (1644-1911) and the Transition to Modern Print Technology." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 39-58.

Brokaw, Cynthia and Christopher A. Reed, eds. From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010.

[Abstract: The thirteen essays in this volume narrate and analyze the reciprocal influences of technological, intellectual, and sociopolitical changes on the structure of modern China's book (and print) trade; more specifically, they treat the rise of new genres of print, changes in writing practices, the dissemination of ideas and texts (both paper and electronic), the organization of knowledge, and the relationship between the state and print culture. The essays range chronologically from the late eighteenth century to the present, an over two-century transition period that allows authors to draw comparisons between the largely woodblock print culture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; the mechanized publishing of the late-nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first centuries; and the global internet culture of today]

Carroll, Peter J. "Fate-Bound Mandarin Ducks: Newpaper Coverage of the 'Fashion' for Suicide in 1931 Suzhou." Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Chan, Peter. "Popular Publications in China: A Look at 'The Spring of Peking.'" Contemporary China 3, 4 (Winter 1979): 103-111.

Chang, Guoxin. A Survey of Chinese Language Daily Press. HK: Chinese Newspapers Association, 1968.

Chang, Jui-Shan. "Refashioning Womanhood in 1990s Taiwan: An Analysis of the Taiwanese Edition of Cosmopolitan Magazine." Modern China 30, 3 (2004): 361-397.

[Abstract: This article investigates how the Taiwanese edition of Cosmopolitan (1992-1997) may serve to resolve a tension felt by modern women in Taiwan by weaving global values and local values together into a tapestry of modern womanhood that can dwell within, and yet extend, the local culture. The article treats the magazine as a window into a Taiwanese image of the modern woman and as an arena in which there are Chinese and Western systems and values that could clash but, in fact, intermesh by virtue of the practice of exploiting Western means for Chinese ends. Taiwanese Cosmo shows how modernization need not mean Westernization, even if it relies on veneers of Western images, and it further aims to transform local Chinese values in a way that gives them global significance.]

Chang, Man. The People’s Daily and the Red Flag Magazine during the Cultural Revolution. HK: Union Research Institute, 1969.

Chao, Thomas Ming-heng. The Foreign Press in China. Shanghai: China Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931.

Chen, Jo-hsi. Democracy Wall and the Unofficial Journals. Berkeley: Center for Chinese Studies, University of California, 1982.

Chen, Lily. "Could or Should? The Changing Modality of Authority in the China Daily." Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies vol. 2 (July 2013).

Chen, Xiaomei. "Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Cheng, W.K. "Contending Publicity: The State and the Press in Late Qing China." Asian Thought and Society 23, 69 (Sept/Dec 1998).

The China Critic special issue, China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Chinese Media Guide [A Complete List and Descriptions of Major Chinese Newspapers, Chinese TV Stations, Chinese Radio Stations, and Chinese Websites Outside of China.]

Ching, Doe. "The Magazines of China." XXth Century 4 (April 1943): 276-81.

Chow, Tse-tsung. Research Guide to the May Fourth Movement. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1963.

Chuban shiliao (Historical materials on publishing). Shanghai: Xuelin, 1982-1992. [PRC periodical]

Coble, Parks M. "The Legacy of China's Wartime Reporting, 1937-1945: Can the Past Serve the Present?" Modern China 36 (2010): 435-460.

[Abstract: Japan’s invasion of China in the summer of 1937 dealt a devastating blow to Chinese journalism. Yet despite the hardships, China’s wartime reporters produced a legacy of vivid writing. In the face of a series of major defeats, the journalists attempted to shore up morale and stressed the heroic resistance of Chinese forces. They reported on Japanese atrocities such as the Rape of Nanjing, but not to such an extent that might erode morale. During the Maoist era, the legacy of this war reportage largely faded from a public memory which privileged the revolution. When a "new remembering" of the war emerged in the reform era, the heroic resistance narrative from war reportage dovetailed nicely with the new nationalism of today’s China. But this literature has been less helpful in developing the theme of Chinese victimhood, a key component of the new memory of the war. Finally, memoir literature, so common in most combatant nations, has been problematic in China. Those who remember their war experiences do so through the prism of later traumas, particularly the Cultural Revolution.]

Culp, Robert. "Reading and Writing Zhejiang Youth: Local Textual Economies and Cultural Production in Republican Jiangnan." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 249-74.

Daruvala, Susan. "Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 339-78. Originally published in a different version as "Yuefeng: A Literary Journal of the 1930s." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 39-97.

Denton, Kirk A. "The Hu Feng Group: Genealogy of a Literary School." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 413-66.

Denton, Kirk A. and Michel Hockx, eds. Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008. [Publishers' blurb]

Drege, Jean-Pierre. La Commercial Press de Shanghai, 1897-1949. Paris, 1978. [contains appendix with the names of journals edited and distributed by the CP]

Drege, Jean-Pierre and Hua Changming. La revolution du livre dans la Chine moderne, Wang Yunwu, editeur. Paris, 1979.

Edmond, Jacob. "Dissidence and Accommodation: The Publishing History of Yang Lian from Today to Today." The China Quarterly 185 (2006): 111-27.

Estran, Jaqueline. La Revue Xinyue (1928-1933): sa Contribution à la Littérature Chinoise Moderne. Ph.D. diss. Paris: INALCO, 2000.

Fang, Hanqi. A History of Journalism in China. 10 vols. Hong Kong: Enrich Professional Publishing, 2013.

[Abstract: Over the course of 10 volumes, and more than 2,000 pages, the series spans 200 BC to 1991, and covers all aspects of journalism in China’s history, including newspapers, periodicals, news agencies, broadcast television, photography, documentary film, and journals. The History of Journalism presents the development of journalism in China against the backdrop of the major events in China’s history (the first and second Sino-Japanese Wars, the Chinese Civil War, and the Cultural Revolution). [It] offer[s] unique insights into all aspects of journalism in the entire Chinese-speaking world, from the Mainland to Taiwan to Hong Kong to Macau and to the larger Chinese diaspora. The author of this series, Fang Hanqi, Professor Emeritus in Journalism, has been called the “Father of China’s Modern Journalism.”]

Feldman, Gayle. "The Organization of Publishing in China." The China Quarterly 102 (1986): 519-529.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. "Reconsidering Xueheng: Neo-Conservatism in Early Republican China." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 137-70.

Fitzgerald, John. "The Origins of the Illiberal Party Newspaper: Print Journalism in the China's Nationalist Revolution." Republican China 22, 2 (Apr. 1996): 1-22.

Gerwutz, Margo. Tsou Tao-fen: the Shenghuo Years, 1925-1933. Ph.D. diss. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1972.

Gimpel, Denise. "The 'Collected Translations' Section in the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao." In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

-----. "Beyond Butterflies: Some Observations on the Early Years of the Journal Xiaoshuo yuebao." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 40-60.

-----. "A Neglected Medium: The Literary Journal and the Case of The Short Story Magazine (Xiaoshuo yuebao), 1910-1914." MCLC 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 53-106.

-----. Lost Voices of Modernity: A Chinese Popular Fiction Magazine in Context. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001.

Goodman, Bryna. “Being Public: The Politics of Representation in 1918 Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 60, 1 (June 2000): 45-88.

-----. "Semi-Colonialism, Transnational Networks and News Flows in Early Republican Shanghai." In Bryna Goodman (Guest Editor), "Networks of News: Power, Language and Transnational Dimensions of the Chinese Press, 1850-1949." Special issue of China Review 4, 1 (Spring 2004): 55-88.

-----. "Networks of News: Power, Language and Transnational Dimensions of the Chinese Press, 1850–1949." The China Review 4, no. 1 (2004): 1–10.

-----. "The New Woman Commits Suicide: The Press, Cultural Memory and the New Republic." Journal of Asian Studies 64, 1 (February 2005).

-----. "Appealing to the Public: Newspaper Presentation and Adjudication of Emotion." Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Haddon, Rosemary M. "T'ai-wan hsin wen-hsueh and the Evolution of a Journal: T'ai-wan min-pao." Tamkang Review 25, 2 (1994): 1-35.

Hang, Krista Van Fliet. "People's Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 87-107.

Harrison, Henrietta. "Newspapers and Nationalism in Rural China, 1890-1929." In Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, ed., Twentieth-Century China: New Approaches. London, NY: Routledge, 2003, 83-102.

Hendrischke, Hans J. Populare Lesestoffe: Propaganda und Agitation im Buchwesen der Volksrepublik China (Popular Reading Material: Propaganda and Agitation in Book Publishing in the People's Republic of China). Bochum: Herausgeber Chinathemen, 1988.

-----. "Popularization and Localization: A Local Tabloid Newspaper Market in Transition." In Jing Wang ed., Locating China: Space, Place, and Popuar Culture. London: Routledge, 2005, 115-32. [deals with tabloid newspapers in Guangxi]

Henningsen, Lena. "Harry Potter with Chinese Characteristics: Plagiarism between Orientalism and Occidentalism." China Information 20 (2006): 275-311.

-----. Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Krista Van Fleit Hang]

[Abstract: Henningsen offers five studies that challenge the wide-spread prejudice among the Western Press that China is an empire of plagiarism, sometimes even referred to as the "People's Republic of Cheats". By analyzing the cases of convicted plagiarist Guo Jingming, the victim of plagiarism Han Han, the follow-up publications to Jiang Rong's Wolf’s Totem, the Harry Potter fakes and fan fiction, as well as discussions of academic plagiarism, Henningsen proves that copyright increasingly matters to Chinese writers. Confronted with instances of copyright infringements on their own works, they voice their opposition and fight for their rights, be it through legal action or their writing. At the same time, the author demonstrates that a text that is commonly considered to be "plagiarized" or "imitated" may turn out to be a highly creative work in its own right, for example when Harry Potter appears as a timid exchange student in China. Therefore, Henningsen opts for a literary reading of these "derivative" works and argues that imitation may, at times, be a creative tool. While these two central arguments appear to be contradictory, the author shows that they represent two sides of the same coin: the emergence of a new self-conception among Chinese authors, as they struggle to recast their relationship with society and state.]

Henningsmeier, Julia. "The Foreign Sources of Dianshizhai huabao, a Nineteenth Century Shanghai Illustrated Magazine." Ming Qing Yanjiu (1998): 59-91.

Hill, Michael Gibbs. "Between English and Guoyu: The English Student, English Weekly, and the Commercial Press's Correspondence Schools." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 100-45.

Hockx, Michel. Questions of Style: Literary Societies and Literary Journals in Modern China, 1911-1937. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003.

-----, ed.The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999.

-----. "The Chinese Literary Association (Wenxue yanjiu hui)." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 79-102.

-----. "Print Culture and the New Media in Postsocialist China." In Sara Jones and Meesha Nehru, eds., Writing under Socialism. Nottingham: Critical, Cultural and Communications Press, 2011, 29-41.

Hon, Tze-ki. Revolution as Restoration: Guocui xuebao and China's Path to Modernity, 1905-1911. Leiden: Brill, 2013. [MCLC Resource Center review by Peter Zarrow]

[Abstract: Revolution as Restoration examines the journal Guocui xuebao (1905-1911) to elucidate the momentous political and social changes in early twentieth-century China. Rather than viewing the journal as a collection of documents for studying a thinker (e.g., Zhang Taiyan), a concept (e.g., national essence), or an intellectual movement (e.g., cultural conservatism), this book focuses on the global network of commerce and communication that allowed independent publications to appear in the Chinese print market. As such, this book offers a different perspective on the Chinese quest for modernity. It shows that, from the start, the Chinese quest for modernity was never completely orchestrated by the central government, nor was it static and monolithic as the teleology of revolution describes.]

-----. "Revolution as Restoration: Meanings of 'National Essence' and 'National Learning' in Guocui Xuebao." In Viren Murthy and Axel Schneider, eds., The Challenge of Linear Time: Nationhood and the Politics of History in East Asia. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 257-76.

Hsia, Yu, et al. "Cross it Out, Cross it Out, Cross it Out: Erasurist Poetry from Taiwan's Poetry Now (Issue #9, Feb 2012)." Asymptote (April 2012).

Hsu, Shu Ching. "A Watershed for Taiwanese Publishing." The Book and the Computer, special online symposium called Book Culture at the Crossroads (July 2004); forthcoming in Building a New Book Road, a book about East Asian publishing collaboratively produced by publishers in Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan [the essay focuses on the change in the Taiwan publishing industry after 1986, with the advent of mainland authors' works]

Huang, Nicole. "Fashioning Public Intellectuals: Women's Print Culture in Occupied Shanghai (1941-1945)." In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004, 325-45.

Huang, Xiang. "The Internet Helps Chinese Publisher to Plan Strategy." The Book and the Computer (Dec. 1998).

Hung, Chang-tai. "Paper Bullets: Fan Changjiang and New Journalism in Wartime China." Modern China 17, 4 (Oct. 1991): 427-468.

-----. War and Popular Culture: Resistance in Modern China, 1937-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Huntington, Rania. “The Weird in the Newspaper.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 341-97. [deals mostly with the Dianshizhai huabao]

Huters, Theodore. "Culture, Capital and the Temptations of the Imagined Market: The Case of the Commercial Press." In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Ip, Manying. The Life and Times of Zhang Yuanji, 1867-1956. Beijing: Commercial Press, 1985.

Janku, Andrea. Nur leere Reden. Politischer Diskurs und die Shanghaier Press im China des späten 19. Jahrhunderts. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Barbara Mittler]

-----. "Preparing the Ground for Revolutionary Discourse: From the Jingshiwen Compilations to Journalistic Writings in Nineteenth Century China," T'oung Pao 90, 1-3 (2004): 65-121.

-----. "The Uses of Genre in the Chinese Press from the Late Qing to the Early Republican Period." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 111-158.

Jindai funu shi yanjiu (Research on women in modern Chinese history). Special issue on the journal Funu zazhi (Ladies journal).

[Contents: "Of the Women, By the Women, or For the Women? Rewriting a Brief History of the Ladies' Journal (Funu Zazhi), 1915-1931," by Jin Jungwon; "The Masculine Universal and the Feminine Other: Gender Discourse in the Ladies' Journal," by Chiang Yung-chen; "Free Divorce in Thought and Practice: Gender Differences in the Ladies' Journal," by Hsu Hui-chi; "The Rhetoric of 'Sacrifice' and 'Victimhood': The Image of Prostitutes in the Ladies' Journal," by Yao Yi; "The 'Medical Advisory Column' in the Ladies' Journal," by Chang Che-chia; "The Writers' Garden, the Toilette Case, and the Kasumam: Theory and Practice of Women's Literature in the Ladies' Journal of the 1910s," by Hu Siao-chen; "Individual Choice or National Policy: Reflections on Birth Control in Modern China As Seen in the Special Issue on Limiting Births of the Ladies' Journal in the 1920s," by Lu Fang-shang; "The Ladies' Journal and Japanese Women: 'Tong Wei Nu ren' ('commonality as women') in Modern East Asia,". by Sudo Mizuyo; "Study of Children Appeared on The Ladies' Journal (1915-1931)--Making Comparison with Xinnuxing (Chosun Colonized by Japan)," by Gee Hyun-Sook; "New Views on Chinese Women's History,".by Peter Zarrow; "Family and State over Forty Years: A Review of Family Chinese Visions of and State, 1915-1953," by Lien Ling-ling]

Judge, Joan. "The Factional Function of Print: Liang Qichao, Shibao, and the Fissures in the Late-Qing Reform Movement." Late Imperial China 16, 1 (June 1996): 120-140.

-----. Print and Politics: 'Shibao' and the Culture of Reform in Late Qing China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

-----. "Publicists and Populists: Including the Common People in the Late Qing New Citizen Ideal." In Joshua Fogel and Peter G. Zarrow, eds., Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997, 165-82.

-----. "The Power of Print: Print Capitalism and the News Media in Late Qing and Republican China." Harvard Journal of Asian Studies 66, 1 (June 2006): 233-54.

Kaikkonen, Marja. "Stories and Legends: China's Largest Contemporary Popular Literature Journals." In Michel Hockx, ed., The Literary Field of Twentieth Century China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999, 134-60.

Karl, Rebecca E. "Journalism, Social Values, and a Philosophy of the Everyday in 1920s China." positions: east asia cultures critique 16, 3 (Winter 2008): 539-68.

Keulemans, Paize. "Printing the Sound of Cosmopolitan Beijing: Dialect Accents in Nineteenth-Century Martial Arts Fiction." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 159-84.

Kiely, J. "Third Force Periodicals in China: Introduction and Annotated Bibliography." Republican China 21, 1 (Nov. 1995): 129-68.

-----. "Spreading the Dharma with the Mechanized Press: New Buddhist Print Culture in the Modern Chinese Print Revolution, 1866-1949." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 185-211.

Kong, Shuyu. "Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Chinese Literary Journals in the Cultural Marketplace." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 93-144.

-----. "For Reference Only: Restricted Publication and Distrubution of Foreign Literature During the Cultural Revolution." Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 2 (2002): 76-85

-----. Consuming Literature: Best Sellers and the Commercialization of Literary Production in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2005.

Kurtz, Joachim. "Messenger of the Sacred Heart: Li Wenyu (1840-1911), and the Jesuit Periodical Press in Late Qing Shanghai." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 81-110.

Laing, Ellen Johnston. "Shanghai Manhua, the Neo-Sensationist School of Literature, and Scenes of Urban Life." MCLC Resource Center (Sept. 2010).

Latham, Kevin. "Between Markets and Mandarins: Journalists and the Rhetorics of Transition in Southern China." In Brian Moeran, ed. Asian Media Productions. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 2001, 89-107.

Laughlin, Charles. "The Analects Group and the Genre of Xiaopin." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 207-40.

-----. "The All-China Resistance Association of Writers and Artists." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 379-412.

Lee, Chin-chuan, ed. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. NY: Guilford, 1990.

Lee, Haiyan. "All the Feelings That Are Fit to Print: The Community of Sentiment and the Literary Public Sphere in China, 1900-1918." Modern China 27, no. 3 (July 2001): 291-327.

-----. "'A Dime Store of Words': Liberty Magazine and the Cultural Logic of the Popular Press." Twentieth-Century China 33, 1 (Nov. 2007).

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "The Construction of Modernity in Print Culture." In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 43-81. [focusses on the journals Dongfang zazhi and Liangyou huabao]

-----. "Textual Transactions: Discovering Literary Modernism through Books and Journals." In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 120-50.

-----. "Incomplete Modernity: Rethinking the May Fourth Intellectual Project." In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova and Oldrich Kral, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2001, 31-65.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan and Andrew Nathan. "The Beginnings of Mass Culture: Journalism and Fiction in the Late-Qing and Beyond." In Johnson, Nathan, Rawski, eds. Popular Culture in Late Imperial China. Berkeley: UC Press, 1983. 360-95.

Liao, Ping-hui. "The Case of the Emergent Cultural Criticism Columns in Taiwan's Newspaper Literary Supplements: Global/Local Dialectics in Contemporary Taiwanese Public Culture." In Rob Wilson and Wimal Dissanayake, eds., Global/Local: Cultural Production and the Transnational Imaginary. Durham: Duke UP, 1996, 337-47.

Lin, Hao. "China's Paper Crisis." The Book and the Computer (Jan. 1999).

Lin, Yutang. A History of the Press and Public Opinion in China. NY: Greenwood Press, 1968.

Liu, Alan P.L. Book Publishing in Communist China. Cambridge: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1965.

Liu, Huiying. "Feminism: An Organic or an Extremist Position? On Tien Yee As Represented by He Zhen." positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 779-800.

Liu, Kenneth S. H. "Publishing Taiwan: A Survey of Publications of Taiwanese Literature in English Translation." In Anna Guttman, Michel Hockx and George Paizis, eds., The Global Literary Field. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006, 200-227.

Liu, Kuo-chun et al. The Story of Chinese Books. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1985.

Liu, Lydia. "The Making of the Compendium of Modern Chinese Literature." In Translingual Practice. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995.

Liu, Zengren. "An Overview on the Research History of the Modern Literary Journals in China." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 3, 1 (March 2009): 97-118.

Lowenthal, R. "The Tientsin Press: A Technical Survey." Chinese Social and Political Science Review 19, 4 (Jan. 1936): 543-58.

-----. "Public Communication in China Before 1937." Chinese Social and Political Science Review 22, 1 (Apr-June 1938): 42-58.

Ma, Boyong. "A General Evaluation of Retail Magazines." Danwei.org (posted by Joel Martinsen, 12/3/2007).

Ma, Ruiqi. "The Function of Literary Journals in the Literary System of Mainland China." In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Iren Sywenky, eds., The Systemic and Empirical Approach to Literature and Culture as Theory and Application. Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 299-307.

Ma, Yunxin. Women Journalists and Feminism in China, 1898-1937. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2010.

[Abstract: This book takes a historical approach in its examination and uses gender as an analytical category to study the significance of women's press writings in the years of nation building. Treating women journalists as agents of change and using their media writings as primary sources, this book explores what mattered to women writers at different historical junctures, as well as how they articulated values and meaning in a changing society and guided social changes in the direction they desired. It situates gender issues in the context of nation building, and examines how women's public writings challenged the male dominance of print media, competed for the authority and authenticity of feminist discourse, constructed new feminine positions and gender norms, and integrated gender equality and women's emancipation into Chinese modernity. This book delineates the transformation of women journalists from political-minded Confucian gentry women to professional journalists, and of women's periodicals from representing women journalists' views to addressing the concerns and needs of the majority of women. It analyzes how the concepts of "feminism" and "nationalism" were embodied with different--even contesting--meanings at given historical junctures, and how women journalists managed to advance various feminist agendas by tapping on the various meanings of nationalism. ]

MacKinnon, Stephen R. "The Role of the Chinese and U.S. Media." In J. Wasserstrom and E. Perry, eds., Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Boulder: Westview, 1992, 206-14.

-----. "Press Freedom and the Chinese Revolution in the 1930s." In J. Popkin, ed., Media and Revolution: Comparative Perspectives. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995, 174-88.

-----. "Toward a History of the Chinese Press in the Republican Period." Modern China 23, 1 (Jan. 1997): 3-32.

Meng, Yue. "A Playful Discourse, Its Site, and Its Subject: 'Free Chat' on the Shen Daily, 1911-1918." MA thesis. Univeristy of California, LA, 1994.

Miller, Mark. "The Yusi Society." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 171-206.

Mittler, Barbara. A Newspaper for China? Power, Identity, and Change in Shanghai’s News Media, 1872-1912. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003.

-----. "Between Discourse and Social Reality: The Early Chinese Press in Recent Publications: Review Essay." MCLC Resource Center Publication (Feb. 2007).

-----. "In Spite of Gentility: Women and Men in Linglong (Elegance),a 1930s Women's Magazine." In Daria Berg and Chloe Starr, eds., The Quest for Gentility in China: Negotiations Beyond Gender and Class. London: Routledge, 2007.

Narramore, Terry. Making the News in Shanghai: 'Shenbao' and the Politics of Newspaper Journalism, 1912-1937. Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, 1989.

-----. "The Nationalists and the Daily Press: the Case of the Shen Bao." In John Fitzgerald, ed., The Nationalists and Chinese Society, 1923-1937. Melbourne: University of Melbourne Press, 1989, 106-32.

Nathan, Andrew. "The Late Ch'ing Press: Role, Audience, and Impact." In Zhongyang yanjiu yuan guoji hanxue huiyi lunwen ji (Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology), 3 vols. Taibei: Zhongyang yanjiu yuan, 1981, 3: 1281-1308.

Neder, Christina. "Censorship in Republican China." In Derek Jones, ed., Censorship: A World Encyclopedia. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999.

Ng, Mau-sang. “The Crystal and the May Fourth Culture.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 167-78.

Nielsen, Inge. "Modern Chinese Literature Sells Out." Tamkang Review 30, 3 (Spring 2000): 89-110. [on commericialism in the post-Mao book industry]

Nivard, Jaqueline. "Women and the Women's Press: The Case of the Ladies Journal (Funu zazhi) 1915-1931." Republican China 10, 1b (1984): 37-55.

Nunn, Godfrey Raymond. Publishing in Mainland China. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966.

Ocko, Jonathan. "The British Museum's Peking Gazette." Ch'ing-shi wen-t'i 2/9 (1973): 35-49.

Pan, Yuan and Jie Pan. "The Non-Official Magazine Today and the Younger Generation's Ideals for a New Literature." In J. Kinkley, ed., After Mao: Chinese Literature and Society, 1978-1981. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985, 193-219.

Polumbaum, J. "Tribulations of Chinese Journalists after a Decade of Reform." In Chin-chuan Lee, ed., Voices of China: the Inerplay of Politics and Journalism. NY: Guilford, 1990, 33-68.

Poon, David Jim-tat. "Tatzepao: Its History and Significance as a Communication Medium." In Godwin Chu, ed., Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978, 184-221.

Qian, Suoqiao. "Gentlemen of The Critic: English-Speaking Liberal Intellectuals in Republican China." China Heritage Quarterly 30.31 (June/September 2012).

Qin Shaode. Shanghai jindai baokan shilun (A history of newspapers and magazines in modern Shanghai). Shanghai: Fudan daxue, 1993.

Reed, Christopher. Gutenberg in Shanghai: Mechanized Publishing, Modern Printing, and Their Effects on The City, 1876-1937. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, Berkeley. 1996.

-----. "Sooty Sons of Vulcan: Shanghai's Printing Machine Manufacturers, 1895-1932." Republican China 20, 2 (April 1995): 9-54.

-----. Gutenberg in Shanghai: Chinese Print Capitalism, 1876-1937. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2004. [paperback edition University of Hawaii Press, 2004] [MCLC Resource Center review by Rudolf Wagner] [Response to Wagner's review by Christopher Reed]

-----. "From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Printing, Publishing, and Literary Fields in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 1-37.

-----. "Advancing the (Gutenberg) Revolution: The Origins and Development of Chinese Print Communism, 1921-1947." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 275-313.

Richter, Harald. Publishing in the People's Republic of China: Personal Observations by a Foreign Student, 1975-1977. Hamburg: Verbund Stiftung Deutsches Übersee-Institut, 1978.

Rusch, Beate. "The Shanghai 'Zeitgeist Bookstore': A Case Study in the Practice of Intercultural Networking." In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Shen, Shuang. Cosmopolitan Publics: Anglophone Print Culture in Semi-Colonial Shanghai. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers Univesity Press, 2009. [MCLC Resource Center review by Samuel Y. Liang]

[Abstract: Early twentieth-century China paired the local community to the world--a place and time when English dominated urban-centered higher and secondary education and Chinese-edited English-language magazines surfaced as a new form of translingual practice. Cosmopolitan Publics focuses on China's "cosmopolitans"--Western-educated intellectuals who returned to Shanghai in the late 1920s to publish in English and who, ultimately, became both cultural translators and citizens of the wider world. Shuang Shen highlights their work in publications such as The China Critic and T'ien Hsia, providing readers with a broader understanding of the role and function of cultural mixing, translation, and multilingualism in China's cultural modernity. Decades later, as nationalist biases and political restrictions emerged within China, the influence of the cosmopolitans was neglected and the significance of cosmopolitan practice was underplayed. Shen's encompassing study revisits and presents the experience of Chinese modernity as far more heterogeneous, emergent, and transnational than it has been characterized until now.]

-----. "A Certain Cosmopolitanism: Writing for The China Critic." China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Shiao, Ling. "Culture, Commerce, and Connections: The Inner Dynamics of New Culture Publishing in the Post-May Fourth Period." In Cynthis Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds. From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 213-48.

Stranahan, Patricia. Molding the Medium: The Chinese Communist Party and the Liberation Daily. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990.

Tang, Xiaobing, with Michel Hockx. "The Creation Society (1921-1930)." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 103-36.

Taylor, Jeremy. "The Sinification of Soviet Agitational Theatre: 'Living Newspapers in Mao's China." Journal of the British Association of Chinese Studies 3 (Dec. 2013).

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Tong, Hollington K. Dateline China: The Beginning of China's Press Relations with the World. NY: Rockport Press, 1950.

van Crevel, Maghiel. "Unofficial Poetry Journals from the People's Republic of China: A Research Note and an Annotated Bibliography." MCLC Resource Center Publication (February 2007).

Van Fleit Hang, Krista. "People's Literature and the Construction of a New Chinese Literary Tradition." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 87-107.

Vittinghoff, Natascha. "Readers, Publishers and Officials in the Contest for a Public Voice and the Rise of a Modern Press in Late Qing China, 1860-1880." T'oung Pao LXXXVII, 4-5 (2001): 393-455.

-----. "Unity vs. Uniformity: Liang Qichao and the Formation of a 'New Journalism' in China." Late Imperial China 23, 1 (2002): 97-143.

-----. Die Anfänge des Journalismus in China (1860-1911). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Barbara Mittler]

-----. "Social Actors in the Field of New Learning." In Natascha Gentz-Vittinghoff and Michael Lackner eds., Translating Western Knowledge into Late Imperial China. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

Waara, Caroline Lynne. Arts and Life: Public and Private Culture in Chinese Art Periodicals, 1912-1937. Ph. d. diss. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1994. [focus on Meishu shenghuo]

-----. "Invention, Industry, Art: The Commercialization of Culture in Republican Art Magazines." Sherman Cochran, ed., Inventing Nanjing Road: Commerical Culture in Shanghai, 1900-1945. Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 61-90.

-----. "The Bare Truth: Nudes, Sex, and the Modernization Project in Shanghai Pictorials." In Jason C. Kuo ed., Visual Culture in Shanghai 1850s-1930s. Washington, DC: New Academia, 2007.

Wagner, Rudolf. "The Early Chinese Newspapers and the Chinese Public Sphere.” European Journal of East Asian Studies 1 (2001): 1-34.

-----. "The Shenbao in Crisis: The International Environment and the Conflict Between Guo Songtai and the Shenbao." Late Imperial China 20, 1 (1999): 107-38.

-----. "The Role of the Foreign Community in the Chinese Public Sphere." China Quarterly 142 (June 1995): 423-43.

Wagner, Rudolf G. ed. Joining the Global Public: Word, Image, and City in Early Chinese Newspapers, 1870-1910. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2007.

-----. "The Foreign Language Press in Late-Qing and Republican China." China Heritage Quarterly 30/31 (June/Sept. 2012).

Wang, Gary. "Making 'Opposite-Sex Love' in Print: Discourse and Discord in Linglong Women's Pictorial Magazine, 1931-1937. Nan nu 13, 2 (Nov. 2011): 244-347.

[Abstract: This is a case study that examines desire and its regulation in the Shanghai magazine publication Linglong of the 1930s. It highlights representational tensions in the construction of heteronormative marriage, a regulatory measure that contained the prospects of female autonomy during a period of flux. The study uses an integrated, or "horizontal," method of reading, which regards journal issues as collectively authored texts and emphasizes the spatial relation and interplay of printed content. Writings and images are referred to as integral aspects of representation to illustrate the ways in which heteronormativity is covertly challenged at the same time that same-sex love and the rejection of marriage are forcefully stigmatized. A special focus of the analysis is an examination of how the valorization of heterosexual love is matched by vociferous attacks on men and idealizations of female bonds, which are at times valued over relations with men. Insinuations of alternative sensibilities and desires are also highlighted, especially the magazine's celebration of masculine women in images. ]

Wang, Juan. The Weight of Frivolous Matters: Shanghai Tabloid Culture, 1897-1911. Ph. D. diss. Palo Alto: Stanford University, 2004.

-----. "Officialdom Unmasked: Shanghai Tabloid Press, 1897-1911." Late Imperial China 28, 2 (Dec. 2007): 81-128.

-----. Merry Laughter and Angry Curses: The Shanghai Tabloid Press, 1897-1911. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2012.

[Abstract: The end of the Qing dynasty in China saw an unprecedented explosion of print journalism. Chinese-owned newspapers, first encouraged by Emperor Guangxu to inform and educate an increasingly literate public, had by the turn of the century become more powerful than the state had ever anticipated or desired. Yet it was not the dabao, or "important" papers, that proved most influential. Rather it was the xiaobao, the "little" or "minor" papers -- with their reputation for frivolity -- that captivated and empowered the public. Merry Laughter and Angry Curses reveals how the late-Qing-era tabloid press became the voice of the people. As periodical publishing reached a fever pitch, tabloids had free rein to criticize officials, mock the elite, and scandalize readers, giving the public knowledge about previously unspeakable and unprintable ideas. In the name of the people, tabloid writers produced a massive amount of anti-establishment literature, whose distinctive humour and satirical style were both potent and popular. This book shows the tabloid community to be both a producer of meanings and a participant in the social and cultural dialogue that would shake the foundations of imperial China and lead to the 1911 Republican Revolution.]

Wang, L. S. "The Independent Press and Authroitarian Regimes: The Case of the Da Gong Bao in Republican China." Pacific Affairs 67, 2 (1994): 216-41.

Wang Shaoguang, Deborah Davis, and Yanjie Bian. "The Uneven Distribution of Cultural Capital: Book Reading in Urban China." Modern China 32, 3 (2006): 315-348.

[Drawing on interviews with 400 couples in four cities in 1998, this exploratory study focuses on variation in reading habits to integrate the concept of cultural capital into the theoretical and empirical analysis of inequality and social stratification in contemporary urban China. Overall, we find that volume and composition of cultural capital varies across social classes independent of education. Thus, to the extent that cultural capital in the form of diversified knowledge and appreciation for certain genres or specific authors is unevenly distributed across social classes, we hypothesize that the possession of cultural capital may be a valuable resource in defining and crystallizing class boundaries in this hybrid, fast-changing society.]

Wang, Ying Pin. The Rise of the Native Press in China. NY: Columbia University, 1924.

Wang, Zheng. "A Case of Circulating Feminism: The Ladies Journal." In Wang, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment: Oral and Textual Histories. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999, 6-7-116.

Weston, Timothy. "Minding the Newspaper Business: The Theory and Practice of Journalism in 1920s China." Twentieth-Century China 31, 2 (April 2006).

Widmer, Ellen. "Modernization without Mechanization: The Changing Shape of Fiction on the Eve of the Opium War." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 59-79.

Widor, Claude. The Samizdat Press In China's Provinces, 1979-1981: An Annotated Guide. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1987.

Women's Magazines from the Republican Period. Institute for Chinese Studies, Heidelberg University. [good introduction to important women's magazines; also contains an excellent bibliography of secondary sources]

Wong, Lawrence Wang-chi. Politics and Literature in Shanghai: the Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991.

-----. "A Literary Organization with a Clear Political Agenda: The Chinese League of Left-Wing Writers, 1930-1936." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wu, I-Wei. "Participating in Global Affairs: The Chinese Cartoon Monthly Shanghai Puck." In Hans Harder and Barbara Mittler, eds., Asian Punches: A Transcultural Affair. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2013, 365-88.

Wu, Shengqing. "Contested Fengya: Classical-Style Poetry Clubs in Early Republican China." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 15-46.

Wue, Roberta. "The Profits of Philanthropy: Relief Aid, Shenbao, and the Art World in Later Nineteenth-Century Shanghai." Late Imperial China 25, 1 (June 2004): 187-211

Wusi shiqi qikan jieshao (Introduction to journals of the May Fourth period). 3 vols. Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 1959.

Xu, Xing. "The Rise and Struggle for Survival of the Unofficial Press in China." In Documents on the Chinese Democratic Movement, 1978-1980. Paris and Hong Kong: Ecoles des Hautes Etudes en Science Sociales and Observer Publishers, 1981, 33-45.

Xu, Xueqing. "The Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School." In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 47-78.

Yang, Guobin. "Chinese Internet Literature and the Changing Field of Print Culture." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 333-52.

Ye, Xiaoqing. The Dianshizhai Pictorial: Shanghai Urban Life, 1884-1898. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Barbara Mittler]

Ye, Yunshan. "Literature in the Age of Market Economy: New Trends in Chinese Literary Publishing." Paper presented at Scholarly Information on East Asia in the 21st Century, IFLA Satellite Meeting in conjunction with WLIC (Seoul, 2006).

Yeh, Catherine Vance. 2007. "Shanghai Leisure, Print Entertainment, and the Tabloids, Xiaobao." In Rudolf G. Wagner, ed., Joining the Global Public: Word, Image, and City in Early Chinese Newspapers, 1870-1910. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 201-234.

Yeh, Wen-hsin. "Progressive Journalism and Shanghai's Petty Urbanites: Zou Taofen and the Shenghuo Weekly." In Frederic Wakeman and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds. Shanghai Sojourners. Berkeley: Institute of East Asian, University of California, 1992.

Yi, Chen. "Publishing in China in the Post-Mao Era: The case of Lady Chatterly's Lover." Asian Survey 32, 6 (1992): 568-82.

Yoon, Seungjoo. “Literati-journalists of the Chinese Progress (Shiwu bao) in Discord, 1896-1898.” In Rebecca E. Karl and Peter Zarrow, eds., Rethinking the 1898 Reform Period: Political and Cultural Change in late Qing China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2002.

Zhang, Haili and Zhiming Liu. "The Online Bookstores: Boom or Bust?" The Book and the Computer (Mar. 1999).

Zhang Jishun. "Thought Reform and Press Nationalization in Shanghai: The Wenhui Newspaper in the Early 1950s." Twentieth-Century China 35, 2 (2010): 52-80.

Zhang Jinglu. Zhongguo xiandai chuban shiliao (Historical materials on modern Chinese publishing). 6 vols. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1954-57.

Zhang, Xiantao. The Origins of the Modern Chinese Press: The Influence of the Protestant Missionary Press in Late Qing China. NY: Routledge, 2007.

Zhang, Yingjin. "The Corporeality of Erotic Imagination: A Study of Pictorials and Cartoons in Republican China." John A. Lent, ed., In Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines and Picture Books. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001, 121-136.

-----. "Artwork, Commodity, Event: Representations of the Female Body in Modern Chinese Pictorials." In Jason C. Kuo ed., Visual Culture in Shanghai 1850s-1930s. Washington, DC: New Academia, 2007.

Zhao, Yuezhi. Media, Market, and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998. [see chapters 6 and 7]

Zheng, Yi. Contemporary Chinese Print Media: Cultivating Middle Class Civility. Routledge, 2011.


General Media

@Asiamedia (Asia Pacific Media Network; UCLA) [news on the media in Asia]

Asian Media Access [a non-profit organization dedicated to using media arts as tools for social betterment. Centrally located on the Minneapolis campus of Metropolitan State University, AMA is one of only five national media organizations devoted to serving Asian American media needs].

Barme, Geremie and Sang Ye. "The Great Firewall of China." Wired 5, 6 (June 1997): 138-50, 174-78. [on the development of the Internet in China]

Bishop, Robert. Qilai: Mobilizing a Billion. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989.

Chang, Won Ho. Mass Media in China: The History and the Future. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1989.

Chen, Xueyi and Tianjian Shi. "Media Effects on Political Confidence and Trust in the People's Republic of China in the Post-Tiananmen Period." East Asia 19, 3 (2001): 84-118. [available online through Ingenta Select]

China Media Network Information (CMNI, or Zhongguo meiti zixun)

Chinese Media Guide [A Complete List and Descriptions of Major Chinese Newspapers, Chinese TV Stations, Chinese Radio Stations, and Chinese Websites Outside of China.]

Chu, Godwin C., ed. Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978.

-----. "Popular Media: A Glimpse of the New Chinese Culture." In Chu, ed., Popular Media in China: Shaping New Cultural Patterns. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1978, 1-15.

Chu, Godwin C. and Yanan Jun. The Great Wall in Ruins: Communication and Cultural Change in China. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Chu, Rodney Wai-chi, et al. eds.. Mobile Communication and Greater China. Routledge, 2011.

Danwei.org [Danwei.org is a frequently updated website about media and advertising in the People's Republic of China. It is maintained and edited by Jeremy Goldkorn].

Donald, S. H., Keane, M. and Yin Hong, eds. Media in China: Consumption, Content, and Crisis. Curzon Press, 2001.

Donald, S.H. and Keane M. "Media Futures in China: Rethinking Approaches." In Donald, S, Keane, M. and Yin Hong eds, Media in China: Consumption, Content, and Crisis. Curzon Press, 2001.

Hartley, John and Michael Keene, eds. "Creative Industries and Innovation in China," a special issue of International Journal of Cultural Studies 9, 3 (2006).

Hong, Junhao. "Penetration and Interaction of Mass Media Between Taiwan, Hong Kong and the Mainland China." In Bin Yu and Tsung-ting Chung eds., Dynamics and Dilemma: Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong in a Changing World. NY: Nova Science, 1996, 185-208.

-----. "Opportunities, Needs, and Challenges: An Analysis of Media/Cultural Interactions and China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong." American Journal of Chinese Studies 4, 2 (1997): 185-97.

-----. "Reconciliation between Openness and Resistance: Media Globalization and New Policies of China’s Television in the 1990s." In Georgette Wang, Jan Sevaes and Anura Goonasekera, eds. The New Communicative Landscape: Demystifying Media Globalization. London: Routledge, 288–306.

He, Qinglian. The Fog of Censorship: Media Control in China. NY: Human Rights in China, 2008. [download free copy from HRIC]

Howkins, John. Mass Communication in China. NY: Annenberg/Longman Communications Books, 1982.

Jakobsen, Linda. "Lies in Ink, Truth in Blood: The Role and Impact of the Media During the Beijing Spring of 1989." The Joan Shorenstien Barone Center, Harvard University, August 1990.

Keane, M. and Donald S.H. "Responses to Crisis: Convergence, Content Industries and Media Governance." In Donald, S, Keane, M. and Yin Hong, Media in China: Consumption, Content, and Crisis. Curzon Press, 2001, 200-210.

-----. "Media Futures in China: Rethinking Approaches." In Donald, S, Keane, M. and Yin Hong, Media in China: Consumption, Content, and Crisis. Curzon Press, 2001, 3-17.

Lai, Carol P. Media in Hong Kong: Press Freedom and Political Change, 1967-2005. NY: Routledge, 2007.

Lee, Chin-chuan, ed. Voices of China: The Interplay of Politics and Journalism. NY: Guilford Press, 1990.

-----, ed. China's Media, Media's China. Boulder: Westview, 1994.

-----, ed. Chinese Media, Global Contexts. NY: Routledge, 2003.

Lee, Yuan-chen. "How the Feminist Movement Won Media Space in Taiwan: Observations by a Feminist Activist." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 95-115.

Lin, Hao. "China Takes the Plunge into the Digital Age." The Book and the Computer: The Future of the Printed Word (Aug 1998).

Liu, Alan. The Use of Traditional Media for Modernization in Communist China. Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for International Studies, 1965.

-----. Communication and National Integration in Communist China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Liu, Kang. "Searching for a New Cultural Identity: China's Soft Power and Media Culture Today." Journal of Contemporary China 21 (78) (Nov. 2012): 915-31.

[Asbtract: The paper argues that China's global expansion and calls for its use of soft power are provoking an ideological crisis which is becoming one of the most critical challenges of the present time. Revolutionary ideology legitimated the rule of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) for 60 years, but it has become increasingly at odds with the rapid socio-economic development that began 30 years ago. This paper examines four aspects of contemporary Chinese culture: first the discrepancy between the CCP's ideological rhetoric and its pragmatic policies; second, the fragmentation of the state, the intellectual elite, and the grassroots population in terms of cultural expressions and values; third, the consumer culture which has unleashed materialistic desires; and finally, the emergence of a 'post-80s' generation urban youth culture amidst these tension and contradictions.]

Liu, Zhiming. "Electronic Books and Reading." Part of a roundtable discussion "What is the Future of the Book in the Digital Era?" In The Book and the Computer: The Future of the Printed Word (Aug 1998).

Lu, Ding and Chee Kong Wong. China's Telecommunications Market: Entering a New Competitive Age. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004.

Lu, Jie. "Acquiring Political Information in Contemporary China: Various Media Channels and their Respective Correlates." Journal of Contemporary China 22 (83): 828-489.

[Abstract: Using complementary information from two national surveys conducted in 2008, i.e. the China Survey and the ABS II Mainland China Survey, this paper presents a comprehensive picture of the media channels that Chinese citizens use for political information, as well as their relative importance as assessed by the Chinese people. Moreover, assisted by multiple regressions, this paper also identifies which groups of Chinese are more likely to use each of these channels for political information. This paper contributes to our understanding on (1) the relative significance of various media channels in contemporary China's political communication; and (2) how Chinese citizens select themselves into specific channels for political information, given their increasing autonomy in acquiring such information from China's changing media.]

Lull, James. China Turned On: Television, Reform, and Resistance. London: Routledge, 1991.

Lynch, David. After the Propaganda State: Media, Politics, and 'Thought Work' in Reformed China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999.

MediaChina.net [website devoted to Chinese media, run by private Sichuan-based media company; "MediaChina.net was established on March 1, 2000. It is positioned for the professional and integrated development of China's media including TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, and websites.It is aimed at becoming one of the most authoritative sources of advertising, marketing consultancy, statistical analyses, and strategies in China].

Moeran, Brian, ed. Asian Media Productions. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 2001.

Moses, Charles, and Crispin Maslog. Mass Communication in Asia: A Brief History. Singapore: Asian Mass Communication Research and Information Centre, 1978.

Pan, Zhongdang. "Bounded Innovations in the Media." In Ching Kwan Lee and You-tien Hsing, eds. Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism. London: Routledge, 2009, 184-206.

Schnell, James A. Perspectives on Communication in the People's Republic of China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1999.

Shih, Shu-mei. "The Trope of 'Mainland China' in Taiwan's Media." positions: east asia cultures critque 3, 1 (Spring 1995).

Shirk, Susan L., ed. Changing Media, Changing China. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Song, Mingwei. "How the Steel Was Tempered: The Rebirth of Pawel Korchagin in Contemporary Chinese Media." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 95-111.

[Abstract: Russian writer Nicholas Ostrovski's novel How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) provided generations of Chinese youth with a widely admired role model: a young devoted communist soldier, Pawel Korchagin, whose image occupied a prominent place in the orthodoxy revolutionary education and literary imagination during Mao's era. Over the past decade, Pawel Korchagin has regained his popularity in Chinese media, his name and image have been appropriated by numerous artists and filmmakers to help in portrayals of the new generation's self-fashioning. The various (unorthodox) interpretations recently attached to Pawel's heroic story reveal a huge gap between Maoist ideology and the post-Mao ideas. This paper looks into the intricate relationships between Pawel Korchagin's revolutionary past and his varied contemporary representations. By doing so, I hope to gain a better understanding of the cultural politics of appropriating Mao's legacy to create new meanings for a changing Chinese society. One example on which this paper focuses is the sixth-generation director Lu Xuechang's film Becoming a Man (1997), which rewrites the revolutionary Bildungsroman of Pawel in a startling different context.]

Tan, Felix B., P. Scott Corbett, and Yuk Yong Wong, eds. Information Technology Diffusion in the Asia Pacific: Perspectives on Policy, Electronic Commerce and Education. Hershey, Pennsylvania: Idea Group Publishing, 1999.

Voci, Paola. "Quasi-Documentary, Cellflix and Web Spoofs: Chinese Movies' Other Visual Pleasures." Senses of Cinema 41 (Oct.-Dec. 2006).

-----. China on Video: Small Screen Realities. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: China On Video is the first in-depth study that examines smaller-screen realities and the important role they play not only in the fast-changing Chinese mediascape, but also more broadly in the practice of experimental and non-mainstream cinema. At the crossroads of several disciplines—film, media, new media, media anthropology, visual arts, contemporary China area studies, and cultural studies--this book reveals the existence of a creative, humorous, but also socially and politically critical "China on video", which locates itself outside of the intellectual discourse surrounding both auteur cinema and digital art. By describing smaller-screen movies, moviemaking and viewing as light realities, Voci points to their "insignificant" weight in terms of production costs, distribution size, profit gains, intellectual or artistic ambitions, but also their deep meaning in defining an alternative way of seeing and understanding the world. The author proposes that lightness is a concept that can usefully be deployed to describe the moving image, beyond the specificity of recent new media developments and which can, in fact, help us rethink previous cinematic practices in broad terms both spatially and temporally.]

Womack, Brantly, ed. Media and the Chinese Public: A Survey of the Beijing Media Audience. Special issue of Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 18, 3/4 (Spring/Summer 1986).

Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui. "Mass Media and Transnational Subjectivity in Shanghai: Notes on (Re)Cosmopolitanism in a Chinese Metropolis." In Aihwa Ong and Donald M. Nonini, eds., Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism. NY: Routledge, 1997, 287-321.

Yu, Haiqing. Media and Cultural Transformation in China. NY: Routledge, 2008.

Yu, Frederick. Mass Persuasion in Communist China. NY: Praeger, 1964.

Zhao, Yuezhi. Media, Market, and Democracy in China: Between the Party Line and the Bottom Line. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998.


Internet and Digital Culture

Ang, Peng Hwa. "Why The Internet Will Make Asia Freer." Harvard Asia Quarterly 3 (Summer 2001): 48.

-----. "Asia'a Piece of the Pie: A Region's Entry into Dot-com Universe." Harvard Asia Pacific Review 4, 2 (2000): 6-10.

Asiascape: Digital Asia (Editor Florian Schneider, Leiden University) (journal)

Asiascape: Digital Asia explores the political, social, and cultural impact of digital media in Asia through both critical, theoretically-minded research and innovative digital methods. Bringing together inter- and multi-disciplinary research in the area studies, arts, communication and media studies, information and computer sciences, and social sciences, this peer-reviewed journal examines the role that information, communication, and digital technologies play in Asian societies, as well as in intra-regional and transnational dynamics.

Barme, Geremie and Gloria Davis. "Have We Been Noticed Yet? Intellectual Contestation and the Chinese Web." In Edward Gu and Merle Goldman, eds., Chinese Intellectuals Between State and Market. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004, 75-107.

Berg, Daria. "A New Spectacle in China's Medisphere: A Cultural Reading of a Web-Based Reality Show from Shanghai." The China Quarterly 205 (March 2011): 133-51.

[Abstract: This study offers a cultural reading of the web-based reality show Soul Partners (2007) from Shanghai. Soul Partners serves as a case study to explore how 21st-century Chinese cultural discourse debates the transformation of urban society in China, providing insight into the Chinese cultural imagination, perceptions of the globalizing metropolis and the impact of consumer culture. This reading positions Soul Partnerswithin the discursive context of Chinese popular, postmodern and postsocialist culture and in relation to the cultural import of the reality show genre into China's mediasphere. Analysis focuses on the quest for authenticity in the Chinese discourse on perceived reality and the way Soul Partners generates new urban dreams for China's Generation X. The analysis of Soul Partners sheds new light on the dynamics of transcultural appropriation in a globalizing China and the social and political implications.]

Bibliography on the Internet in China. Prepared by Randy Kluver. National University of Singapore.

Braester, Yomi. "From Real Time to Virtual Reality: Chinese Cinema in the Internet Age." Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 89-104. Rpt. in Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 139-54.

Abstract: What has become of the collective memory in the years between the Tian'anmen incident of 1989 and the PRC joining the WTO in 2001, a period that witnessed the proliferation of McDonalds restaurants and Internet bars in Chinese cities? This paper explores the changing values through three works that take the World Wide Web as their subject, namely Love in the Internet Age, also known as Love in Cyberspace (Wanglu shidai de aiqing, 1999), Q3 (1999), and First Intimate Encounter, also known as Flyin' Dance (Diyici de qinmi jiechu, 2001). The films do not offer a single vision of cyberspace, nor do they ascribe to the same filmic aesthetics or genre. Yet as a whole they provide a glimpse of China in the Internet age. They suggest that from a repository of collective memory, cyberspace has become the arena for an alternative existence free of the limitations of time and space. They trace the trajectory from a culture insistent on collective commemoration to a society willing to suspend its consciousness outside historical memory.

Broadhurst, Rod and Peter Grabosky, eds. Cyber-Crime: The Challenge in Asia. HK: HK University Press, 2005.

Chao, Shih-Chen. "The Re-institutionalisation of Popular Fiction--The Internet and a New Model of Popular Fiction Prosumption in China." Journal of the British Association of Chinese Studes 3 (Dec. 2013).

Chase, Michael S. and James C. Mulvenon. You've Got Dissent! Chinese Dissident Use of the Internet and Beijing's Counter-Strategies. Rand, 2002.

China Digital News (Journalism, UC Berkeley)

China Internet Network Information Center (issues semi-annual reports on the state of internet use in China)

China: Journey to the Heart of Internet Censorship. Reporters Without Borders. (October 2007)

The China Matrix (news and analysis on the China Net)

China Web 2.0 Review [a blog dedicated to track web2.0 development, review and profile web2.0 applications, business and services in China.]

Chinese Communication Research Archives (Chinese Communication Association) [this site has a truly excellent bibliography]

Chinese Internet Research Group (sponsors a listserv)

Ciolek, T. Matthew. "Asian Studies and the WWW: A Quick Stocktaking at the Cusp of Two Millenia."

Damm, Jens. "Internet and the Fragmented Political Community." IIAS Newsletter 33 (March 2004): 10.

-----. "The Internet and the Fragmentation of the Chinese Society." Critical Asian Studies 39, 2 (2006): 273-94.

Day, Michael. "Poetry." Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS), Leiden Division. [study of contemporary Chinese poetry websites]

Douay, Nicolas. "Urban Planning and Cyber-Citizenry in China: How the 2.0 Opposition Organizes Itself." Tr. Jonathan Hall. China Perspectives 1 (2011): 77-79.

Feng, Jin. "'Addicted to Beauty': Consuming and Producing Web-based Chinese Danmei Fiction at Jinjiang." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 1-41.

-----. "Cong Jinjian danmei wen kan Zhongguo nuxing xingbie shenfen de goucheng" (Constructing female gender identities through Danmei at Jinjiang). Zhongguo xing yanjiu 30, 3 (2009): 132-153.

-----. Romancing the Internet: Producing and Consuming Chinese Web Romance. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

[Abstract: In Romancing the Internet, Jin Feng examines the evolution of Chinese popular romance on the Internet. She first provides a brief genealogy of Chinese Web literature and Chinese popular romance, and then investigates how large socio-cultural forces have shaped new writing and reading practices and created new subgenres of popular romance in contemporary China. Integrating ethnographic methods into literary and discursive analyses, Feng offers a gendered, audience-oriented study of Chinese popular culture in the age of the Internet.]

Feiyu Net Cafe (one of the largest Internet cafes in Beijing)

Franda, Marcus. China and India Online: Information Technology Politics and Diplomacy in the World's Two Largest Nations. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002.

Fumian, Marco. "The Temple and the Market: Controversial Positions in the Literary Field with Chinese Characteristics." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 2 (Fall 2009): 126-66.

Giese, Karsten. "Construction and Performance of Virtual Identity in the Chinese Internet." In K.C. Ho, Randolf Kluver, and Kenneth Yang, eds. Asia.co--Asia Encounters the Internet. NY: RoutledgeCourzon: 2003, 193-210.

Gong, Haomin and Xin Yang."Digitized Parody: The Politics of Egao in Contemporary China."China Information 24, 1 (2010): 3-26.

-----. "Circulating Smallness on Weibo: The Dialectics of Microfiction." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 181-202.

[Abstract: The focus of this essay is microfiction (wei xiaoshuo), a form of Weibo-based fiction writing. From the perspective of its most prominent feature—microness—the authors investigate the dialectical relationship between microness and largeness embodied in its form, the context of its emergence, the conditions of its existence, as well as the issues reflected in its content. Studying three disparate cases of microfiction writing, namely microfiction selected from contests hosted by Sina, Chen Peng’s personal Weibo posts, and Wen Huanjian’s Weibo novel, Love in the Age of Microblogging (Weibo shiqi de aiqing), we explore the cultural status of microfiction as a reflection of the combination of literary writing and online activities; and its aesthetic, literary, and cultural characteristics. Reading microfiction in both a literary and a sociocultural text, we argue that the smallness is an intrusion upon the largeness and hegemony of grand narratives on the one hand, and a reflection of a boradly changing reality on the other.]

Gross, Jennifer and Hanno E. Lecher. "Everything Is Not Lost: The Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS)." IIAS Newsletter (March 2004): 11.

Guo, Liang. Surveying Internet Usage and Impact in Twleve Chinese Cities. Markle Foundation.[pdf file, 437k]

-----.. "The Internet: China's Window to the World." YaleGlobal Online (Nov. 18, 2002).

Hao, X., Zhang, K., & Huang, Y. "The Internet and Information Control: The Case of China." The Public 3 (1996): 117-130.

Herold, David Kurt and Peter Marolt, eds. Online Society in China: Creating, Celebrating, and Instrumentalising the Online Carnival. Routledge, 2011.

[TOC: Introduction: Noise, Spectacle, Politics - Carnival in Chinese Cyberspace - David Kurt Herold Part I - Creating the Carnival - Netizens and the State 1. Cultural Convulsions - Examining the Chineseness of Cyber China - Wai-chi, Rodney Chu and Chung-tai Cheng 2. The Internet Police in China: Regulation, Scope and Myths - Xiaoyan Chen and Peng Hwa Ang 3. Grassroots agency in a civil sphere? Re-thinking Internet Control in China - Peter Marolt Part II - Celebrating the Carnival - Fun, Freak-shows, and Masquerades 4. Parody and resistance on the Chinese Internet - Hongmei Li 5. China's many Internets: Participation and digital game play across a changing technology landscape - Silvia Lindtner and Marcella Szablewicz 6. Lost in virtual carnival and masquerade: In-game marriage on the Chinese Internet - Weihua Wu and Xiying Wang PART III - Instrumentalising the Carnival - Rioting as Activism 7. Human Flesh Search Engines: Carnivalesque Riots as components of a 'Chinese Democracy' - David Kurt Herold 8. In search for motivations: Exploring a Chinese Linux user group - Matteo Tarantino 9. Identity vs. anonymity: Chinese netizens and questions of identifiability - Kenneth Farrall and David Kurt Herold 10. Taking urban conservation online: Chinese civic action groups and the Internet - Nicolai Volland Conclusion: Netizens and Citizens, Cyberspace and Modern China - David Kurt Herold]

Ho, K. C., Randy Kluver, and C. C. Yang, eds. Asia.com: Asian Encounters the Internet. London, NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Hockx, Michel. "Links with the Past: Mainland China's Online Literary Communities and their Antecedents." Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 105-27. Rpt in Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 155-78.

[Abstract: This article compares Chinese literary journals from the early twentieth century with a Mainland Chinese literary website from the early twenty-first century. In both these periods, literary practice underwent significant changes as a result of major changes in the technological processes involved in the production and distribution of texts. Five aspects of these changes are examined: the mixed media environment, the provision of information about authors' identities, engagement with social issues, community building, and the relationship with serious literature. The article argues that a very traditional Chinese view of literature as a socially embedded act of communication continued to play a significant role in both periods, and was even further enhanced through interaction with the new technologies. Despite the fact that both types of publication appeal(ed) to large readerships, it is argued that it is not helpful simply to consider them as 'popular literature'. Both the journals from 100 years ago and the website of today represent literary communities that share a serious view of literature, albeit one that is not compatible with the familiar New Literature paradigm]

-----. "Virtual Chinese Literature: A Comparative Case Study of Online Poetry Communities." The China Quarterly 183 (Sept. 2005): 670-691.

-----. "Master of the Web: Chen Cun and the Continuous Avant-Garde." In Maghiel van Crevel, Tian Yuan Tan, and Michel Hockx, eds. Text, Performance, and Gender in Chinese Literature and Music: Essay in Honor of Wilt Idema. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2009, 413-430.

Hu, Andy Yinan. Swimming Against the Tide: Tracing and Locating Chinese Leftism Online. MA Thesis. Simon Fraser University, 2006.

Huang, Xiang. "The Internet Helps Chinese Publisher to Plan Strategy." The Book and the Computer (Dec. 1998).

Hughes, Christopher and Gudrun Wacker, eds. China and the Internet: Politics and the Digital Leap Forward. London, New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.

Hung, Chin-fu. "The Internet and Taiwan's New Civic Movement in the Information Age: Hung Chung-chiu's Case (2013)." Asiascape: Digital Asia 1, 1/2 (2014): 54-77.

[Abstract: Using the case of the death of a 24-year old Taiwanese soldier, Hung Chung-chiu, this article investigates the evolving phenomenon of Taiwan's new civic movement that is highly mediated and empowered by Information and Communications Technologies (icts). Examining the case of a tragic death of Army Corporal Hung, this article argues that enhanced public engagement and awareness of citizens' rights in the military will ultimately further strengthen Taiwan's civil society and will eventual help consolidate Taiwan's young democracy.]

Kozar, Seana. 2002. “Leaves Gleaned from the Ten-Thousand-Dimensional Web in Heaven: Chinese On-Line Publications in Canada.” Journal of American Folklore 115(456): 129-153.

Internet Filtering in China, 2004-2005: A Country Study (OpenNet Initiative, or ONI, funded by Soros’ Open Society) [you can download the whole study in pdf format from this site]

The Internet in Asia (Published by the Singapore Internet Research Centre at Nanyang Technological University. We post news items and academic research concerning the social, cultural, economic, and political impact of the Internet and other new media technologies in Asia)

"The Internet in China: A Symposium." IIAS Newsletter 33 (March 2003). [includes essays by Yang Guobin, Tsui Lokman, Ian Weber ad Lu Jia, Jens Damm, etc.]

"The Internet Under Surveillance Report: China" (2003) Reporters Without Borders Website.

Inwood, Heather. On the Scene of Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Ph. D. dissertation. London: SOAS, 2008. [deals in part with poetry websites]

-----. Verse Going Viral: China's New Media Scenes. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2014.

[Abstract: examines what happens when poetry, a central pillar of traditional Chinese culture, encounters an era of digital media and unabashed consumerism in the early twenty-first century. Inwood sets out to unravel a paradox surrounding modern Chinese poetry: while poetry as a representation of high culture is widely assumed to be marginalized to the point of death, poetry activity flourishes across the country, benefiting from China's continued self-identity as a "nation of poetry" (shiguo) and from the interactive opportunities created by the internet and other forms of participatory media. Through a cultural studies approach that treats poetry as a social rather than a purely textual form, Inwood considers how meaning is created and contested both within China's media-savvy poetry scenes and by members of the public, who treat poetry with a combination of reverence and ridicule.]

Ji, Xianglei. "Obstacles to the Internet Age." The Book and the Computer (July 1999).

Kong, Shuyu. "The 'Affective Alliance': Undercover, Internet Media Fandom, and the Sociality of Cultural Consumption in Postsocialist China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 1-47.

Lin, Hao. "China Takes Plunge Into the Digital Age." The Book and the Computer (Aug. 1998).

Liu, Jun. "Mobile Communication and Relational Mobilization in China." Asiascape: Digital Asia 1, 1/2 (2014): 14-38.

[Abstract: Recent studies have shown what indispensable role mobile phones play as means of mobilization in contentious politics around the world. Nevertheless, there has been no clear elaboration of how mobile phone uses translate into mobilization in contentious politics. To fill this gap, the current study employs Passy's (2003) framework of the threefold function of social ties as channels of mobilization to examine how mobile communication, embedding the dynamics of social ties, influences protest mobilization. It investigates two cases in rural and urban China in which Chinese people employed their mobile phones to mobilize participants for protests, and conducts 24 in-depth interviews with participants in these protests. Findings suggest that using mobile phones for mobilization registers the relational dynamics of social ties, which shapes participants' perceptions of given protest issues, ensures the safety of protest recruitment and mobilization in a repressive context, and generates pressure on participation, all of which contributes to the mechanism of mobilization. This study concludes with the concept of 'relational mobilization', which addresses the embedment and relevance of social ties in the process of mobile-phone-mediated mobilization and its implication for Asian countries.]

Liu, Kang. ""The Internet in China: Emergent Cultural Formations and Contradictions." In Liu, Globalization and Cultural Trends in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai'I Press, 2004, 127-61.

Liu, Shih-Diing. "Undomesticated Hostilities: The Affective Space of Internet Chat Rooms across the Taiwan Straits." positions: east asian cultures critique 16, 2 (Fall 2008): 435-57.

Meeker, Mary. "The China Internet Report." Morgan Stanley, 2004. [downloadable as pdf file from Morgan Stanley website]

Mengin, Françoise, ed. Cyber China: Reshaping National Identities in the Age of Information. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.

[Description: The essays in this volume explore the new power struggles created in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong through information technology. The contributors analyze the interaction between the development of information technologies and social logic on the one hand and processes of unification and fragmentation on the other. They seek to highlight the strategies of public and private actors aimed at monopolizing the benefits created by the information society - whether for monetary gain or bureaucratic consolidation - as well as the new loci of power now emerging. The book is organized around two main themes: One exploring societal change and power relations, the second examining the restructuring of Greater China's space. In so doing, the book seeks to shed light on both the state formation process as well as international relations theory. Contents: "Introduction: China in the Age of Globalisation," by F.Mengin; "Speaker's Corner of Virtual Panopticon: Discursive Contruction of Chinese Identities Online," by K.Giese; "Information Technologies and the Emerging Chinese Religious Landscape," by D.Palmer; "The Changing Role of the State in Greater China in the Age of Information," by F.Mengin; "Controlling the Internet Architecture within Greater China," by C.R.Hughes; "The Internet and the Changing Beijing Taipei Relations: Towards Unification or Fragmentation?," by C.Hung; "Government Online and Cross Straits Relations," by P.Batto; "New Information Technologies and Economic Interactions Among China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong," by B.Naughton; "Cyber-Capitalism and the Remaking of Greater China," by N.Sum; "Urban Assemblages: An Ecological Sense of the Knowledge Economy," by A.Ong; "Global Networking and the New Division of Labor Across the Taiwan Straits," by T.K.Leng]

MFC Insight (Beijing-based company MFC Insight presents information on the Internet industry in China; one can subscribe to email newsletters)

Munson, Todd. "Selling China: www.cnta.com and Cultural Nationalism." The Journal of Multimedia History 2, 1 (1999).

Nie, Hongping Annie. "Gaming, Nationalism, and Ideological Work in Contemporary China: Online Games Based on the War of Resistance Against Japan." Journal of Contemporary China 22 (81) (May 2013): 499-517.

OpenNet Initiative [University of Toronto, Harvard, Oxford, and Cambridge collaboration. ONI mission is to investigate and challenge state filtration and surveillance practices. Our approach applies methodological rigor to the study of filtration and surveillance blending empirical case studies with sophisticated means for technical verification. Our aim is to generate a credible picture of these practices at a national, regional and corporate level, and to excavate their impact on state sovereignty, security, human rights, international law, and global governance]

Ouyang, Youquan. Wangluo wenxue lungang (Thesis on internet literature). Beijing: Renmin wenxue, 2003.

Qiu, Jack [Linchuan]. "China Internet Studies: A Review of the Field." In, Helen Nissenbaum and Monroe E. Price, eds., Academy & the Internet. New York: Peter Lang, 2004, 275-307.

-----. "A City of Ten Years: Public/Private Internet Development in Nanhai." positions: east asian cultures critique 18, 1 (spring 2010): 253-77.

Singapore Internet Research Centre

Tai, Zixue. The Internet in China: Cyberspace and Civil Society. NY: Routledge, 2006.

[Abstract: examines the cultural and political ramifications of the Internet for Chinese society. The rapid growth of the Internet has been enthusiastically embraced by the Chinese government, but the government has also rushed to seize control of the virtual environment. Individuals have responded with impassioned campaigns against official control of information. The emergence of a civil society via cyberspace has had profound effects upon China--for example, in 2003, based on an Internet campaign, the Chinese Supreme People's Court overturned the ruling of a local court for the first time since the Communist Party came to power in 1949. The important question this book asks is not whether the Internet will democratize China, but rather in what ways the Internet is democratizing communication in China. How is the Internet empowering individuals by fostering new types of social spaces and redefining existing social relations?]

Tong, Yanqi and Shaohua Lei. "War of Position in Chinese Microblogging." Journal of Contemporary China 22/80 (March 2013): 292-311.

[Abstract: Our study examines the nature and development of microblogging in China. By adopting a Gramscian thesis of `hegemony', we argue that the Chinese regime is facing a crisis of hegemony and the emergence of the microblogosphere has provided a platform for the war of position to establish counter-hegemony. The main features of microblogging in China are the emergence of opinion leaders, the close involvement of traditional media, and a more passive role of the state in the microblogosphere. The predominant liberal leaning of the microblogosphere has illustrated the emergence of counter-hegemony, where government connection is an instant negativity. The regime can exercise censorship but has lost ideational leadership.]

Tsui, Lokman. "The Panopticon as the Antithesis of a Space of Freedom: Control and Regulation of the Internet in China." China Information 17, 2 (2003): 65-82.

-----. "The Taste of Information: State Attempts to Control the Internet." IIAS Newsletter 33 (March 2004): 8.

US Embassy Report. "Kids, Cadres And "Cultists" All Love It: Growing Influence Of The Internet In China." (March 2001).

Voci, Paola. "Quasi-Documentary, Cellflix and Web Spoofs: Chinese Movies' Other Visual Pleasures." Senses of Cinema 41 (Oct.-Dec. 2006).

Wacker, Gudrun. "Resistance Is Futile: Control and Censorship on the Internet in China." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 353-81.

Wang, Gan. "'Net-Moms'--a New Place and a New Identity: Parenting Discussion Forums on the Internet in China." In Tim Oakes and Lousa Schein eds., Translocal China: Linkages, Identities, and the Reimagining of Space. London: Routledge, 2006, 155-65.

Weber, Ian and Lu Jia. "Handing over China's Internet to the Corportations." IIAS Newsletter 33 (March 2003): 9.

Woodworth, Max D. "Inner City Culture Wars." In Ching Kwan Lee and You-tien Hsing, eds. Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism. London: Routledge, 2009, 207-224.

[Abstract: analyzes and compares Zhang Dali’s graffiti art project and the Internet virtual debate on the redevelopment project of the Qianmen neighborhood.]

Wu, Xu. Chinese Cyber Nationalism: Evolution, Characteristics, and Implications. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2007.

Xiao, Qiang. "The Internet: A Force to Transform Chinese Society?" In Lional M. Jensen and Timothy B. Weston, eds., China's Transformations: The Stories beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Yang, Dali. "The Great Net of China." MadeforChina.com.

Yang, Guobin. "Mingling Politics with Play: The Virtual Chinese Public Sphere." IIAS Newsletter 33 (March 2004): 7.

-----. “The Internet and the Rise of a Transnational Chinese Cultural Sphere." Media, Culture & Society 25, 4 (2003): 469-490.

----. "The Internet and Civil Society in China: A Preliminary Assessment." Journal of Contemporary China 12 (36) (Aug. 2003): 453-75.

[Abstract: This article assesses the preliminary impact of the Internet on civil society development in China. Based on survey data and in-depth case studies, three areas of impact are identified and analysed. First, with respect to China's public sphere, the social uses of the Internet have fostered public debate and problem articulation. The Internet has demonstrated the potential to play a supervisory role in Chinese politics. Second, the Internet has shaped social organizations by expanding old principles of association, facilitating the activities of existing organizations and creating a new associational form, the virtual community. Finally, the Internet has introduced new elements into the dynamics of protest. The article concludes after discussing the conditions and obstacles that influence the social uses of the Internet in China, cautioning against an overoptimistic view of the role of the Internet in civil society development while stressing the importance of the Internet as a new social phenomenon in China.]

-----. "How Do Chinese Civic Associations Respond to the Internet? Findings from a Survey." The China Quarterly 189 (2007): 122-43.

[Abstract: Based on survey data collected from October 2003 to January 2004, this article provides the first systematic empirical analysis of how civic associations in urban China have responded to the internet. It shows, first, that urban grassroots organizations are equipped with a minimal level of internet capacity. Secondly, for these organizations, the internet is most useful for publicity work, information dessemination, and networking with peer and international organizations. Thirdly, social change organizations, younger organizations and organizations in Beijing report more use of the internet than business associations, older organizations and organizations outside Beijing. Finally, organizations with bare-bone internet capacity report more active use of the internet than better-equipped organizations. These findings suggest that the internet has had special appeal to relatively new organizations oriented to social change and that a “web” of civic associations has emerged in China.]

-----. "'A Portrait of Martyr Jiang Qing': The Chinese Cultural Revolution on the Internet." In Ching Kwan Lee and Guobin Yang, eds., Re-envisioning the Chinese Revolution: The Politics and Poetics of Collective Memories in Reform China. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2007, 287-316.

-----. The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online. NY: Columbia UP, 2009.

[Abstract: Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has revolutionized popular expression in China, enabling users to organize, protest, and influence public opinion in unprecedented ways. Guobin Yang's pioneering study maps an innovative range of contentious forms and practices linked to Chinese cyberspace, delineating a nuanced and dynamic image of the Chinese Internet as an arena for creativity, community, conflict, and control. Like many other contemporary protest forms in China and the world, Yang argues, Chinese online activism derives its methods and vitality from multiple and intersecting forces, and state efforts to constrain it have only led to more creative acts of subversion. Transnationalism and the tradition of protest in China's incipient civil society provide cultural and social resources to online activism. Even Internet businesses have encouraged contentious activities, generating an unusual synergy between commerce and activism. Yang's book weaves these strands together to create a vivid story of immense social change, indicating a new era of informational politics.]

-----. "Chinese Internet Literature and the Changing Field of Print Culture." In Cynthia Brokaw and Christopher A. Reed, eds., From Woodblocks to the Internet: Chinese Publishing and Print Culture in Transition, circa 1800 to 2008. Leiden, Brill, 2010, 333-52.

Zhang, Lin and Anthony Fung. "The Myth of 'Shanzai' Culture and the Paradox of Digital Democracy in China." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 14, 3 (2013): 401-16.

[Abstract: This article analyzes the Internet-based campaign for the "shanzhai" Spring Festival Gala in connection with the rise of "digital democracy" and the burgeoning economy of grassroots culture in China. Emerging as a bottom-up challenge to the political and economic monopoly of CCTV's annual Spring Festival Gala, the campaign rode on the popular myth of shanzhai culture, which captured people's imagination for its associations with grassroots digital democracy. By depicting how different social players appropriate the narratives of shanzhai to construct a collective social imaginary of democracy, the article explores the specific formation of an Internet-facilitated shanzhai democracy, arguing that the myth of shanzhai currently enables and confounds political resistance in China. It nurtures a political subjectivity that encourages the instrumental marriage of affective emotion, populist anarchism, and commercial self-branding and publicity, and cultivates a "shanzhai" democracy that thrives on the commodification of politics and the monetization of the netizen's and the public's affective labor. The myth of shanzhai reflects the contested nature of digital democracy in contemporary China, marking a transitional space, a symbiotic relationship with power, and a fluid frontier to be constantly redefined and defended. ]

Zhao, Yong. "When a Red Classic Was Spoofed: A Cultural Analysis of a Media Incident." In Tao Dongfeng, Yang Xiaobin, Rosemary Roberts, and Yang Ling, eds. Chinese Revolution and Chinese Literature. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press, 2009, 247-70.

Zheng, Yongnian. Technological Empowerment: The Internet, State, and Society in China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2007.

[Abstract: Will new information technologies, especially the Internet, bring freedom and democracy to authoritarian China? This study argue that the Internet has brought about new dynamics of socio-political changes in China, and that state power and social forces are transforming in Internet-mediated public space. Its findings are fourfold. First, the Internet empowers both the state and society. The Internet has played an important role in facilitating political liberalization, and made government more open, transparent, and accountable. Second, the Internet produces enormous effects which are highly decentralized and beyond the reach of state power. Third, the Internet has created a new infrastructure for the state and society in their engagement with (and disengagement from) each other. Fourth, the Internet produces a recursive relationship between state and society. The interactions between the state and society over the Internet end up reshaping both the state and society.]

Zhou, Yongming. Historicizing Online Politics Telegraphy, the Internet, and Political Participation in China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2006.

[Abstract: It is widely recognized that internet technology has had a profound effect on political participation in China, but this new use of technology is not unprecedented in Chinese history. This is pioneering work that systematically describes and analyzes th manner in which the Chinese used telegraphy during the late Qing and the internet in the contemporary period, to participate in politics. Drawing upon insights from the fields of anthropology, history, political science, and media studies, this book historicizes the internet in China and may change the direction of the emergent field of Chinese internet studies. In contrast to previous works, this book is unprecedented in its perspective, in the depth of information and understanding, in the conclusions it reaches, and in its methodology. Written in a clear and engaging style, this book is accessible to a broad audience.]

Zhu, Jonathan J. H. and Zhou He. "Information Accessibility, User Sophistication, and Source Credibility: The Impact of the Internet on Value Orientations in Mainland China." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 7, 2 (January 2002). Zhou, Yongming. Historicizing Online Politics: Telegraphy, the Internet, and Political Participation in China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2006.

Zittrain, Jonathan and Ben Edelman. "Empirical Analysis of Internet Filtering in China." IEEE Internet Computing 7, 2 (March/April 2003): 70-77.

Zuccheri, Serena. Letteratura web in Cina. Rome: Nuove Edizioni Romane, 2008. [111pp. ISBN 978-88-7457-071-3]


Radio

Benson, Carlton. From Teahouse to Radio: Storytelling and the Commercialization of Culture in 1930s Shanghai. Ph.D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1996.

-----. "Back to Business as Usual: The Resurgence of Commercial Radio Broadcasting in 'Gudao' Shanghai." In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds, In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, 279-301.

-----. "The Manipulation of 'Tanci' in Radio Shanghai during the 1930s." Republican China 20, 2 (April 1995): 117-146.

Hamm, Charles. "Music and Radio in the PRC." Asian Music 22, 2 (Spring/Summer 1991): 1-41.


Documentary Film

Berry, Chris. "Facing Reality: Chinese Documentary, Chinese Postsocialism." In Wu Hung, ed., The First Guangzhou Triennial: Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art (1990-2000). Guangzhou: Zhuangzhou Museum of Art/ Chicago: Art Media Resources, 2002, 121-31.

-----. "On Top of the World: An Interview with Duan Jinchuan, Director of 16 Barkhor South Street." Film International 5, 2 (1997): 60-62.

-----. "Independently Chinese: Duan Jinchuan, Jiang Yue, and Chinese Documentary." In Paul Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 109-22.

-----. "Chris Berry on New Chinese Documentary." dGenerate Films (Nov. 14, 2013).

Berry, Chris, Lu Xinyu, Lisa Rofel, eds. The New Chinese Documentary Film Movement: For the Public Record. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Matthew D. Johnson]

[Abstract: [The book] is a groundbreaking project unveiling recent documentary film work that has transformed visual culture in China, and brought new immediacy along with a broader base of participation to Chinese media. As a foundational text, this volume provides a much-needed introduction to the topic of Chinese documentary film, the signature mode of contemporary Chinese visual culture. These essays examine how documentary filmmakers have opened up a unique new space of social commentary and critique in an era of rapid social changes amid globalization and marketization. The essays cover topics ranging from cruelty in documentary to the representation of Beijing; gay, lesbian and queer documentary; sound in documentary; the exhibition context in China; authorial intervention and subjectivity; and the distinctive "on the spot" aesthetics of contemporary Chinese documentary. This volume will be critical reading for scholars in disciplines ranging from film and media Studies to Chinese studies and Asian studies.]

bjdoc.com [a site devoted to documentary film in China]

Cao, Qing. "Two Faces of Confucianism: Narrative Construction of Cross-Cultural Images in Television Documentaries." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 30, 2 (July 2004).

Chen, Pauline. "Screening History: New Documentaries on the Tiananmen Events in China." Cineaste 21, 1 (Winter 1996): 18-22.

Chi, Robert. "The New Taiwanese Documentary." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 1 (Spring 2003): 146-96.

China Indepedent Documentary Film Archive [Mission: (a) create a platform for screening and discussing Chinese independent documentary films; (b) collect, catalog and research independent Chinese documentaries; (c) istribute and promote these films worldwide in order to convey the many realities they express. China Folk Memory Image Archives (CFMIA): an ongoing, long term archive powered by the community. It collects, organizes and preserves images from China's folk history. It's goal is to create a collection that can be used for research and study purposes, while at the same time engaging the community to document and preserve it is own history and Our base: CIDFA is based at Caochangdi Workstation, the studio of independent Chinese documentary filmmaker Wu Wenguang.]

China on Video [website on documentary maintained by Paola Voci]

Chiu, Kuei-fen. "Taiwan and Its Spectacular Others: Aesthetic Reflexivity in Two Documentaries by Women Filmmakers from Taiwan." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 98-107.

-----. "The Vision of Taiwan New Documentary." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 17-32.

-----. "The Subaltern Woman's Voice and the (Film-)making of Modern Taiwan." In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 193-215.

-----. "'Should I Put Down the Camera?': Ethics in Contemporary Taiwanese Documentary Films." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 138-54.

Chu, Yingchi. Chinese Documentaries: From Dogma to Polyphony. NY: Routledge, 2007.

Cornell, Christen. "The Affluent and the Effluent: Wang Jiuliang's Beijing Besieged by Waste." Senses of Cinema (July 2012).

The Da Zha Lan Project (This project is about researching and filming the area of Da Zha Lan, which is a slum in Beijing.The Da Zha Lan Project is an extension of San Yuan Li (the village-in-city in Guangzhou), a project that was featured in the 50th Venice Biennale in 2003. Together with an upcoming project about Caoyang Xincun in Putuo District in Shanghai (a workers' community in Shanghai, 2006), it will make up a series of research and creative practice concerning urbanization and impoverished communities in cities in China.)

Denton, Kirk A. "Storm Under the Sun: An Introduction," liner notes to the DVD version of the documentary Storm Under the Sun, directed by Peng Xiaolian and S. Louisa Wei. Hong Kong: Blue Queen Cultural Communication, 2007.

Deppman, Hsiu-Chuang. "The Politics and Aesthetics of Seeing in Jump! Boys." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 112-37.

dGenerate Films [the leading distributor of contemporary independent film from mainland China to audiences worldwide. We are dedicated to procuring and promoting visionary content, fueled by transformative social change and digital innovation.]

Edwards, Dan. "Street Level Visions: China's Digital Documentary Movement." Senses of Cinema (July 2012).

Fang Fang. Zhongguo jilupian fazhan shi (A history of the development of Chinese documentary film). Beijing: Zhongguo xiju, 2003. [reviewed by Shan Wanli at Documentary Box]

He, Chang. "The Raw and the Real." City Weekend (August 1, 2005).

Hong, Guo-Juin. "Voices and Their Discursive Dis/Content in Taiwan Documentary." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 2 (2013): 183-193.

[Abstract: Instead of attempting to provide a survey of Taiwan documentary, this article focuses on a few critical moments in its long and uneven history and proposes a potentially productive site for understanding its formal manifestations of representational politics. By honing in on the uses of sounds and words, I show that the principle of a unitary voice--voice understood both as the utterances of sound and the politico-cultural meaning of such utterances--organizes the earlier periods of the colonial and authoritarian rules and shapes later iterations of and formal reactions to them. Be it voice-over narration or captions and inter-titles, this article provides a historiographical lens through which the politics of representation in Taiwan documentary may be rethought. Furthermore, this article takes documentary not merely as a genre of non-fiction filmmaking. Rather, it insists on documentary as a mode, and indeed modes, of representation that do not belong exclusively to the non-fiction. Notions of "documentability" are considered together with the corollary tendency to "fictionalize" in cinema, fiction and non-fiction. Taiwan, with its complex histories in general and the specific context within which the polyglossiac practices of New Taiwan Documentary have blossomed in recent decades in particular, is a productive site to investigate the questions of "sound" in cinematic form and "voice" in representational politics.]

-----. "Limits of Visiblity: Taiwan's Tongzhi Movement in Mickey Chen's Documentaries." positions: asia critique 23, 3 (summer 2013): 683-701.

Jacka, Tamara and Josko Petkovic. "Ethnography and Video: Researching Women in China's Floating Population." Intersections (Sept. 1998).

Jaffee, Valerie. "Every Man a Star: The Ambivalent Cult of Amateur Art in New Chinese Documentaries." In Paul Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 77-108.

Jilu guandian (Viewpoint). [a site on the Taiwan Public Television Station website devoted to Taiwan documentary film]

Johnson, Matthew David. "A Scene Beyond Our Line of Sight: Wu Wenguang and New Documentary Cinema's Politics of Independence." In Paul Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 47-76.

Kuo, Li-hsin. "Sentimentalism and the Phenomenon of Collective 'Looking Inward': A Critical Analysis of Mainstream Taiwanese Documentary." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 183-203.

Leary, Charles. "Performing the Documentary, or Making It to the Other Bank." Senses of Cinema 27 (July/Aug. 2003).

Lee, Daw-Mng. "A Preliminary Study of the Market for Documentaries in Taiwan." Asian Cinema 20, 2 (Fall/Winter 2009): 68-82.

-----. "Re/Making Histories: On Historical Documentary Film and Taiwan: A People's History." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 11-37.

Lee, Maggie. "Behind the Scenes: Documentaries in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong." Documentary Box 26 (2005).

Li, Jie. "Virtual Museums of Forbidden Memories: Hu Jie's Documentary Films on the Cultural Revolution." Public Culture 21, 3 (2009): 538-49

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. "Between Past and Future: Documentary Films on the 2/28 Incident in Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 46-71.

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun and Tze-Lan Deborah Sang, eds. Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. NY: Routledge, 2012.

[Abstract: To date, there is but a handful of articles on documentary films from Taiwan. This volume seeks to remedy the paucity in this area of research and conduct a systematic analysis of the genre. Each contributor to the volume investigates the various aspects of documentary by focusing on one or two specific films that document social, political and cultural changes in recent Taiwanese history. Since the lifting of martial law, documentary has witnessed a revival in Taiwan, with increasing numbers of young, independent filmmakers covering a wide range of subject matter, in contrast to fiction films, which have been in steady decline in their appeal to local, Taiwanese viewers. These documentaries capture images of Taiwan in its transformation from an agricultural island to a capitalist economy in the global market, as well as from an authoritarian system to democracy. What make these documentaries a unique subject of academic inquiry lies not only in their exploration of local Taiwanese issues but, more importantly, in the contribution they make to the field of non-fiction film studies. As the former third-world countries and Soviet bloc begin to re-examine their past and document social changes on film, the case of Taiwan will undoubtedly become a valuable source of comparison and inspiration. These Taiwanese documentaries introduce a new, Asian perspective to the wealth of Anglo-American scholarship with the potential to serve as exemplar for countries undergoing similar political and social transformations.]

-----. "Recreating the White Terror on the Screen." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 38-59.

Lin, Xudong. "Documentary in Mainland China." Tr. Cindy Carter. Documentary Box 26 (2005).

Lu, Xinyu. Jilu Zhongguo: Dangdai Zhongguo xin jilu yundong (Recording China: Contemporary Chinese new documentary movement). Beijing: Sanlian, 2003. [reviewed by Feng Yan at Documentary Box]

-----. "Ruins of the Future: Class and History in Wang Bing's Tiexi District." New Left Review 31 (Jan-Feb, 2005)

Lupke, Christopher. " Documenting Environmental Protest: Taiwan's Gongliao Fourth Nuclear Power Plant and the Cultural Politics of Dialogic Artifice." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 155-82.

Palmer, Augusta L. Crossroads: Nostalgia and the Documentary Impulse in Chinese Cinemas at the Turn of the 21st Century. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 2004.

Pernin, Judith. "Filming Space/Mapping Reality in Chinese Independent Documentary Films." China Perspectives 1 (2010): 22-34.

Qian, Ying. "Crossing the Same River Twice: Reenactment and the Founding of PRC Documentary Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 590-609.

Reel China: Documentary Biennal (PRC documentary films available for public showing)

Reynaud, Berenice. "New Visions / New China: Video--Art, Documentation, and the Chinese Modernity Question." In Michael Renov and Erika Suderburg, eds., Resolutions: Contemporary Video Practices. Minneapolis: Univesity of Minnesota Press, 1996, 229-57.

----. "Dancing with Myself, Drifting with My Camera: The Emotional Vagabonds of China's New Documentary." Senses of Cinema 28 (Sept-Oct. 2003).

Robinson, Luke. "Contingency and Event in China's New Documentary Film Movement." Working Paper. Nottingham EPrints. (Unpublished).

-----. "Alternative Archives and Individual Subjectivities: Ou Ning's Meishi Street." Senses of Cinema (July 2012).

-----. Independent Chinese Documentary. London: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2013.

[Abstract: In the past 20 years, China has witnessed the flowering of an independent documentary cinema characterized by a particular vérité aesthetic. Independent Chinese Documentary traces the roots of this style back to the 1980s, and the gradual abandonment of studio-based filmmaking, dominant during the Maoist era, for shooting live and on location. Known in Chinese as xianchang – or being ‘on the scene’ – this documentary practice is distinguished by its embrace of the contingent. Through a series of synoptic case studies, this book considers the different ways in which contingency manifests in independent Chinese documentary; the practical and aesthetic challenges its mediation presents for individual filmdirectors; and the reasons for the quality's significance, and enduring appeal, in the context of China’s ongoing transition from socialism to capitalism.]

Sang, Tze-lan D. "Reclaiming Taiwan's Colonial Modernity: The Case of Viva Tonal: The Dance Age." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 60-88.

Scruggs, Bert. "Cultivating Taiwanese: Yen Lan-chuan and Juang Yi-tseng's Let It Be (Wu mi le)." In Sylvia Li-chun Lin and Tze-lan Sang, eds., Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2012, 89-111.

Shan Wanli. Jilu dianying wenxian (Documents on documentary film). Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, 2001.

-----. Zhongguo jilu dianying de lishi (History of Chinese documentary film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 2005.

Shen, Rui. "To Remember History: Hu Jie Talks About His Documentaries." Senses of Cinema 35 (2005).

Sun, Jianqiu. "Sound adn Color in Sun Mingjin's Silent b/w Films: The Paradox of a Documentary/Educational Filmmaker." Asian Cinema 17, 1 (Spring/Sumer, 2006): 221-29.

Taiwan International Documentary Festival [official site of this important and popular documentary film fest]

Takenaka, Akiko. "Politics of Representation or Representation of Politics? Yasukuni the Film." Review of Japanese Culture and Society 21 (Dec. 2009): 117-36.

Tsai, Futuru C. L. Amis Hip Hop

[website devoted to the documentary Amis Hip Hop; the entire documentary can be viewed online; "Amis Hip Hop documents how a group of young Amis men in Dulan village have blended influences from contemporary social and cultural life in Taiwan with their traditional practice of ritual dance performance in the village. When people think of Amis in Taiwan, images of colorfully dressed female dancers welcoming visitors, or else repetitive chanting in a circle dance at a harvest festival, come to mind. However, the Amis young men of Dulan village on the east coast of Taiwan have been creating a new style of performance that is still based on their traditions. Rooted in the Amis ethos of respect for male age-grade organization, matrilineal affiliation, intimacy with the ocean, and appreciation of joking relationships, these young men also blend in elements of foreign fashion in music and dance all while keeping with traditional village aesthetics. Through their performances, they represent a new image to both locals and outsiders, and actively construct their local identity as Dulan Amis"]

Veg, Sebastian. "From Meiji Modernity to the Nanjin Massacre: Yasukuni's Critical Perspective on History and Memory." MCLC Resource Center Publication (May 2010).

Voci, Paola. "From the Center to the Periphery: Chinese Documentary’s Visual Conjectures."Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 65-113.

-----. "Un intento sincero e dei metodi onesti: Riflessioni sul documentario Cina di Antonioni e il nuovo documentario cinese" (A sincere purpose and honest means: Rethinking Antonioni’s documentay ‘China’ and the new Chinese documentary). In Maurizio Scarpari and Tiziana Lippiello, eds., Cher Maître…Scritti in onore di Lionello Lanciotti per l’ottantesimo compleanno. Venezia: Ca’ Foscarina, 2005: 1234-1248.

-----. "Dal grande al piccolo schermo: nuovi sviluppi del documentario cinese" (From silver screen to small screen: new developments of Chinese documentary). In Ombre Elettriche: Cento anni di cinema cinese 1905-2005 (Electric shadows: 100 years of Chinese cinema 1905-2005). Venezia: Fondazione La Biennale di Venezia, 2005: 158-167.

-----. "Quasi-Documentary, Cellflix and Web Spoofs: Chinese Movies' Other Visual Pleasures." Senses of Cinema 41 (Oct.-Dec. 2006).

-----. "Chinese Documentary: Changing Film Culture in China." China on Video.

-----. China on Video: Small Screen Realities. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: China On Video is the first in-depth study that examines smaller-screen realities and the important role they play not only in the fast-changing Chinese mediascape, but also more broadly in the practice of experimental and non-mainstream cinema. At the crossroads of several disciplines—film, media, new media, media anthropology, visual arts, contemporary China area studies, and cultural studies--this book reveals the existence of a creative, humorous, but also socially and politically critical "China on video", which locates itself outside of the intellectual discourse surrounding both auteur cinema and digital art. By describing smaller-screen movies, moviemaking and viewing as light realities, Voci points to their "insignificant" weight in terms of production costs, distribution size, profit gains, intellectual or artistic ambitions, but also their deep meaning in defining an alternative way of seeing and understanding the world. The author proposes that lightness is a concept that can usefully be deployed to describe the moving image, beyond the specificity of recent new media developments and which can, in fact, help us rethink previous cinematic practices in broad terms both spatially and temporally.]

Wang, Ban. "Documentary as Haunting of the Real: The Logic of Capital in Blind Shaft." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 4-15.

-----. "In Search of Real-Life Images in China: Realism in the Age of Spectacle." Journal of Contemporary China 56 (August 2008): 497-512.

[Abstract: This essay re-examines new realism in documentary film and photography in China. Distinct from official realism, genuine realism requires that experience be seen within its real environment and characters and actions of a realist work be shaped by that environment. This principle challenges the visual regime of spectacle controlled by the expanding global cultural industry. Documentary realism represents a penetrating social comment but also recovers a materialist understanding of workers' life and conditions in China. Photo-realism on the other hand uncovers the forgotten ways of life among ordinary people in the fast modernization of the cities.]

Wang, Qi. "Navigating on the Ruins: Space, Power, and History in Contemporary Chinese Independent Documentaries." Asian Cinema 17, 1 (Spring/Sumemr 2006): 246-55.

-----. "Embodied Visions: Chinese Queer Experimental Documentaries by Shi Tou and Cui Zi'en." positions: asia critique 21, 3 (Summer 2013): 659-81.

Wang Weici (also Wang Wei-tsy). Jilu yu tansuo: yu dalu jilupian gongzuozhe de shiji duihua (Recording and exploring: conversations with documentarians from Mainland China). Taibei: Yuanliu, 2000.

Wang, Yiman. "The Amateur's Lightning Rod: DV Documentary in Postsocialist China." Film Quarterly 58, 4 (2005): 16-26.

[Abstract: This article examines the cultural politics of DV documentaries emerging from postsocialist China, discussing the documentary-makers as amateur-authors. It goes on to argue that the documentarians' self-consciously deployed aesthetics of cruelty constitutes a socio-political claim for an alternative "real," derived from a subaltern "structure of feeling."]

Woei Lien Chong and Anne Sytske Keijser. "Modernizing Mainland China: PRC Films and Documentaries at the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 1999." China Information 14, 1 (1999): 171-207.

Wu, Wenguang. "Just on the Road: A Description of the Individual Way of Recording Images in the 1990s." In Wu Hung, ed., The First Guangzhou Triennial: Reinterpretation: A Decade of Experimental Chinese Art (1990-2000). Guangzhou: Zhuangzhou Museum of Art/ Chicago: Art Media Resources, 2002, 132-38.

Ye, Lou. "Popular Documentary Films." Beijing Review 41, 26 (June 29, 1998): 28-29.

Yunnan Multicultural Visual Festival [Documentary film festival in Kunming, Yunnan]

Zhang, Yingjin. "Styles, Subjects, and Special Points of View: A Study of Contemporary Chinese Independent Documentary." New Cinemas: Journal of Contemporary Film [England] 2, 2 (2004): 119-35.

-----. "Thirdspace between Flows and Places: Chinese Independent Documentary and Social Theories of Space and Locality." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 320-42.

Zhu Jingjiang and Mei Bing. Zhongguo duli jilupian dang'an (A record of independent Chinese documentary). Shanxi: Shifandaxue, 2004.

Zhu, Ying and Tongdao Zhang. "Sun Mingjin and Early Chinese Documentary Filmmaking." In Marco Muller and Elena Pollachi, eds., Ombre Elettriche.Cento anni di cinema cinese 1905-2005. Venice: Fondazione La Biennale di Venezia, 2005, 64-74.

-----. "Sun Mingjin and John Grierson, a Comparative Study of Early Chinese and British Documentary Film Movements." Asian Cinema 17, 1 (Spring/Summer 2006): 230-45.


Television

Ballew, Tad. "Xiaxiang for the '90s: The Shanghai TV Rural Channel and Post-Mao Urbanity amid Global Swirl." In Nancy Chen, et al, eds., China Urban: Ethnographies of Contemporary Culture. Durham: Duke UP, 2001, 242-73.

Barme, Geremie. "TV Requiem for the Myths of the Middle Kingdom." Far Eastern Economic Review (Sept. 1, 1988).

-----. "'Road' Versus 'River.'" Far Eastern Economic Review (Oct. 25, 1990).

Berry, Chris. "Shanghai Television's Documentary Channel: Chinese Television as Public Space." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 71-89.

Cao, Qing. "Two Faces of Confucianism: Narrative Construction of Cross-Cultural Images in Television Documentaries." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 30, 2 (July 2004).

Chan, Alex. "From Propaganda to Hegemony: Jiaodian Fangtan and China's Media Policy." Journal of Contemporary China 16 (30) (Feb. 2002): 35-51.

[Abstract: This paper reports the findings of an empirical study of the current affairs program Jiaodian Fangtan , which attracts a daily audience of 300 million. A content analysis of the transcripts of all reports of this program in 1999 shows that although the program is indeed unconventional in its criticism of local cadres, it remains conservative in its subtle and cautious control of the frequency, timing, level, and content of the criticism. Further analysis of the government's media policy shows that in the 1990s, it redefined the primary role of media as agenda-setting, which allows the expression of the people's voice, though priority is still given to the party's voice. To this extent, China's media policy gradually shifted away from propaganda and towards hegemony before the turn of the century.

Chan, Joseph Man. "Television in Greater China." In John Sinclair, Elizabeth Jacka, and Stuart Cunnignham, eds., New Patterns in Global Television: Peripheral Vision. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996, 126-60.

-----. "Toward Television Regionalism in Greater China and Beyond." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009,15-39.

Chan, Tsan-Kuo. China's Window on the World: TV News, Social Knowledge, and International Spectacle. Cresskill: Hampton Press, 2001.

Chang, Chin-Hwa Flora. "Multiculturalism and Television in Taiwan." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Televsion in Contempoary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 405-20.

Chen, Guangzhong. "Beating the Drum of the Mind to March Forward with Spirit: The Artistic Characteristics of the Political Television Documentary The Course of the Century." Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 25, 1 (Fall 1992): 83-91.

Chen, Xiaomei. "Occidentalism as Counterdiscourse: 'He Shang' in Post-Mao China." Critical Inquiry 18, 4 (1992): 686-712.

Chen, Y. and Hao, X. "Conflict Resolution in Love Triangles: Perspectives Offered by Chinese TV Dramas." Intercultural Communication Studies 7 (1997-98): 133-148.

Chen, Zuyan. "'River Elegy' as Reportage Literature: Generic Experimentation and Boundaries." China Information 7, 4 (1993): 20-32.

Chin, Yik Chan. Television Regulation and Media Policy in China. NY: Routledge, 2010.

Chinoy, Mike. China Live: People Power and the Television Revolution. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 1999.

Chong, W. L. "Su Xiaokang and His Film 'River Elegy.'" China Information 4, 3 (Winter 1989/90).

Chu, J. "Broadcasting in the People's Republic of China." In John Lent, ed., Broadcasting in Asia and the Pacific. Philadephia: Temple UP, 1978, 21-24.

Classic Chinese Television Commercials. Danwei.org. Posted by Joel Martinsen (Sept 16, 2008).

Curtin, Michael. Playing to the World's Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

[Abstract: In this provocative analysis of screen industries in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, Michael Curtin delineates the globalizing pressures and opportunities that since the 1980s have dramatically transformed the terrain of Chinese film and television, including the end of the cold war, the rise of the World Trade Organization, the escalation of democracy movements, and the emergence of an East Asian youth culture. Reaching beyond national frameworks, Curtin examines the prospect of a global Chinese audience that will include more viewers than in the United States and Europe combined. He draws on in-depth interviews with a diverse array of media executives plus a wealth of historical material to argue that this vast and increasingly wealthy market is likely to shake the very foundations of Hollywood's century-long hegemony.]

De Jong, Alice. "The Demise of the Dragon: Bacgrounds to the Chinese Film 'River Elegy.'" China Information 4, 3 (Winter 1988-89): 28-43.

Del Lago, Francesca. "The Fiction of Everyday Life: Video Art in the PRC." Art Asia Pacific 27 (2000): 53-57.

Deppman, Hsiu-Chuang. "Made in Taiwan: An Analysis of Meteor Garden as an East Asian Idol Drama." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 90-110.

Ding, Ersu. "Imperfect Paradise: The Image of the US on Chinese TV." In Yahya R. Kamalipour ed., Images of the US Around the World: A Multicultural Perspective. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999, 221-28.

Erwin, Kathleen. "White Women, Male Desires: A Televisual Fantasy of the Transnational Family." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 232-57. [about the mainland tv drama Sunset at Long Chao Li, by an anthropoligist who performed in the drama].

Field, Stephen. "He shang and the Plateau of Ultrastability." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 23, 3 (1991): 4-13.

French, David and Michael Richards, eds. Television in Contemporary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000.

Gao, Mobo. "The Dilemma of Chinese Cultural Nationalism: The Case of the TV Program 'General Shi Lang.'" Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 4, 1 (Jan. 2007). [In Chinese]

[Abstract: With the rise of China's status on international stage as a result of its economic development there is an increasingly audible voice of Chinese cultural nationalism. More and more educators and intellectuals are calling for the revival of Chinese traditional culture values. However, the very issues of who are the Chinese and what are traditional Chinese cultural values present a huge dilemma. The debates on a recent a TV program "General Shi Lang" consist a good case to illustrate this dilemma. Shi Lang was a general of the last days of the Ming Dynasty, but had surrendered to the Manchu Qing dynasty invaders and fought for the Machus take over Taiwan from a Chinese ruler. The debates show that the dilemma has its cause in at least three issues. First, it is not at all obvious who should be categorized as Chinese. Secondly, it is not at all obvious what Chinese cultural values are. And finally it is the issue of evaluation of traditional values against the universal claim of the values of liberal democracy.]

Gong, Qian. "Red Women and TV Drama." In Christopher Crouch, ed., Contemporary Chinese Visual Culture: Tradition, Modernity, and Globalization. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2010.

Guo Zhenzhi, ed. Zhongguo dianshi shi (History of Chinese television). Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue, 1991.

Ho, Chang Won. Mass Media in China: The History and the Future. Ames, IA: Iowa State UP, 1989.

Hong, Junhao. The Internationalization of Television in China: The Evolution of Ideology, Society, and Media since the Reform. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

-----. "China's TV Program Import 1958-1988: Towards the Internationalization of Television?" Gazette 52 (1993): 1-23.

-----. "Penetration and Interaction of Mass Media between Taiwan, Hong Kong and the Mainland China: Trends and Implications." In Bin Yü and Tsungting Chung, eds., Dynamics and Dilemma: Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong in a Changing World. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 1996.

----- "Reconciliation between Openness and Resistance: Media Globalization and New Policies of China's Television in the 1990s." In Georgette Wang, Jan Sevaes, adn Anura Goonasekera, eds., The New Communications Landscape: Demystifying Media Globalization. London: Routledge, 2000, 288-306.

Hong, Junhao, Yanmei Lu, William Zou. "CCTV in the Reform Years: A New Model for China's Television." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 40-55.

Howkins, John. Mass Communications in China. NY: Longman, 1982. [contains a chapter on television]

"Hua shuo Kewang" (Speaking of Aspirations). Special issue on the TV drama Aspirations. Shanghai wenlun 2 (1991).

Huang, Yu. "Why Party Media Backfired? Television as the Agent of Social Changes in Post-Mao China." Journal of Radio and Television Studies 2-4 (1996): 169-96.

-----. "Peaceful Evolution: The Case of Television Reform In Post-Mao China." Media, Culture & Society 16 (1994): 217-41.

Huang, Yu and Andrew Green. "From Mao to the Millenium: 40 Years of Television of China (1958-1998)." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Televsion in Contempoary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 267-92.

Hung, Ruth Y. Y. "The State and the Market: Chinese TV Serials and the Case of Woju (Dwelling Narrowness)." boundary 2 38, 2 (2011): 155-87.

[Abstract: The production, consumption, and state control of Chinese TV serial drama can be seen as an instrument of power and profit maximization as well as a medium for mass education and homogenization in the form of popular culture. The serial drama Woju (Dwelling narrowness) (2009) exemplifies the ways in which a prime-time TV serial in twenty-first-century China is a politically, socially, and commercially significant enterprise. Since the 1980s, prime-time serials have emerged as a distinctly successful medium with and through which the Chinese party-state exercises ideological control by entertainment rather than oppression. Indeed, not only did Woju enjoy huge audience popularity, it also benefited from considerable tolerance of the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television (SARFT), which, according to the website Danwai, allowed the drama to "slip" through its guidelines.]

Jacka, Tamara and Josko Petkovic. "Ethnography and Video: Researching Women in China's Floating Population." Intersections (Sept. 1998).

Keane, Michael. "Television and Moral Development in China."Asian Studies Review 22, 4, (Dec. 1998): 475-504.

-----. "Television and Civilisation: The Unity of Opposites?" International Journal of Cultural Studies 2, 2, (1999): 246-259.

-----. "Send in the Clones: Television Formats and Content Creation in the People's Republic of China." In Donald, S, Keane, M. and Yin Hong eds, Media in China: Consumption, Content, and Crisis. Curzon Press, 2001, 176-202.

-----. 'Television Regulation, Creative Compliance, and the Myth of Civil Society in China." Media, Culture and Society 23 (2001): 791-806.

-----. "By the Way, FUCK YOU! Feng Xiaogang's Disturbing Television Dramas." Continuum 15, 1 (2001): 57-66.

-----. "Cultural Technology Transfer: Redefining Content in the Chinese Television Industry." Emergences: Journal for the Study of Media and Composite Cultures 11, 2 (2001): 221-234.

-----. "As a Hundred Television Formats Bloom, A Thousand Television Stations Contend." Journal of Contemporary China 11, 30 (2002): 5-16.

[Abstract: This paper looks at the growing trend towards television format adaptation as an industry development strategy in China. As China's television industry professionals imagine a commercial future, this vision is tempered by the reality of a deficit of quality content. Program schedules exhibit limited variety and are dominated by cheap variety show formats, royal court television dramas, game shows, and news. In search of new ways to stimulate audiences, producers have looked outside China to formats successful in Taiwan, SAR Hong Kong, Japan, Europe and the US. The localization of foreign programs represents a more useful experiment for China's domestic industry than the importation of finished programs. Unlike finished programs the format can be 'filled' with culturally specific content, and where licensed co-productions ensue there is the potential for added value in terms of technology transfer. I argue, however, that the strategy of format adaptation is a short-term solution to program development that is unlikely to stimulate a creative media-based economy.]

-----. 'Television Drama in China: Engineering Souls for the Market." In Richard King and Timothy Craig, eds., Global Goes Local: Popular Culture in Asia. Vancouver: University of British Colombia Press, 2001, 176-202.

----. "It's All in a Game: Television Formats in the People's Republic of China." In Koichi Iwabuchi, Stephen Muecke, and Mandy Thomas eds., Rogue Flows: Trans-Asian Cultural Traffic. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2004, 53-72.

-----. "Television Drama in China: Remaking the Market." Media International Australia (Culture and Policy) 115 (2005): 82-93/

Keane, Michael and Tao Dongfeng. "Conversation with Feng Xiaogang , Director of TV series 'Beijingers in New York.'" positions: east asia cultures critiques, 7, 1 (Spring 1999): 193-200.

Kong, Shuyu. "Rebuilding the Empire: Historical TV Drama and the New Expressive Form of Cultural Nationalism." Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 4, 1 (Jan. 2007). [In Chinese]

[Abstract: This paper explores the discourse of cultural nationalism and its recent articulation in historical TV dramas (Lishi ju): TV serials set in the Chinese imperial past and depicting court politics and the private lives of imperial families. First, I briefly survey the recent resurgence of historical drama on the TV screen, especially comparing two different ways of representing history: “history light” (xishuo) and “history orthodox” (zhengju). While history light, a new genre strongly influenced by the costume dramas imported from Hong Kong and Taiwan, emphasizes the entertainment values of popular culture and adopts a postmodern attitude towards history, history orthodox renews the pedagogical tradition and the moralistic narrative of historical drama in modern China since the May Fourth enlightenment movement. I then focus on TV dramas in the history orthodox mode and their ideological messages, examining two representative works by Hu Mei: Yongzheng Dynasty (Yongzheng wangchao, 1999) and The Great Emperor Wu of Han (Hanwu dadi, 2005). While drawing attention to the various narrative strategies, intertextualities and audio-visual styles employed in these dramas to represent the glorious national history and portray a strong leader (the emperor) as national hero, I also provide a contextual analysis of the production and circulation of these two dramas as well as the critical and media response to them, to reveal the social agencies and social formation of these dramas behind the screen. I suggest that the revisionist reframing of the past in historical TV drama reflects a new nationalist historical consciousness and cultural identity borne out of China’s rapid rise and aspirations to become an economic and political superpower.]

-----. "The 'Affective Alliance': Undercover, Internet Media Fandom, and the Sociality of Cultural Consumption in Postsocialist China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 1 (Spring 2012): 1-47.

Lee, Amy. "Hong Kong Television and the Making of New Diasporic Imaginaries." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 183-200.

Lee, Gregory. "Chineseness and MTV: Construction of the 'Ethnic' Imaginary and the Recuperation of National Symbolic Space by the Official Ideology." In Mario Vieira de Carvalho, ed., Music and Lifeworld: Otherness and Transgression in the Culture of the Twentieth Century (in memoriam Fernando Lopes Graça). Lisbon: Fundaçao D. Luis I.

Lee, Haiyan. "Nannies for Foreigners: The Enchantment of Chinese Womanhood in the Age of Millennial Capitalism." Public Culture 18, 3 (Fall 2006): 507-29.

Lee, Paul S. N. "Hong Kong Television: An Anchor for Local Identity." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Television in Contempoary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 363-84.

Li, Li. "The Television Play, Melodramatic Imagination and Envisioning the 'Harmoniou Society in Post-1989 China." Journal of Contemporary China 20 (69) (2011): 327-41.

[Abstract: The television play has been recognized by scholars as the most influential genre in the flourishing television industry in China's new media landscape; yet little critical attention has been given to inquiry of why and how it functions as a dynamic cultural agent in the Chinese people's reconfiguration of their past and imagining of their everyday life. This paper investigates the intriguing socio-historical environment from which the genre emerged and its unique modes of operation by focusing on the television play of sentiment. It demonstrates that the television play embodies the many complex aspects of social forces and relationships contested in China's reform, suggesting, all at once, commercialization in Chinese society, the popular imaginary of morality and the state's conceptualization of a 'harmonious society', a strategic policy aiming at maintaining social balance while bypassing some of the thorny political questions in the post-revolution era.]

Li, Xiaoping. "'Focus' (Jiaodian Fangtan) and the Changes in the Chinese Television Industry." Journal of Contemporary China 11 (30) (Feb. 2002): 17-34.

[Abstract: As China changes, so the Chinese television industry changes. Once exclusively supported and supervised by the Communist government, Chinese television channels have been granted increased autonomy in the past two decades as China has pursued a policy of economic liberalization. This paper will outline the significant structural changes in the Chinese television industry over the past several years, particularly at China Central Television (CCTV). It will focus on the phenomenon of a highly popular program, 'Focus', (jiao dian fang tan) as a case study to analyse the impact of changing television programs on Chinese politics and society.]

Liang, Samuel. "Property-driven Urban Change in Post-Socialist Shanghai: Reading the Television Series Woju." Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 39, 4 (2010): 3-28.

[Abstract: In late 2009, the television series Woju received extremely high audience ratings in major Chinese cities. Its visual narratives engage the public and comment on social developments by presenting detailed pictures of urban change in Shanghai and the everyday lives of a range of urban characters who are involved in and affected by the urban-restructuring process and represent three distinct social groups: "white-collar" immigrants, low-income local residents, and powerful officials. By analysing the visual narratives of these characters, this article highlights the loss of the city's historical identity and shows how the reorganization of urban space translates into a reallocation of resources, power and prestige among the social groups. The article also shows that Woju repre-sents a new development in literary and television production in the age of the Internet and globalization; its imaginative construct of the city was based on transnational and virtual rather than local and neighbourhood experience. This also testifies to the loss of the city's established identity in cultural production.]

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. "From 'River Elegy' to China Can Say No: China's Neo-Nationalism and the Search for Collective National Identity." In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin's Press, 1999, 89-102.

Lin, Szu-Ping. “The Woman with Broken Palm Lines: Subject, Agency, Fortune-Telling, and Women in Taiwanese Television Drama.” In Jenny Kwok Wah Lau, ed., Multiple Modernities: Cinemas and Popular Media in Transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2003, 222-37.

Liu, Jin. "Ambivalent Laughter: Comic Sketches in CCTV's 'Spring Festival Gala.'" Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 10, 1 (Summer 2010).

Liu, Lydia H. "What's Happened to Ideology? Transnationalism, Postsocialism, and the Study of Global Media Culture." Working Papers in Asian/Pacific Studies. Durham: Duke University, 1998. [focuses on "Beijingers in New York"]. Rpt in positions 7, 3 (Winter 1999): 763-97.

Liu, Toming Jun. "Uses and Abuses of Sentimental Nationalism: Mnemonic Disquiet in Heshang and Shuobu." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 169-209.

Liu, Y. "The Growth of Cable TV in China: Tensions between Local and Central Goverment." Telecommunications Policy (April 1994): 216-28.

Lu, Hongwei. "TV Romance and Popular Cultural Mood: The Chi Li Phenomenon." The China Review 6, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 125-152.

Lu, Sheldon H. "Soap Opera in China: The Transnational Politics of Visuality, Sexuality, and Masculinity." Cinema Journal 40, 1 (2000): 25-47. Rpt in Lu, China, Trannational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002, 213-38.

Lu, Xinyi. "Ritual, Television, and State Ideology: Rereading CCTV's 2006 Spring Festival Gala." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 111-25.

Lu, Xinyu. "Government Subsidies, Market Socialism, and the 'Public' Character of Chinese Television The Transformation of Chongqing Satellite TV." Modern China 37 (2011): 661-671.

[Abstract: In March 2011 Chongqing Satellite TV was made a public-interest channel and discontinued advertising, losing 0.3 billion yuan in revenue. The shortfall is to be partially made up by annual government subsidies of 0.15 billion yuan. The transformation of Chongqing Satellite TV is very much related to the widely debated reform of governance in Chongqing (the so-called Chongqing model), and thus is inevitably controversial. It has attracted critical commentary from academia, the advertising industry, and netizens, while the TV station and the Chongqing municipal government have not mounted an effective defense. Often, the two sides in the debate have been at cross-purposes and have spoken past each other. This article attempts to move beyond rigid binary oppositions, such as official/civilian and academic/ political, and to look at the arguments of both sides in the debate with an eye toward promoting a clearer understanding of public media in China.]

Lull, James. China Turned On: Television, Reform, and Resistance. London: Routledge, 1991.

Luo Ming, et al. eds. Zhongguo dianshi guanzhong xianzhuang baogao (Report on the current state of television spectatorship in China). Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian, 1998. [very useful, filled with statistics about national tv viewing in the PRC in the mid to late 90s]

Ma, Eric Kit-Wai. Culture, Politics and Televsion in Hong Kong. NY: Routledge, 1999.

Marlene, Judith. "The World of Chinese Television." In Donald Altschiller, ed., China at the Crossroads. NY: H. W. Wilson, 1994.

Mi, Jiayin. "The Visual Imagined Communities: Media State, Virtual Citizenship and TELE vision in River Elegy." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 22, no. 4 (Dec. 2005): 327-340.

Neder, Christina. Fluss-elegie China Identitatskrise: Die Debatte um die chinesicsche Fernsehserie Heshang, 1988-1994. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1996.

Pan, Zhongdong and Joseph Man Chan. "Building a Market-based Party Organ: Television and National Integration in China." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Televsion in Contempoary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 233-66.

Qian, Kun. "Tracing Desire: Cell Phone and the Self-Reflexivity of Contemporary Chinese Media." MCLC Resource Center Publication (May 2011).

Qu Chunjing and Ying Zhu, eds. Zhongmei dianshiju bijiao yanjiu (Television drama: Chinese and US perspectives). Shanghai: Sanlian, 2005.

Ren Wen. Zai Niuyue de Beijing ren: changpian baogao wenxue (Beijingers in New York: full-length reportage). Beijing: Zhongguo gaungbo dianshi, 1993.

Rofel, Lisa. "Yearnings: Televisual Love and Melodramatic Politics in China." American Ethnologist 21, 4 (1994): 700-22.

Rosen, Stanley and Gary Zou, eds. "The Chinese Television Documentary 'River Elegy' (part 1)." Chinese Sociology and Anthropology 24, 2 (Winter 1991/92): 3-90.

Schnieder, Florian. Visual Political Communication in Popular Chinese Television Series. Leiden: Brill, 2012

[Abstract: Schneider analyses political discourses in Chinese TV dramas, the most popular entertainment format in China today. He shows that despite their often nationalistic stories of glorious emperors and courageous officials, such programmes should not be mistaken for official propaganda. Instead, the highly didactical messages of such series are the outcome of complex cultural governance practices, which are influenced by diffuse political interests, commercial considerations, viewing habits, and ideological assumptions. Schneider argues that these interlinking factors lead to a highly restrictive creative environment and to conservative entertainment content that ultimately risks creating precisely the kind of passive masses that Chinese media workers and government officials are trying so hard to emancipate.]

Selden, Mark. "Introduction." Symposium on He shang." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 23, 3 (1991): 3.

Shen, Jinguo. Reshaping Television Culture and Modernity: A Critical Inquiry of Chinese Television and Communication Praxis. Ph.D. diss. Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Song, Geng. "Chinese Masculinities Revisited: Male Images in Contemporary Television Drama Serials." Modern China 36 (2010): 404-434.

[Abstract: This article investigates the discourse of masculinity in contemporary Chinese popular culture by critical readings of TV drama serials (dianshi lianxuju), a crucial and underresearched site for the study of ideology, shown on prime-time national channels in recent years (2003—2007). In particular, it examines the male images in three sweepingly popular TV programs—The Big Dye House ( Da ranfang), Halfway Couples (Banlu fuqi), and Unsheathing the Sword (Liangjian)—as "cultural types." It looks at the social, economic, and cultural factors that have affected men and representations of men in today’s China against the backdrop of the dynamic interplay between nationalism, globalization, and consumerism. Building on the burgeoning research on Chinese masculinity in the past decade, it argues that forms of masculinity are becoming increasingly hybrid in a globalizing China and that the male images in these dramas are a product of social changes tied in with new formations of power.]

Su, Herng and Sheue-Yun Chen. "The Choice Between Local and Foreign: Taiwan Youths' Television Viewing Behavior." In Georgette Wang, Jan Sevaes, and Anura Goonasekera, eds., The New Communications Landscape: Demystifying Media Globalization. London: Routledge, 2000, 225-44.

Su, Xiaokang, et. al. Deathsong of the River: a Reader's Guide to the Chinese TV Series Heshang. Ithaca: East Asian Program, Cornell University, 1991.

Sun, Wanning. "A Chinese in the New World: Television Dramas, Global Cities and Travels to Modernity." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, 1 (April 2001): 81-94.

-----. "Dancing with Chains: Significant Moments on China Central Television." International Journal of Cultural Studies 10, 2 (2007): 187-204.

-----. "Sex, City, and the Maid: Between Socialist Fantasies and Neoliberal Parables." Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 39, 4 (2010): 53-69.

[Abstract: Of the many rural migrant workers who go to Chinese cities as cheap labourers, the one who interacts most intimately with urban residents is the domestic servant. In fact, precisely because of this "intimate stranger" status, the figure of the "maid" has captured the imagination of the urban population. This fascination is evidenced by the plethora of television narratives centring on the fraught relationships between the rural migrant woman and her male employer. This paper analyses a range of television narratives from the genres of dramas and documentaries. It shows that in these narratives, sex functions as the metaphor of social inequality between two social groups. It shows that if we explore how love, romance and marriage are constructed, we may gain some insight into processes of social and ideological contestation in the domain of cultural production.]

Thomas, Amos Owen. "Transborder Television for Greater China." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Television in Contemporary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 91-110.

Tsai, Yean. "Cultural Identity in an Era of Globalization: The Structure and Content of Taiwanese Soap Operas." In Georgette Wang, Jan Sevaes, and Anura Goonasekera, eds., The New Communications Landscape: Demystifying Media Globalization. London: Routledge, 2000, 175-87.

Wang, Jing. "He shang and the Paradoxes of Chinese Enlightenment." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 23, 3 (1991): 27-32. Rpt. in High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng's China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, 118-36.

Weber, Ian. "Reconfiguring Chinese Propaganda and Control Modalities: A Case Study of Shanghai's Television System." Journal of Contemporary China 11 (30) (Feb. 2002): 53-75.

[Abstract: China's television industry has experienced a number of internal changes that have shaped this system's structure into the new millennium. The Chinese Government has reconfigured the propaganda and control modalities of this industry to allow television to become the prime mover for economic reform. A case study of Shanghai's dynamic television system from 1995 to 1999 is used to understand the changes that have taken place. This analysis provides an understanding of how the Chinese Government policy changes impact on the interrelatedness of the system's components. The consequences of these changes have had dramatic and lasting effects on the way the television industry operates in China. These effects have serious implications for foreign organisations, that are attempting to find a foothold in this booming industry, and for the Chinese television viewer.]

Wei, Ran. "China's Television in the Era of Marketisation." In Michael Richards and David French, eds., Televsion in Contempoary Asia. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, 325-46.

Wilkins, Karin Gwinn. "Hong Kong Television: Same As It Ever Was?" In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 56-67.

Wong, Cindy Hing-Yuk. "Globalizing Television: Chinese Satellite Television outside Greater China." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 201-20.

Worrall, Simon. "A Year in Front of the Dianshi." Sight and Sound 55, 3 (Summer 1986):178-81.

Wu Di and Lisa Pola, eds. Class and Gender Debates over the Television Soap Opera "Aspirations." Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Xu, Janice Hua. "Building a Chinese 'Middle Class': Consumer Education and Identity Construction in Television Land." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 150-67.

Yang, Mayfair Mei Hui. "Mass Media and Transnational Subjectivity in Shanghai: Notes on (Re)cosmopolitanism in a Chinese Metropolis." In Aiwha Ong and Don Nonini, eds. Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politicsof Modern Chinese Transnationalism. NY: Routledge, 1997, 287-319.

Young, Bob and Rachel DeWoskin. "Foreign Babe in Beijing." Transpacific 67 (1996). [written by the two foreign actors who played in the tv series Yangniu zai Beijing]

Yu, Haiqing. "Mediation Journalism in Chinese Television: Double-Time Narrations of SARS." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 129-49.

Yu, Huang and Xu Yu. "Broadcasting and Politics: Chinese Television in the Mao Era, 1958-1976." Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television (Oct.1997).

Zhang Qing and Hu Xingliang, eds. Zhongguo dianshi shi (The history of Chinese television). Beijing: Zhongyang guangbo dianshi daxue.

Zhang, Tongdao. "Chinese Television Audience Research." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 168-79.

Zhang, Wei. "The River Dies Young." Beijing Review 32, 4 (Jan. 1987):19-24.

Zhongguo guangbo dianshi nianjian (Yearbook of Chinese broadcasting and television). Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, 1986- .

Zhong, Xueping. "Multiple Readings and Personal Reconfigurations Against the 'Nationalist Grain.'" In Sharon K. Hom, ed., Chinese Women Traversing Diaspora. Garland Publishing, 1999, 103-25. [on Beijing ren zai Niuyue]

-----. Mainstream Culture Refocused: Televsion Drama, Society, and the Production of Meaning in Reform Era China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2010. [MCLC Resource Center review by Wei Yang]

[Abstract: Serialized television drama (dianshiju), perhaps the most popular and influential cultural form in China over the past three decades, offers a wide and penetrating look at the tensions and contradictions of the post-revolutionary and pro-market period. Zhong Xueping’s timely new work draws attention to the multiple cultural and historical legacies that coexist and challenge each other within this dominant form of story telling. Although scholars tend to focus their attention on elite cultural trends and avant garde movements in literature and film, Zhong argues for recognizing the complexity of dianshiju’s melodramatic mode and its various subgenres, in effect “refocusing” mainstream Chinese culture.]

Zhu, Ying. "Yongzheng Dynasty and Chinese Primetime Television Drama." Cinema Journal 44, 4 (2005): 3-17.

-----. Television in Post-Reform China: Serial Dramas, Confucian Leadership, and the Global Television Market. NY: Routledge, 2008.

-----. "Transnational Circulation of Chinese-Language Television Dramas." In Ying Zhu and Chris Berry, eds., TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009, 221-41.

-----. "From Anticorruption to Officialdom: The Transformation of Chinese Dynasty TV Drama." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 343-58.

-----. Two Billion Eyes: The Story of China Central Television. NY: The New Press, 2014.

[Abstract: Zhu's brilliant dissection of China Central Television (CCTV) is the first book to look at the dynamic modern media conglomerate and official mouthpiece of the Chinese Communist Party, with an audience of over 1.2 billion viewers globally, including millions in the United States. With "cogent analysis and penetrating insight" (Publishers Weekly), Two Billion Eyes tells the groundbreaking story of this hugely influential media player. "A fascinating window into the emergence of a Chinese public sphere" (Fredric Jameson) and "an indispensable guide to the Chinese media landscape" (The New Inquiry), Two Billion Eyes explores how commercial priorities and journalistic ethics have competed with the demands of state censorship and how Chinese audiences themselves have grown more critical. A "unique window" (South China Morning Post) into one of the world's most important corporations, this is a crucial new book for anyone seeking to understand contemporary China.]

Zhu, Ying and Chris Berry, eds. TV China. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2009. [press blurb]

Zhu, Ying and Michael Keene, eds. TV Drama in China. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009.

[Abstract: This collection of essays brings together the first comprehensive study of TV drama in China. Examining in depth the production, distribution and consumption of TV drama, the international team of experts demonstrate why it remains the pre-eminent media form in China. The examples are diverse, highlighting the complexity of producing narrative content in a rapidly changing political and social environment. Genres examined include the revisionist Qing drama, historical and contemporary domestic dramas, anti-corruption dramas, 'pink' dramas, Red Classics, stories from the Diaspora, and sit-coms. In addition to genres, the collection explores industry dynamics: how TV dramas are marketed and consumed on DVD, and China's aspirations to export its television drama rights. The book provides an international and cross-cultural perspective with chapters on Taiwanese TV drama in China, the impact of South Korean drama, and trans-border production between the Mainland and Hong Kong]


TV/Radio Stations

The Complete Reference to China / Chinese Related Television and Radio Websites (Chinasite.com)


PRC:

National:

CCTV
CCTV3 (General Arts channel)
CCTV4 (International channel) [has live webcast]
CCTV9 (English channel) [live webcast]
Zhongyang Dianshitai Dianying Weixing Pindu (China's national all-movies satellite channel)

Beijing:

Beijing TV
Beijing TV Video Online (provides Beijing TV programs on the Web in Real Video format)
Beijing Music Radio FM 97.4 (has online broadcast in real-time, RealAudio format)
Beijing People's Broadcasting Station

Shanghai:

Shanghai Oriental TV
Shanghai TV
Shanghai East Radio

Guangdong:

Radio Fuoshan
Guangdong Television
Nanhai Renmin Guangbo Diantai (Cantonese)
Shenzhen TV

Other:

Baoding Dianshitai (Hebei)
Chengdu TV Station
Chengdu Economy TV Station
Hainan TV
Hainan P and T CATV Ltd, Co.
Huizhou PBS
Hunan Weishi (Satellite channel from Hunan province)
Hunan Economic TV
Jinan Dianshitai (Serving Shandong)
Liaoning Cable TV
Luoyang Cable TV (Henan)
Nei Menggu Dianshitai (Inner Mongolian TV station)
Tangshan Dianshitai (Hebei)
Urumqi Guangbo Dianshibao (Official website of the T.V. station in Urumqi, Xinjiang. No internet broadcasts yet)
Wuhan TV
Yangzhou Cable TV (Jiangsu)
Yanbian Guangbo Diantai
Xinxiang Guangbo Dianshibao (Print news from this TV station in Henan province)
Zhejiang Youxian Dianshitai

HONG KONG

StreamingAsia (new internet service from Hong Kong, in Chinese or English)
Fairchild Television
Fenghuang Weishi (Phoenix Satellite)
Star TV
TVB
Hudong Dianshi (iTV Hong Kong)
Youxian Dianshi (Cable TV)
RTHK (Hong Kong radio station)

TAIWAN:

TTV
CTS
FTV
TVBS
Sister Radio

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