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MEDIA

FILM: Period: General / State of the Field / Early Film / 50s-70s / Post-Mao / Post-1989 / Taiwan / Hong Kong / Diaspora-Transnational
Director: Ai Xiaoming / Evans Chan / Fruit Chan / Jackie Chan / Peter Chan / Sylvia Chang / Chen Guofu / Chen Kaige / Mabel Cheung Yuen-ting / Stephen Chow / Cui Zi'en / Dong Kena / Fei Mu / Feng Xiaogang / He Yi / Hou Hsiao-hsien / King Hu / Hu Mei / Huang Jianxin / Huang Shuqin / Huang Weikai / Ann Hui / Jia Zhangke / Jiang Wen / Stanley Kwan / Stan Lai / Clara Law / Ang Lee / Bruce Lee / Lee Kang-sheng / Li Shaohong / Li Yang / Li Yu / Liu Miaomiao / Lou Ye / Lu Chuan / Meng Jinghui / Ning Hao / Ning Ying / Peng Xiaolian / Shen Xiling / Sun Yu / Tang Shu Shuen / Tian Zhuangzhuang / Johnnie To / Tsai Mingliang / Tsui Hark / Wang Bing / Wang Quan'an / Wang Xiaoshuai / Wong Kar-wai / John Woo / Wu Nien-chen / Wu Tianming / Wu Wenguang / Wu Yonggang / Wu Ziniu / Xie Jin / Xu Jinglei / Edward Yang / Yim Ho / Zhang Ming /Zhang Yang / Zhang Yimou / Zhang Yuan / Zhao Liang / Zheng Junli / Zhou Xiaowen

Reference: General / Interviews / Scripts / Film Theory (Chinese/Western) / Film Review Indices / On-Line
PRINT: Print Culture
OTHER MEDIA
: General / Internet / Documentary / Television / Radio / TV/Radio Stations

General

Armes, Roy. Third World Film Making and the West. Berkeley: UC Press, 1987.

Bai, Jingsheng. "Throwing Away the Walking Stick of Drama." Semsel, Chinese Film Theory, 5-9.

Bao Minglian. Dongfang Haolaiwu: Zhongguo dianying shiye jueqi yu fazhan (Hollywood of the East: the rise and development of the Chinese film industry). Shanghai: Shanghai renmin, 1991.

Barbieri, Maria. "The Other Half of Heaven: Women in Chinese Cinema." Asian Film Connection (University of Southern California)

Bassan, Raphael. "La longue marche du cinema chinois." La revue du cinema 380 (Feb 1983): 77?

Barlow, Tani and Donald Lowe. "Movies in China." Jump Cut 31 (1986): 55-57.

-----. "Media in China." Jump Cut 34 (1988): 117-121.

Bergeron, Regis. Le cinema chinois. I: 1905-1949. Laussane: Alfred Eibel, 1977.

-----. Le cinema chinois 1949-1983. 3 vols. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1983.

-----. Le cinema chinois: 1984-1997. Aix-en-Provence: Institut de l'image, 1997.

Berry, Chris, ed. Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Papers, 1985. Rpt. London: British Film Institute, 1991. [with essays by Lee Oufan, Catherine Yi-Yu Cho Woo, Berry, Wang Yuejin, Esther Yau, Ann Kaplan, Quiquemelle... , 7 of which do not appear in the original 1985 edition]

-----. Chinese Films in Focus: 25 New Takes. London: BFI Publishing, 2003. ["readings" of 25 films from Republican China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the PRC]

Berry, Chris. "'Race' (minzu): Chinese Film and the Politics of Nationalism." Cinema Journal 31, 2 (1992): 45-58.

-----. "Queer Films in East Asia." Australian Humanities Review 2 (July 1996).

-----. "Sexual DisOrientations: Homosexual Rights, East Asian Films, and Postmodern Postnationalism." In Xiaobing Tang, ed., In Pursuit of Contemporary East Asian Culture. Boulder: Westviewl 1996, 157-82.

-----. "If China Can Say No, Can China Make Movies? Or, Do Movies Make China? Rethinking National Cinema and National Agency." Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 129-50. Rpt. in Rey Chow ed., Modern Chinese Literary and Cultural Studies in the Age of Theory: Reimagining a Field. Durham: Duke UP, 2000. 159-80.

Berry, Chris and Mary Farquhar. “From National Cinemas to Cinema and the National: Rethinking the National in Transnational Chinese Cinemas.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 2 (2001): 109-22.

-----. China on Screen: Cinema and Nation. NY: Columbia University Press, 2006. [press blurb]

Berry, Michael. "Cinematic Representation of the Rape of Nanking." East Asia 19, 4 (2001): 85-108. [available online through Ingenta Select]

-----. A History of Pain: Literary and Cinematic Mappings of Violence in Modern China. Ph. D. diss. New York: Columbia University, 2004.

-----. "The Absent American: Figuring the United States in Chinese Cinema of the Reform Era." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 552-74.

-----, ed. Speaking in Images: Interviews with Contemporary Chinese Filmmakers. NY: Columbia University Press, 2005. [CUP abstract]

Bettison, Gary, ed. Directory of World Cinema: China. Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 2012.

Bordwell, David. "Transcultural Spaces: Toward a Poetics of Chinese Film." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 9-24. Rpt. in Sheldon Lu and Yueh-yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Films: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. 141-62.

Braester, Yomi. "The Dream of Flying: Taipei and Beijing Cinematic Poetics of Demolition." Tamkang Review (Summer 2000).

-----. Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003.

-----. "From Urban Films to Urban Cinema: The Emergence of a Critical Concept." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 346-58.

-----. "Film Schools in the PRC: Professionalization and Its Discontents." In Mette Hjort, ed., The Education of the Filmmaker in Europe, Australia, and Asia. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, .

Braester, Yomi and James Tweedie, eds. Cinema at the City's Edge: Film and Urban Networks in East Asia. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Cinema has been a primary mechanism for entertaining migrants to the modern city, recording and displaying a historically new experience to urban populations themselves, while also disseminating the city's promise around the world. But recent city films betray an awareness that the experience of urban life has changed with the dynamic energies and burdens of globalization, with the era of digital video now upon us, and with the emergence of almost limitless megacities throughout East Asia. Contemporary films from the region help define the urban experience in these new environments. These essays trace common concerns among East Asian cinemas of Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, the PRC, and Taiwan, and go beyond the now familiar notion that the Asian metropolises are successful iterations of local identity within a global network. Contributors include Ackbar Abbas, Dudley Andrew, Darrell W. Davis, Zhang Zhen, Emilie Yueh-yu Yeh, Yiman Wang, Susie Jie Young Kim, Chris Berry, and Akira Lippit]

Browne, Nick, et.al., eds. New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Identities, Politics. Cambridge UP, 1994.

Chan, Evans. "Chinese Cinema at the Millennium (Part One). Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring 2004): 90-115.

Chan, Kenneth. "The Contemporary Wuxia Revival: Genre Remaking and the Hollywood Transnational Factor." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 150-57.

Chang, Hsiao-hung. "The Unbearable Lightness of Globalization: On the Transnational Flight of Wuxia Films." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 95-107.

Chen Huangmei, ed. Dangdai Zhongguo dianying (Contemporary Chinese film). Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1989.

Chen Mo. Bai nian dianying shanhui (Flashbacks to a hundred years of Chinese film). Beijng: Zhongguo jingji, 2000.

Chen Xihe. "Shadowplay: Chinese Film Aesthetics and Their Philosophical and Cultural Fundamentals." Geroge Semsel, ed., Chinese Film Theory. NY: Praeger, 1990: 192-204.

Cheng Jihua, et al. Zhongguo dianying fazhan shi (The history of the development of Chinese film) 2 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1980. [first and most complete history of Chinese film]

Cheng, Pei-kai. "From Shanghai to Taipei: Metropolis in Spatial, Cultural, and Existential Consciousness in Chinese Cinema, 1930-1990." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 138-43.

Chiao, [Peggy] Hsiung-ping. "'Trafficking' in Chinese Films." Modern Chinese Literature 7, 2 (1993): 97-101. [about the exchange of motion picture culture across the Taiwan straits]

-----. "Chinese Cinema 1999-2000: Four Traditions, Four Masterpieces." Cinemaya 51 (Summer 2001): 4-12.

Chinese Cinema/Le Cinema Chinois 1932-1985. Montreal: Conservatoire d'art cinematographique de Montreal, 1985. [filmography of 30 films from 1985 retrospective]

Chong, Woei Lien, "Chinese Cinema at the 1998 International Rotterdam Film Festival." China Information 12, 4 (Spring 1998): 96-155. (With a contribution by Anne Sytske Keijser)

Chong, Woei Lien and Anne Sytske Keijser. "Chinese Films at the 1994 Rotterdam Film Festival: The Chinese Censor Comes to Rotterdam - In Vain." China Information 8, 3 (Winter 1993-1994): 53-66.

-----. "Chinese Cinema at the 1995 Rotterdam Film Festival: Dreaming of a Better World." China Information 9, 4 (Spring 1995): 60-72

-----. "Chinese Cinema at the 25th International Rotterdam Film Festival." China Information 10, 3/4 (Winter 1995/Spring 1996): 29-43

-----. "Chinese Cinema at the 1999 International Rotterdam Film Festival." In China Information 13, 4 (Spring 1999): 97-160.

-----. "Modernizing Mainland China: PRC Films and Documentaries at the Royal Tropical Institute in Amsterdam, 1999". China Information, 14, 1 (2000): 171-207.

-----. "The Quest for Happiness: Chinese Cinema at the 2000 International Rotterdam Film Festival." China Information 14, 2 (2000).

Chow, Rey. "Violence in the Other Country: China as Crisis, Spectacle, and Woman." In Chandra Talpade Mohanty, ed. Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991, 81-100.

-----. Primitive Passsions: Visuality, Sexuality, Ethnography, and Contemporary Chinese Cinema. NY: Columbia UP, 1995.

-----. Sentimental Fabulations, Contemporary Chinese Films: Attachment in the Age of Global Visuality. NY: Columbia UP, 2007.

[Abstract: What is the sentimental? How can we understand it by way of the visual and narrative modes of signification specific to cinema and through the manners of social interaction and collective imagining specific to a particular culture in transition? What can the sentimental tell us about the precarious foundations of human coexistence in this age of globalization? Rey Chow explores these questions through nine contemporary Chinese directors (Chen Kaige, Wong Kar-wai, Zhang Yimou, Ann Hui, Peter Chan, Wayne Wang, Ang Lee, Li Yang, and Tsai Ming-liang) whose accomplishments have become historic events in world cinema. Approaching their works from multiple perspectives, including the question of origins, nostalgia, the everyday, feminine "psychic interiority," commodification, biopolitics, migration, education, homosexuality, kinship, and incest, and concluding with an account of the Chinese films' epistemic affinity with the Hollywood blockbuster Brokeback Mountain, Chow proposes that the sentimental is a discursive constellation traversing affect, time, identity, and social mores, a constellation whose contours tends to morph under different historical circumstances and in different genres and media. In contemporary Chinese films, she argues, the sentimental consistently takes the form not of revolution but of compromise, not of radical departure but of moderation, endurance, and accommodation. By naming these films sentimental fabulations--screen artifacts of cultural becoming with irreducible aesthetic, conceptual, and speculative logics of their own--Chow presents Chinese cinema first and foremost as an invitation to the pleasures and challenges of critical thinking. ]

-----. "Fetish Power Unbound: A Small History of 'Woman' in Chinese Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 490-506.

"Cinema." In Information China. NY: Pergamon Press, 1989.

"Cinema of China." Wikepedia entry.

Clark, Paul. Chinese Cinema: Culture and Politics Since 1949. New York: Cambridge UP, 1988

Cosandey, Roland. "Pour servir a l'histoire du cinema chinois (1930-82)" Cahiers de la cinematheque. 37 (Summer, 1983):11-27.

Cui, Shuqin. Women Through the Lens: Gender and Nation in a Century of Chinese Cinema. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003.

-----. "The Return of the Repressed: Masculinity and Sexuality Reconsidered." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 499-517.

Curtin, Michael. Playing to the World's Biggest Audience: The Goblalization of Chinese Film and TV. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

[In this provocative analysis of screen industries in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, Michael Curtin delineates the globalizing pressures and opportunities that since the 1980s have dramatically transformed the terrain of Chinese film and television, including the end of the cold war, the rise of the World Trade Organization, the escalation of democracy movements, and the emergence of an East Asian youth culture. Reaching beyond national frameworks, Curtin examines the prospect of a global Chinese audience that will include more viewers than in the United States and Europe combined. He draws on in-depth interviews with a diverse array of media executives plus a wealth of historical material to argue that this vast and increasingly wealthy market is likely to shake the very foundations of Hollywood's century-long hegemony.]

-----. "Chinese Media Capital in Global Context." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 179-96.

Dai Jinhua. Dianying lilun yu piping shouce (Film theory and critical handbook). Kexue jishu wenxian, 1993.

-----. Jingcheng tuwei: nuxing, dianying, wenxue (Breaking out of the mirrored city: woman, film, literature). Beijing: Zuojia, 1995.

-----. "Invisible Women: Contemporary Chinese and Women's Film." positions east asian cultures critique 3, 1 (1995): 254-80.

-----. Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Wang, Jing and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Megan Ferry]

Dai, Jinhua. “Rethinking the Cultural History of Chinese Film.” Tr. Lau Kin Chi. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 235-63.

Davis, Darrell William. "A Marriage of Convenience: Musical Moments in Chinese Movies." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 438-51

Deppman, Hsiu-Chuang. Adapted for the Screen: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Fiction and Film. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Hsiu-Chuang Deppman unites aesthetics with history in her argument that the rise of cinema in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan in the late 1980s was partly fueled by burgeoning literary movements. Fifth Generation director Zhang Yimou’s highly acclaimed films Red Sorghum, Raise the Red Lantern, and To Live are built on the experimental works of Mo Yan, Su Tong, and Yu Hua, respectively. Hong Kong new wave’s Ann Hui and Stanley Kwan capitalized on the irresistible visual metaphors of Eileen Chang’s postrealism. Hou Xiaoxian’s new Taiwan cinema turned to fiction by Huang Chunming and Zhu Tianwen for fine-grained perspectives on class and gender relations. Delving equally into the individual approaches of directors and writers, Deppman initiates readers into the exciting possibilities emanating from the world of Chinese cinema. The seven in-depth studies include a diverse array of forms (cinematic adaptation of literature, literary adaptation of film, auto-adaptation, and non-narrative adaptation) and a variety of genres (martial arts, melodrama, romance, autobiography, documentary drama). Complementing this formal diversity is a geographical range that far exceeds the cultural, linguistic, and physical boundaries of China. The directors represented here also work in the U.S. and Europe and reflect the growing international resources of Chinese-language cinema.]

Des Forge, Alexander. "Shanghai Alleys, Theatrical Practice, and Cinematic Spectatorship: From Street Angel (1937) to Fifth Generation Film." Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 4 (2010): 29-51.

Dangdai Zhongguo dianying shi (History of contemporary Chinese film). 2 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1989.

Dissanayake, Wimal, ed.. Cinema and Cultural Identity: Reflections on Films from Japan, India and China. Lanham, MD : University Press of America, 1988. [contains four articles on Chinese cinema by Paul Clark, Tony Rayns, Ma Qiang, and Shao Mujun]

-----. "Cinema and History." In 1990 Hawaii International Film Festival Viewer's Guide. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1990.

Dissanayake, Wimal, ed, Melodrama and Asian Cinema. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Donald, Stephanie. "Chinese Women and Chinese Film: Problems with History and Feminism." In Einhorn and Eileen Janes Yeo, eds., Women and Market Societies: Crisis and Opportunity. Aldershot, UK ; Brookfield, Vt., US: E. Elgar, 1995, 84-95.

-----. "Women Reading Chinese Films: Between Orientalism and Silence." Screen 36, 4 (1995): 325-40.

-----. Public Secrets, Public Spaces: Cinema and Civility in China. Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 2000.

-----. Little Friends: Children's Film and Media Culture in China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.

Downing, John, ed. Film and Politics in the Third World. NY: Praeger, 1987. [contains essays by Kwok, Quiquemelle and T. Tung]

Du Yunzhi. Zhonghua minguo dianying shi (A history of film in the Chinese Republic). 2 vols. Taibei: Xingzheng yuan wenhua jianshe weiyuanhui, 1988. [Taiwan version of the history of Chinese film, based on Cheng Jihua]

Eberhard, Wolfram. The Chinese Silver Screen: Hong Kong and Taiwanese Motion Pictures in the 1960s. Taibei: Orient Culture Service, 1972.

Eleftheriotis, Dimitris and Gary Needham, eds. Asian Cinemas: A Reader and Guide. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006.

[Publisher's blurb: The West’s current fascination with Asian cinema must be viewed in the context of a complex and often problematic relationship between Western scholars, students, viewers, and Asian films. This book examines a number of detailed case studies (such as the films of Ozu, Bruce Lee, Hong Kong and Turkish cinema, Hindi melodramas, Godzilla films, Taiwanese directors, and Fifth Generation Chinese cinema) and uses them to investigate the limitations of Anglo–U.S. theoretical models and critical paradigms. By engaging readers with familiar areas of critical discourse (such as postcolonial criticism, “national cinema,” “genre,” “authorship,” and “stardom”) the book aims to introduce within such contexts the “unfamiliar” case studies that will be explored in depth and detail. Contributors: Ackbar Abbas, Rey Chow, David Desser, Dimitris Eleftheriotis, Nezih Erdogan, Ian Garwood, Lalitha Gopalan, Ahmet Gürata, Leon Hunt, E. Ann Kaplan, Siu Leung Li, Gary Needham, Chon Noriega, Julianne Pidduck, Yvonne Tasker, Stephen Teo, Rosie Thomas, Ravi Vasudevan, Tony Williams, I-Fen Wu, Esther Yau, Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto.]

Erlich, Linda and Ma Ning. "College Course File: East Asian Cinema" Journal of Film and Video. 42.2 (Summer, 1990):53-70.

Erlich, Linda and David Desser, eds., Cinematic Landscapes: Observations on the Visual Arts and Cinema of China and Japan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994.

Farquhar, Mary and Yingjin Zhang, eds. Chinese Film Stars. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: This volume of original essays fills a significant research gap in Chinese film studies by offering an interdisciplinary, comparative examination of ethnic Chinese film stars from the silent period to the era of globalization. Whereas studies of stars and stardom have developed considerably in the West over the past two decades, there is no single book in English that critically addresses issues related to stars and stardom in Chinese culture. [It] offers exemplary readings of historically, geographically and aesthetically multifaceted star phenomena. An international line up of contributors test a variety of approaches in making sense of discourses of stars and stardom in China and the US, explore historical contexts in which Chinese film stars are constructed and transformed in relation to changing sociopolitical conditions, and consider issues of performance and identity specific to individual stars through chapter-by-chapter case studies. The essays explore a wide range of topics such as star performance, character type, media construction, political propaganda, online discourses, autobiographic narration, as well as issues of gender, genre, memory and identity. Including 15 case studies of individual Chinese stars and illustrated with film stills throughout, this book is an essential read for students of Chinese film, media and cultural studies.]

Ferrari, Rossella. "Transnation/transmedia/transtext: Border-crossing from Screen to Stage in Greater China." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 53-67.

[Abstract: This essay attempts to reconceptualize transnational Chinese cinema along transmedial and transtextual lines by examining two collaborative stage projects devised by major film-makers and theatre practitioners from Hong Kong, Taiwan and the People's Republic of China under the aegis of Hong Kong art collective Zuni Icosahedron. The multimedia performances Journey to the East '97 and Experimental Shakespeare: King Lear exemplify a trend in Chinese transnationalism which transgresses and transcends not only regional and geopolitical borders but also textual, linguistic and disciplinary ones. The essay further investigates the ways in which transmedial frictions and interactions are exploited in these productions to articulate chronotopic dichotomies of presence/absence and appearance/disappearance in relation to Hong Kong's fate and inter-Chinese political developments after 1997.]

Fong, Gilbert C. E., ed. Dubbing and Subtitling in a World Context. HK: Chinese University Press, 2009.

Fowler, Simon. 101 Essential Chinese Movies. Hong Kong: Earnshaw Books, 2010.

Fu, Poshek. Between Shanghai and Hong Kong: The Politics of Chinese Cinemas. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003.

Gabereau, Eve. "Time, Space, Identity, and the City: Contemporary Urban China and Japan Projected in Film." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 160-75.

Gongsun, Lu. Zhongguo dianying shi (History of Chinese film). HK: Nantian, 1977.

Green, Peter. "China, The Wind and Joris Ivens." Sight and Sound (Autumn 1989): 273-75.

Grossman, Andrew, ed. Queer Asian Cinema: Shadows in the Shade. NY: Harrington Press, 2000. [rpt of a special issue of The Journal of Homosexuality 39, 3/4 (2000).

-----. "Beyond the Western Gaze: Orientalism, Feminism, and the Suffering Woman in Nontransnational Chinese Cinema." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 138-51.

Guan Wenqing. Zhongguo yintan waishi (An informal history of the Chinese film world). Hongkong: Guangjiaojing chubanshe, 1976.

Hao, Dazheng. "Chinese Visual Representation: Painting and Cinema." In Linda Erlich and David Desser, eds., Cinematic Landscapes: Observations on the Visual Arts and Cinema of China and Japan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994, 45-62.

He, Chungeng. "The Distilled Art of Ethical Poetry--The Aesthetic Pursuit of Chinese Ethical Melodrama Film." Asian Cinema 17, 2 (Fall/Winter 2006): 103-13.

He, Chungeng and Fanghua Wang. "Eternal Image in the Mirror: In Pursuit of Modernity and the Construction of Chinese Ethical Film Melodrama." Asian Cinema 18, 1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 224-37.

Hong, Junhao. "The Evolution of China's War Movie in Five Decades: Factors Contributing to Changes, Limits, and Implications." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 93-106.

Hou, Hsiao-hsien. "In Search of New Genres and Directions for Asian Cinema." Translated, Edited and Introduced by Lin Wenchi. Rouge 1 (2003).

Howkins, John. Mass Communications in China. NY: Longman, 1982. [contains chapter on film]

Hu Chang. Xin Zhongguo dianying de yaolan (The cradle of the new Chinese cinema). Changchun: Jilin wenshi, 1986. [history of the Changchun studio]

Hunt, Leon. "Dragons Forever: Chinese Martial Arts Stars." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 141-49.

Hunt, Leon and Wing-Fai Leung, eds. East Asian Cinemas: Exploring Transnational Connnections on Film. NY: I. B. Taurus, 2008.

Iovene, Paola and Judith T. Zeitlin, guest editors. Chinese Opera Film, a special issue of The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010).

Johnson, Matthew. "Propaganda and Censorship in Chinese Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 153-78.

Joris Ivens and China. Beijing: New World, 1983.

Kaplan, Ann E. and Wang Ban, eds. Trauma and Cinema: Cross-cultural Explorations. HK: HK University Press, 2004. [two essays deal with Chinese film]

Keijser, Anne Sytske. "Chinese Films at the 1993 Rotterdam Film Festival: East-Asian Society in Transition." China Information 7, 4 (Spring 1993): 33-38.

Kong, Haili and John A. Lent, eds. One Hundred Years of Chinese Cinema: A Generational Dialogue. Norwalk, CT: EastBridge, 2005.

Kraicer, Shelly. "Chinese Language Films at the Hong Kong International Film Festival 2000: Review Article." CineAction 53 (Winter 2000): 64-72

Kramer, Stefan. Geschichte des Chinesischen Films (History of Chinese film). Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1997.

Kuoshu, Harry. Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

-----, ed. Celluloid China: Cinematic Encounters with Culture and Society. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2002. [each chapter treats a film and includes introductory material on the film and a scholarly essay (by a variety of film scholars) that treats the film. Basically a study guide.]

Kwok and M.C. Quiquemelle. "Chinese Cinema and Realism." In John Downing, ed. Film and Politics in the Third World. New York: Praeger, 1987, 181-98.

Lau, Jenny Kwok Wah. "Towards a Cultural Understanding of Cinema: A Comparison of Contemporary Films from the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong." Wide Angle 11, 3 (1989): 42-49.

-----, ed. Multiple Modernities: Cinemas and Popular Medias in Transcultural Asia. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004. [MCLC Resouce Center review by Joelle Collier]

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "The Tradition of Modern Chinese Cinema: Some Preliminary Explorations and Hypotheses." In Chris Berry, ed., Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. London: BFI Publishing, 1991, 6-20.

Lee, Vivian. "Virtual Bodies, Flying Objects: The Digital Imaginary in Contemporary Martial Arts Films." Journal of Chinese Cinema 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 9-26.

Lent, John. The Asian Film Industry. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.

Lent, John, ed. Animation in Asia and the Pacific. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2001.

Leung, Helen Hok-Sze. "Homosexuality and Quer Aesthetics." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 518-34.

Leyda, Jay. Dianying: an Account of Film and the Film Audience in China. Cambridge: MIT, 1972.

Lim, Kay Tong. Cathay: 55 Years of Cinema. Singapore: Landmark Boo for Meileen Choo, 1991.

Lim, Song Hwee. "Celluloid Comrades: Male Homosexuality in Chinese Cinemas of the 1990s." China Information 16, 1 (2002): 68-88.

-----. Celluloid Comrades: Representations of Male Homosexuality in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2006.

[Abstract: Offers a cogent analytical introduction to the representation of male homosexuality in Chinese cinemas within the last decade. It posits that representations of male homosexuality in Chinese film have been polyphonic and multifarious, posing a challenge to monolithic and essentialized constructions of both “Chineseness” and “homosexuality.” Given the artistic achievement and popularity of the films discussed here, the position of “celluloid comrades” can no longer be ignored within both transnational Chinese and global queer cinemas. The book also challenges readers to reconceptualize these works in relation to global issues such as homosexuality and gay and lesbian politics, and their interaction with local conditions, agents, and audiences. Tracing the engendering conditions within the film industries of China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, Song Hwee Lim argues that the emergence of Chinese cinemas in the international scene since the 1980s created a public sphere in which representations of marginal sexualities could flourish in its interstices. Examining the politics of representation in the age of multiculturalism through debates about the films, Lim calls for a rethinking of the limits and hegemony of gay liberationist discourse prevalent in current scholarship and film criticism. He provides in-depth analyses of key films and auteurs, reading them within contexts as varied as premodern, transgender practice in Chinese theater to postmodern, diasporic forms of sexualities. Informed by cultural and postcolonial studies and critical theory, this acutely observed and theoretically sophisticated work will be of interest to a wide range of scholars and students as well as general readers looking for a deeper understanding of contemporary Chinese cultural politics, cinematic representations, and queer culture.]

Lim, Song Hwee and Julian Ward, eds. The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011.

[Abstract: provides an essential guide to the cinemas of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and the Chinese diaspora, from early cinema to the present day. With contributions from leading international scholars, the book is structured around five thematic sections: Territories, Trajectories, Historiographies; Early Cinema to 1949; The Forgotten Period: 1949-80; The New Waves; and Stars, Auteurs and Genres. This important collection addresses issues of film production and exhibition and places Chinese cinema in its national and transnational contexts. Individual chapters examine major film movements such as the Shanghai cinema of the 1930s, Fifth Generation film-makers and the Hong Kong New Wave, as well as key issues such as stars and auteurs. The book will be an invaluable resource for students and scholars, as well as for anyone wanting to deepen their understanding of the cinemas of Greater China.]

Lin, Niantong. "The Chinese Cinema in Its Third Period." Tr. Terry Yip. The Humanities Bulletin 4 (1995): 132-41.

Liu, Alan. The Film Industry in Communist China. Cambridge: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1965.

-----. Communications and National Integration in Communist China. Berkeley: UC Press, 1971.

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng. China, Transnational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. [reviewed by David Leiwei Li in Jump Cut, no. 47 (Fall 2004).

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng, ed. Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Lu, Sheldon H. and Yueh-yu Yeh, eds. "Special Double Issue: Chinese Cinema." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001).

-----. Chinese-Language Films: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. [contains essays from the above special issue of Post Script, as well as some new essays.]

-----. "Dialect and Modernity in 21st Century Sinophone Cinema." Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

Lu, Sheldon and Jiayan Mi, eds. Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009.

[This anthology is the first book-length study of China's ecosystem through the lens of cinema. Proposing 'ecocinema' as a new critical frameork, the volume collectively investigates a wide range of urgent topics in today's world: Chinese and Western epistemes of nature and humanity; the dialect of socialist modernization amid capitalist globalization; shifting configurations of space, locale, cityscape, and natural landscape; gender, religion, and ethnic cultures; as well as bioethics and environmental politics. The individual chapters zero in on diverse Chinese-language films by talented directors such as Zhang Yimou, Chen Kaige, Tian Zhuangzhuang, Jia Zhangke, Lou Ye, Fruit Chan, Wu Tianming, Tsai Ming-liang, Li Yang, Feng Xiaogang, Zhang Yang, Wang Xiaoshuai, Wang Bing, Ning Hao, Zhang Ming, Dai Sijie, Wanma Caidan, and Huo Jianqi. The book is a timely engagement with Chinese cinema's ecological consciousness in a historic moment of unparalleled environmental crises and destruction. In the coming decades, film will be one of the primary ways in which China adopts and expands ecolological consciousness. This book should interest scholars in film studies, environmental studies, ecocriticism, gender and cultural studies, Chinese studies, and globalization studies.]

Lu, Tonglin. Confronting Modernity in the Cinemas of Taiwan and Mainland China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.

Lu Xun. Lu Xun yu dianying (Lu Xun and film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1981. [a collection of Lu Xun's writings on film]

Luo, Hui. "Theatricality and Cultural Critique in Chinese Cinema." Asian Theatre Journal 25, 1 (Spring 2008): 122-37.

Lupke, Christopher, ed. "The Question of the Nation in Contemporary China Film: A Symposium." Special section of Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring 2004).

Ma, Jean. Melancholy Drift: Marking Time in Chinese Cinema. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2010.

[Abstract: Jean Ma offers an innovative study of three provocative Chinese directors: Wong Karwai, Hou Hsiao-hsien, and Tsai Ming-liang, whose highly stylized and non-linear configurations of time have brought new global respect for Chinese cinema. Amplifying motifs of loss, nostalgia, haunting, and ephemeral poetics, they each insist on the significance of being out of time, not merely out of place, as a condition of global modernity and transnational cultures of memory.]

Mackerras, Colin. The Performing Arts in Contemporary China. London: Routledge & Kegan Road, 1981.

Marchetti, Gina. "Chinese Cinema: Introduction." Jump Cut 34 (1988):85-86.

-----. "Plural and Transnational: Introduction." Special Issue of Jump Cut 41 (1998).

----. From Tiananmen to Times Sqaure: Transnational China and the Chinese Diaspora on Global Screens, 1989-1997. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2006.

Metzger, Sean. "Desire and Distribution: Queer/Chinese/Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 301-19.

Mintz, Marilyn. The Martial Arts Film. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1978.

McDougall, Bonnie, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Mi, Jiayan. "Framing Ambient Unheimlich: Ecoggedon, Ecological Unconscious, and Water Pathology in New Chinese Cinema." In Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009, 17-38.

Neri, Corrado. Ages inquiet Cinémas chinois: une représentation de la jeunesse. Lyon: Editions Tigre de Papier, 2009.

Ni, Zhen. "Chinese Classical Painting and Cinematographic Signification." In Linda Erlich and David Desser, eds., Cinematic Landscapes: Observations on the Visual Arts and Cinema of China and Japan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994, 63-80.

Noth, Jochen, et. al. China Avant-Garde: Counter Currents in Art and Culture. HK and NY, 1994.

Ombres Electriques: Panorama du cinéma chinois 1925-1982. Paris: Centre du Documentation du Cinema Chinois, 1982. [contains a filmography of 60 films, plus articles on Zhang Shichuan, realism, Wu Xun zhuan, art and politics in PRC film, etc]

The Oxford Guide to Film Studies . Eds. John Hill and Pamela Church Gibson. NY: Oxford University Press, 1998. [articles on China (Berenice Reynaud), Hong Kong (Stephen Teo, N.K. Leung) and Taiwan (Kuan-hsing Chen)]

Palmer, Augusta L. Crossroads: Nostalgia and the Documentary Impulse in Chinese Cinemas at the Turn of the 21st Century. Ph. D. diss. NY: New York University, 2004.

Pang, Laikwan "Piracy/Privacy: The Despair of Cinema and Collectivity in China."boundary 2 31, 3 (Fall 2004): 101-124.

-----. Cultural Control and Globalization in Asia: Piracy and Copyright in Asian Cinema. RoutledgeCurzon, 2005. [MCLC Resource Center review by Shujen Wang]

-----. "New Asian Cinema and Its Circulation of Violence." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005): 159-87.

-----. "The Institutionalization of Chinese Cinema as an Academic Discipline." Journal of Chinese Cinema 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 55-62

Pang, Laikwan and Kwai-cheung Lo, guest editors. Special Issue on Chinese Culture in Inter-Asia. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005).

Pratley, Gerald, et al. "The Irresistible Rise of Asian Cinema." Kinema (Spring, 1994). [Includes: Gerald Pratley, "Production Activity"; Toh Hai Leong, "The Great Leap Forward; and Yvonne Ng, "Tian Zhuangzhuang: A Director for the 21st Century"]

Qin, Liyan. "The Intertwinement of Chinese Film and Literature: Choices and Strategies in Adaptations." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 361-76.

Quiquemelle, Marie-Claire and Jean-Loup Passek. Le cinema chinois. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985. [contains 14 articles, a chronology, a filmography, and biographical sketches of directors]

Raju, Zakir Hossain. "Filmic Imaginations of the Malaysian Chinese: ‘Mahua cinema’ as a Transnational Chinese Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 67-?.

[Abstract: This essay locates the Chinese films of Malaysia within contexts ranging from the national to the transnational. First, it attempts to position the films of Chinese Malaysian film-makers alongside Malaysian national cinema as well as the Mahua (Malaysian Chinese) literature that developed in Malaysia over the last one century or so. Second, the paper de-territorializes the Chinese films of Malaysia as transnational and transcultural entities. It further examines Malaysian Chinese films as a ‘new’ transnational Chinese cinema developed in connection with other transnational cinemas in the contemporary cosmopolitan world. It asks how this cinema is ‘transnational’ and if it bears some specific meaning of ‘Chinese-ness’ as it develops in today's globalizing Malaysia.]

Rayns, Tony. "The Position of Women in New Chinese Cinema." East-West Film Journal 1, 2 (1987): 32-44. Rpt. in Wimal Dissanayake, ed., Cinema and Cultural Identity: Reflections on Films from Japan, India, and China. Latham, MD: 1988.

Rayns, T. and S. Meek, eds. Electric Shadows: 45 Years of Chinese Cinema. London: BFI, 1980.

-----. More Electric Shadows: 1922-1984 (Programme Notes). London: British Film Institute, 1985.

Reynaud, Berenice. "Chinese Cinema." In John Hill and Pamela Gibson, eds. World Cinema: Critical Approaches. NY: Oxford UP, 2000, 159-65.

-----. "Societies in Motion, Culture in Commotion." Cinemaya 43 (Spring 1999): 4-10.

-----. "New Visions / New Chinas: Video-Art, Documentation, and the Chinese Modernity in Question." In Michael Renov and Erika Suderburg, eds., Resolutions: Contemporary Video Practices. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996, 226-57.

-----. "Glamour and Suffering: Gong Li and the History of Chinese Stars." Sight and Sound 3, 8 (1993): 13. Rpt. in Pam Cook and Philip Dodd, eds., Women and Film: A Sight and Sound Reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993, 21-29.

-----. Nouvelles Chines, Nouveaux Cinémas. Paris: Cahiers du cinéma, 1999.

Rodekohr, Andy. "Conjuring the Masses: The Spectral/Spectacular Crowd in Chinese Film." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 526-47.

Rojas, Carlos. "A Tale of Two Emperors: Mimicry and Mimesis in Two 'New Year's Films from China and Hong Kong." Cineaction 60, 1 (2003): 2-9

Rosen, Stanley, ed. "Film Market in China: Translations from Zhongguo dianying shichang." Special issue. Chinese Education and Society 32, 2 (March-April 1999).

-----. "Hollywood Films and Chinese Domestic Films in China." Two Part special issues. Chinese Studies and Anthropology 32,1 (Fall 1999); 32, 2 (Winter 2000-01).

Server, Lee. Asian Pop Cinema: Bombay to Tokyo. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1999.

Scott, A.C. Literature and the Arts in Twentieth Century China. London: Allen, 1965. Chapter on cinema (65-83).

Shanghai dianying sishi nian (Forty years of film in Shanghai). Shanghai: Xuelin, 1991.

Shapiro, Judith. After the Nightmare: A Survivor of the Cultural Revolution Reports on China Today. New York: Knopf, 1986. [contains an interview with Wu Tianming]

Silbergeld, Jerome. China into Film: Frames of Reference in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. London: Reaktion, 1999.

-----. Hitchcock with a Chinese Face: Cinematic Doubles, Oedipal Triangles, and China's Moral Voice. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004. [with analyses of Suzhou River, The Day the Sun Turned Cold, and Good Men, Good Women] [MCLC Resource Center review by Robert Chi]

-----. "Cinema and the Visual Arts of China." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 400-16.

-----. "From Mountain Song to Silvery Moonlight: Some Notes on Music in Chinese Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 417-28.

"Special Film Issue" Jintian 2 (1992).

Szeto, Kin-Yan. The Martial Arts Cinema of the Chinese Diaspora: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan in Hollywood. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: Kin-Yan Szeto critically examines three of the most internationally famous martial arts film artists to arise out of the Chinese diaspora and travel far from their homelands to find commercial success in the world at large: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan. Positing the idea that these filmmakers' success is evidence of a "cosmopolitical awareness" arising from their cross-cultural ideological engagements and geopolitical displacements, Szeto demonstrates how this unique perspective allows these three filmmakers to develop and act in the transnational environment of media production, distribution, and consumption...]

Tan, See-kam, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

Tam, Kwok-kan and Wimal Dissanayake. New Chinese Cinema. NY: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Tang, Xiaobing. "Rural Women and Social Change in New China Cinema: From Li Shuangshuang to Ermo." positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 647-74.

Teo, Stephen. "Defining Chinese Cinema and its Position." Hong Kong Film Archive Newsletter 16 (May 2001).

-----. Chinese Martial Arts Cinema: The Wuxia Tradition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009.

[Abstract: The traditional martial arts genre known as wuxia (literally "martial chivalry") became popular the world over through the phenomenal hit Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). This book unveils the rich layers of the wuxia tradition as it developed in the early Shanghai cinema of the late 1920s and in the Hong Kong and Taiwan film industries of the 1950s and beyond. Stephen Teo follows the tradition from its beginnings in Shanghai cinema to its rise as a serialized form in silent cinema and its prohibition in 1931. He shares the fantastic characteristics of the genre, their relationship to folklore, myth, and religion, and their similarities and differences with the kung fu sub-genre of martial arts cinema. He maps the protagonists and heroes of the genre, in particular the figure of the lady knight-errant, and its chief personalities and masterpieces. Directors covered include King Hu, Chu Yuan, Zhang Che, Ang Lee, and Zhang Yimou, and films discussed are Come Drink With Me (1966), The One-Armed Swordsman (1967), A Touch of Zen (1970-71), Hero (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004), The Promise (2005), The Banquet (2006), and Curse of the Golden Flower (2006).]

-----. "Film Genre and Chinese Cinema: A Discourse of Film and Nation." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 284-98.

-----. "The Opera Film in Chinese Cineam: Cultural Nationalism and Cinematic Form." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 209-24.

Tian Jingqing. Beijing dianying ye shiji, 1949-1990 (History of the Beijing film industry). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1999.

Tobias, Mel. Memoirs of an Asian Moviegoer. HK: South China Morning Post, 1982.

Tsai, Eva. "Kaneshiro Takeshi: Transnational Stardom and the Media and Culture Industries in Asia's Global/Postcolonial Age." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005): 100-32.

Udden, James. "In Search of Chinese Film Style(s) and Technique(s)." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 265-83.

Voyage autour du cinema chinois: nuits de Chine: une selection de 26 films chinois des annees 30 aux annees 80 (A voyage around Chinese cinema. China nights: a selection of 26 Chinese films from the 1930s to the 1980s). L'Association Culturelle des Cineastes Associes (The Cultural Association of Associated Filmmakers). Paris: s.n., 1983.

Wang, Ban. "Trauma, Visuality, and History in Chinese Literature and Film." In Ann E. Kaplan and Wang Ban, eds., Trauma and Cinema: Cross-cultural Explorations. HK: HK University Press, 2004, 217-40.

Wang, Lingzhen, ed. Chinese Women's Cinema: Transnational Contexts. NY: Columbia UP, 2011.

[Abstract: The first of its kind in English, this collection explores twenty one well established and lesser known female filmmakers from mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora. Sixteen scholars illuminate these filmmakers' negotiations of local and global politics, cinematic representation, and issues of gender and sexuality, covering works from the 1920s to the present. Writing from the disciplines of Asian, women's, film, and auteur studies, contributors reclaim the work of Esther Eng, Tang Shu Shuen, Dong Kena, and Sylvia Chang, among others, who have transformed Chinese cinematic modernity. Chinese Women's Cinema is a unique, transcultural, interdisciplinary conversation on authorship, feminist cinema, transnational gender, and cinematic agency and representation. Lingzhen Wang's comprehensive introduction recounts the history and limitations of established feminist film theory, particularly its relationship with female cinematic authorship and agency. She also reviews critiques of classical feminist film theory, along with recent developments in feminist practice, altogether remapping feminist film discourse within transnational and interdisciplinary contexts. Wang's subsequent redefinition of women's cinema, and brief history of women's cinematic practices in modern China, encourage the reader to reposition gender and cinema within a transnational feminist configuration, such that power and knowledge are reexamined among and across cultures and nation-states.]

-----. "Chinese Women's Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 318-45.

Wang, Shujen. Framing Piracy: Globalization and Film Distribution in Greater China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Wang, Yiman. Remaking Chinese Cinema through the Prism of Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Hollywood. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2012.

-----. "The Phanton Strikes Back: Triangulating Hollywood, Shanghai, and Hong Kong." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 21 (2004): 317-26.

-----. "The ‘Transnational’ as Methodology: Transnationalizing Chinese Film Studies through the Example of The Love Parade and its Chinese Remakes." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 9-22.

[Abstract: This essay critiques unreflective celebration of transnational Chinese cinema and proposes the ‘transnational’ as methodology. By examining the dual modes of address in a Hong Kong remake of a Lubitsch musical comedy, I demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing border politics and the ‘foreignization’ of Chinese cinema in its transnational production and reception.]

-----. "Made in China, Sold in the United States, and Vice Versa–Transnational ‘Chinese’ Cinema between Media Capitals." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June. 2009): 163-76.

Way, E. I. Motion Pictures in China. Washington, DC: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1930.

Widmer, Ellen, and David Der-wei Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993.

Wilkerson, Douglas. "Film and Visual Arts in China: An Introduction." In Linda Erlich and David Desser, eds., Cinematic Landscapes: Observations on the Visual Arts and Cinema of China and Japan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994, 39-44.

Wu, Dingbao and Patrick Murphy. Handbook of Chinese Popular Culture. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Xiao, Zhiwei. "The Opium War in the Movies: History, Politics and Propaganda." Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 68-83.

Xu, Gang Gary. "Remaking East Asia, Outsourcing Hollywood." Senses of Cinema 34 (Jan.-Mar. 2005).

-----. "Chinese Cinema and Technology." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 449-66. .

Yang, Jeff. Once Upon a Time in China: A Guide to Hong Kong, Taiwanese, and Mainland Chinese Cinema. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Yang, Mayfair. "State Discourse or a Plebeian Public Sphere. Film Discussion Groups in China." Visual Anthropology 10, 1 (1994).

Yang & yin: Gender in Chinese Cinema. London: Connoisseur Video, 1996 . [documentary video with interviews of Stanley Kwan and centering around the issue of how gender has been treated in Chinese film]

Yau, Esther C. M. "China." In William Luhr, ed. World Cinema Since 1945. NY: Ungar Press, 1987, 116-39.

-----. "International Fantasy and the 'New Chinese Cinema.'" Quarterly Review of Film and Video 14, 3 (1993): 95-107.

-----. "Is China the End of Hermeneutics?; or, Political and Cultural Usage of Non-Han Women in Mainland Chinese Films". In D. Carson, L. Dittmar, and J.R. Welsch, eds., Multiple Voices in Feminist Film Criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994, 280-292.

Yau, Esther C. M. and Kyung Hyum Kim, geust editors. "Asia Pacific Cinemas: A Spectral Surface." Special issue of positions 9, 2 (Fall 2001).

Yeh, Emily Yeuh-yu. "Defining 'Chinese.'" Jump Cut 41 (1998).

-----. "A Small History of Wenyi." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 225-49.

Yi Sha. "Daoyan" (Introduction). In Zhongguo xin wenxue daxi xubian. 10 vols. HK: Xianggang wenxue, 1966, vol. 10.

Yin Hong. Xin Zhongguo dianying shi (History of new China's cinema). Changsha: Hunan meishu, 2002.

Yu, Sabrina Qiong. "Vulnerable Chinese Stars: From Xizi to Film Worker." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 218-38.

Yue, Ming-Bao. "Gender and Cinema: Speaking Through Images of Women." Asian Cinema 22, 1 (Spring/Summer 2011): 192-207.

Zha, Jianying. China Pop: How Soap Operas, Tabloids, and Bestsellers are Transforming a Culture. New York: New Press, 1995.

Zhang Juxiang and Cheng Jihua, eds., Zhongguo dianying da cidian (China cinema encyclopedia). Shanghai: Shanghai cishu, 1995.

Zhang, Xudong. Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms: Cultural Fever, Avant-Garde Fiction, and New Chinese Cinema (Post-Contemporary Interventions). Durham: Duke University Press, 1997.

Zhang, Yingjin. The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film: Configurations of Space, Time, and Gender. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.

-----. "From Minority Film to Minority Discourse: Questions of Nationhood and Ethnicity in Chinese Film Studies." Cinema Journal 36, 3 (Spring 1997): 73-90. Rpt. In Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 151-206.

-----. "Chinese Cinema and Transnational Cultural Politics: Reflections on Film Festivals, Film Productions, and Film Studies." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 105-32. Rpt. in Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 15-42.

-----., ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999.

-----. Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002.

-----. "The Global City of the Transnational Imaginary: Plotting Disappearance and Reinscription in Chinese Urban Cinema." In Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 253-312.

-----. "Seductions of the Body: Fashioning Ethnographic Cinema in Contemporary China." In Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 207-51.

-----. Chinese National Cinema. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Zhang, Yingjin and Zhiwei Xiao, eds. Encyclopedia of Chinese Films. London: Routledge, 1998.

Zhang, Zhen, ed. The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2007.

[Abstract: Since the early 1990s, while mainland China’s state-owned movie studios have struggled with financial and ideological constraints, an exciting alternative cinema has developed. Dubbed the “Urban Generation,” this new cinema is driven by young filmmakers who emerged in the shadow of the events at Tiananmen Square in 1989. What unites diverse directors under the “Urban Generation” rubric is their creative engagement with the wrenching economic and social transformations underway in China. Urban Generation filmmakers are vanguard interpreters of the confusion and anxiety triggered by the massive urbanization of contemporary China. This collection brings together some of the most recent original research on this emerging cinema and its relationship to Chinese society.]

Zheng Shusen (William Tay). Wenhua piping yu Huayu dianying (Cultural criticism and Chinese cinema). Taibei: Maitian, 1996.

Zhong, Dafeng, et al. Zhongguo dianying shi (History of Chinese film). Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, 1995.

Zhou, Xuelin. "From Behind the Wall: Representation of Gender and Sexuality in Modern Chinese Film." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 125-37.


State of the Field/Methodology/Theory

Berry, Chris. "Transnational Chinese Cinema Studies." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 9-16.

-----. "Chinese Film Scholarship in English." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 484-98.

----- and Mary Farquhar. “From National Cinemas to Cinema and the National: Rethinking the National in Transnational Chinese Cinemas.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 2 (2001): 109-22.

----- and Laikwan Pang. "Remappng Contemporary Chinese Cinema Studies." The China Review 10, 2 (2010).

[Abstract: This essay aims to rethink and remap contemporary Chinese cinema studies. In the past few years there have been many new developments and experiments in the film scenes of mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, and the Chinese film industries are undergoing dramatic restructuring. The authors argue for an understanding of "Chinese cinema" in close reference to the recent advent of global cinema. Such understanding also has to take into account the internal stratification among various film practices, no longer organized only according to its specific cultural geography (mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) but also according to different modes of filmmaking and different sectors of the industry and culture. The authors believe that scholars can continue to use the notion of "Chinese cinema" as a meaningful concept. However, rather than understanding it as a single and self-sufficient system, as the idea of a national cinema tends to assume, they argue that in the age of flexible production Chinese cinema must also be seen as something more flexible, multiple, and open--an internally stratified but interconnected combinatoire with dynamic participation in global cinema. ]

Chen, Xihe. "Chinese Film Scholarship in Chinese." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 469-83.

Choi, JungBong. "Of the East Asian Cultural Sphere: Theorizing Cultural Regionalization." The China Review 10, 2 (2010).

[Abstract: This essay questions the conceptual pertinence of globalization in analyzing the fast-growing cultural exchanges across East and Southeast Asia. Critiquing the theoretical backbone of globalization, it proposes a shift to cultural regionalization as an interpretive framework suited to the emergent cultural topographies of the region. The essay then details the major attributes of cultural regionalization by introducing what might be termed the East Asian Cultural Sphere, a temporary crystallization of East Asian cultural interdynamics that has emerged in the post-Cold War juncture and continues to evolve to date. In an attempt to give concrete pictures of both cultural regionalization and the East Asian Cultural Sphere, the essay broaches the instance of Hallyu, the Korean wave, a cultural crosscurrent arising from the collision of two opposing waves: the escalation of political tension based on post/colonial feuds, which remained largely unaddressed during the Cold War period, on one hand and the sweeping economic integration and collaboration of East Asia on the other.]

Dai, Jinhua. “Rethinking the Cultural History of Chinese Film.” Tr. Lau Kin Chi. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 235-63.

Desser, David. "Conference Report: First Asian Cinema Studies Society/Tenth Annual Ohio University Film Conference on 'Asian Cinema.'" Quarterly Review of Film Studies 11, 2 (1989): 99-108.

---- "Conference Report: Session- Trends and Concepts in Chinese Cinema." Quarterly Review of Film Studies 10, 4 (1989): 357-59.

Farquhar, Mary and Chris Berry. "Shadow Opera: Towards a New Archeology of the Chinese Cinema." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 25-42.

de Kloet, Jeroen. "Crossing the Threshold: Chinese Cinema Studies in the Twenty-first Century." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 63-70.

Hu, Ke. "Contemporary Film Theory in China." Trs. Ted Wang, Chris Berry, and Chen Mei. Screening the Past (March 1998).

Leung, Helen Hok-Sze. "Unthinking: Chinese - Cinema - Criticism." Journal of Chinese Cinema 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 71-74.

-----. "Book Length Studies on Chinese Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinema 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 75-77.

Lim, Song Hwee. "Six Chinese Cinemas in Search of a Historiography." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 35-45.

Lin Niantong. "A Study of the Theories of Chinese Cinema in their Relationship to Classical Aesthetics." Modern Chinese Literature I.2 (Spring, 1985): 18-33.

Lu, Hsiao-peng, ed. "Problems and Prospects of Teaching Asian Cinema in America: A Symposium." Special section of Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 143-91. [contains short essays by John Lent, Keiko MacDonald, Marcia Landy, Lucy Fischer, Anne Ciecko, and Sheldon Lu].

Lupke, Christopher, ed. "The Question of the Nation in Contemporary China Film: A Symposium." Special section of Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring 2004).

Pickowicz, Paul. "From Yao Wenyuan to Cui Zi'en: Film, History, Memory." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 1, 1 (2006): 41-53.

[This essay discusses the various ways in which scholars have approached old and new Chinese cinema during the last 35 years. Adopting the perspective of a historian rather than the perspective of a film studies scholar, the essay points to significant breakthroughs in scholarship on Chinese cinema, but dwells on a wide range of problems still facing researchers. The essay takes the form of the author's personal reflection on the development of the Chinese film field, and concludes with an endorsement of multidisciplinary research strategies and methodological flexibility.]

Semsel, George, ed. Chinese Film: The State of the Art in the People's Republic. NY: Praeger, 1987.

-----. Chinese Film Theory: A Guide to the New Era. NY: Praeger, 1990.

-----. Film in Contemporary China: Critical Debates, 1979-1989. Westport: Praeger, 1993.

Wang, Jing and Tani Barlow. “Introduction.” In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 1-12.

Wang, Yiman . "The ‘Transnational’ as Methodology: Transnationalizing Chinese Film Studies through the Example of The Love Parade and its Chinese Remakes." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 9-22.

[Abstract: This essay critiques unreflective celebration of transnational Chinese cinema and proposes the ‘transnational’ as methodology. By examining the dual modes of address in a Hong Kong remake of a Lubitsch musical comedy, I demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing border politics and the ‘foreignization’ of Chinese cinema in its transnational production and reception.]

Xia, Hong. "Film Theory in the People's Republic of China: The New Era." In George S. Semsel, ed., Chinese Film: The State of the Art in the People's Republic. New York: Praeger, 1987, 35-62.

Zhang, Yingjin. "Rethinking Cross-Cultural Analysis: The Questions of Authority, Power, and Difference in Western Studies of Chinese Films." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (Oct-Dec. 1994): 44-53. Rpt. as "Cross-Cultural Analysis and Eurocentrism: Interrogating Authority, Power, and Difference in Western Critical Discourse." In Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 115-47.

-----. "Screening China: Recent Studies of Chinese Cinema in English." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 29, 3 (1997).

-----. "A Typography of Chinese Film Historiography." Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 16-32.

-----. "The Rise of Chinese Film Studies in the West: Contextualizing Issues, Methods, Questions." In Zhang, Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002, 43-114.

-----. "Comparative Flm Studies, Transnational Film Studies: Interdisciplinarity, Crossmediality, and Transcultural Visuality in Chinese Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinema 1, 1 (Jan. 2007): 27-40.

-----. "National Cinema as Translocal Practice: Reflections on Chinese Film Historiography." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 17-25.


Early Film

Bao, Weihong. "From Pearl White to White Rose Woo: The Vernacular Translation of the Serial Queen in Chinese Silent Films, 1927-1931." Camera Obsura [60] 20, 3 (2005).

-----. "In Search of a ‘Cinematic Esperanto’: Exhibiting Wartime Chongqing Cinema in Global Context." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June 2009): 135-47.

[Abstract: This essay examines the neglected wartime Chongqing cinema by situating it in its local and simultaneously global context of exhibition. Instead of reinforcing the image of Chongqing cinema as sheer state propaganda, I illustrate the film-makers' and the film critics' heightened awareness of multiple contexts of exhibition. I propose to consider this wartime cinema as a search for the ‘cinematic Esperanto’, an aspiration toward a world cinema and an international film language that contested the universal language of the Hollywood continuity system so as to bridge film aesthetics and audience responses to register the atrocity of the war and evoke corporeal public responses. By examining the critical interaction between film exhibition, film criticism, and film production, I hope to bring to recognition wartime Chongqing cinema as a highly self-conscious and active participant in an international film culture.]

-----. "Diary of a Homecoming: (Dis-)Inhabiting the Theatrical in Postwar Shanghai Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 376-399.

Bao, Yuheng. "The Mirror of Chinese Society." Chinese Literature 4 (1985): 190-201.

"The Beginnings and Development of Early Asian Film." Special section of Screeing the Past 6 (July 1999).

Berry, Chris. "Chinese Left Cinema in the 1930s: Poisonous Weeds or National Treasures?" Jump Cut 34 (1988): 87-94.

-----. "Poisonous Weeds or National Treasures: Chinese Left Cinema in the 1930s." Jump Cut 34 (1989): 87-94.

-----. "The Sublimative Text: Sex and Revolution in Big Road[The Highway]" East-West Film Journal 2, 2 (June 1988): 66-86.

-----. "A Nation T(w/o)o: Chinese Cinema(s) and Nationahood(s)." East-West Film Journal 7, 1 (January 1993): 24-51.

Braester, Yomi. "Revolution and Revulsion: Ideology, Monstrosity, and Phantasmagoria in Ma-Xu Weibang's Film Song at Midnight." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 12, 1 (Spring 2000): 81-114. Rpt. in Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 81-105.

Bren, Frank. "The Fabulous Adventures of Benjamin Brodsky: China's First Films---Really." Asian Cinema 20, 2 (Fall/Winter 2009): 1-17.

Brennan, Nate. "A Penny-dreadful House for Chinese Talkies: Notes Toward a History of Chinese-language Film Exhibition in Interwar New York." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June 2009): 123-33.

[Abstract: Chinese-language films were a small but significant segment of the foreign-language films shown in New York City between the late 1930s and the end of World War II. These films and the theatres in which they were shown were discussed in the New York daily press and in many cases the location of the theatre and its implied audience dictated to reporters and critics the quality of the film. Chinese-language films shown in Lower East Side neighbourhood theatres were summarily dismissed as crude oddities largely because of their immigrant clientele. While there may have been little difference between them, Chinese-language films shown in midtown art theatres were received as cultural artefacts, which while still perceived as ‘exotic’, were nonetheless critiqued for their value as works of art.]

Cambon, Marie. "The Dream Palaces of Shanghai: American Films in China's Largest Metropolis Prior to 1949." Asian Cinema 7, 2 (Winter 1995): 34-45.

Chan, Jessica Ka Yee. "Translating 'Montage': The Discreet Attractions of Soviet Montage for Chinese Revolutionary Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 3 (Nov. 2011): 197-218.

[Abstract: What happens when a film term such as 'montage' undergoes translation? This article looks at the theoretical permutations of 'montage' as it was translated and introduced into China beginning in the early 1930s and the resulting film practices as the term continued to be reread, redefined and reinvented during the communist era. As a result of the attraction to the revolutionary allure of Soviet montage in the 1930s, a mysterious aura was attached to the Chinese transliteration mengtaiqi, which literally means 'veil (is) too strange'. In a period of intense engagement with international film theory during the 'seventeen years' (1949-1966), Chinese filmmakers demystified the inscrutability of montage in an effort to broaden its scope to refer to all film editing methods, including Hollywood continuity editing and Soviet montage. Through close reading of selected films, I look at how montage was creatively reinvented to construct a collectivized subject cinematically. ]

Chang, Michael G. "The Good, the Bad, and the Beautiful: Movie Actresses and Public Discourses in Shanghai, 1920s-1930s." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 128-59.

Chen Bo, ed. Zhongguo zuoyi dianying yundong (The Chinese leftist film movement). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1993.

Chen, Jianhua. "D. W. Griffith and the Rise of Chinese Cinema in Early 1920s Shanghai." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 23-38.

Cheng, Weikun. "The Challenge of the Actresses: Female Performers and the Cultural Alternatives in Early Twentieth Century Beijing and Tianjin." Modern China 22, 2 (Apr. 1996): 197-233.

Cheng, Jihua, et al. Zhongguo dianying fazhan shi (The history of the development of Chinese film). Beijng: Zhongguo dianying, 1980.

Ch'iu, Kuei-fen. "The Question of Translation in Taiwanese Colonial Cinematic Space." The Journal of Asian Studies 70, 1 (2011): 77-97.

[Abstract: This essay studies the practice of cultural translation in colonial Taiwanese cinematic space. Just as the Japanese translation of Western cinema brings into play traces of Japanese otherness, the Taiwanese translation of the Japanese translation disrupts the Japanese monopoly on the meaning of cinematic experience in colonial Taiwan. A key figure in this complex cultural translation was the benshi, a translator who performed alongside the screen to interpret the film for the audience. This study argues that an overemphasis on the interventional power of the benshi’s word does not do justice to the complex role of the benshi as a translator. In spite of its inscription of the cultural specific in the cinematic space, the presence of the benshi is also a reminder of an unfulfilled desire: the desire for the (foreign) image and the desire for the other. Insofar as the act of translation is a critical engagement with the challenges posed by the other, a simplistic celebration of local resistance does not help us fully address the complexity of cultural translation that defines the mediascape of the modern age.]

Cho, Pock-rey. "The Emperor of Shanghai Movies of the 1930s: Jin Yan (1910-1983)." Asian Cinema 14, 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 206-214.

Chua, John. "Something Borrowed, Something New: Ye Ban Ge Sheng (Song at Midnight) and the Cross-Cultural Reinterpretation of Horror in Twentieth Century China." Asian Cinema 16, 2 (Fall/Winter 2005): 122-46.

Dai Xiaolan, ed. Zhongguo wusheng dianying (Chinese silent film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1996.

Dong, Xinyu. Kan yu beikan zhijian: dui Zhongguo wusheng dianying de wenhua yanjiu (Between seeing and being seen: cultural studies on Chinese silent cinema). Beijing: Beijing shifan daxue, 2000.

-----. "From Shanghai Document to Shanghai 24 Hours." In Luca Giuliani and David Robinson, eds., The Collegium Papers VI. Sacile: Le Gironate Del Cinema Muto, 2005.

-----. "The Laborer at Play: Laborer's Love, the Operational Aesthetic, and the Comedy of Inventions." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 1-39.

Du, Wenwei. "Xi and Yingxi: The Interaction Between Traditional Theatre and Chinese Cinema." Screeing the Past (Nov. 2000).

Elley, Derek. "Peach Blossom Dreams: Silent Chinese Cinema Remembered." Griffithiana (Oct. 1997): 127-80.

Farquhar, Mary and Chris Berry. "Shadow Opera: Toward a New Archaelogy of Chinese Cinema." In Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 27-52.

Field, Andrew D. "Selling Souls in Sin City: Shanghai Singing and Dancing Hostesses in Print, Film, and Politics, 1920-1949." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 99-127.

Fu, Po-shek. "Projecting Ambivalence: Chinese Cinema in Semi-Occupied Shanghai, 1937-1941." In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Wartime Shanghai. London: Routledge, 1998, 86-110.

-----. "Struggle to Entertain: The Political Ambivalence of Shanghai Film Industry under Japanese Occupation, 1941-1945." In Cinema of Two Cities: Hong Kong-Shanghai. Hong Kong: Eighteenth Annual Hong Kong International Film Festival, 1994.

-----. "Eileen Chang, Women's Film, and Domestic Culture of Modern Shanghai." Tamkang Review 29, 4 (Summer 1999): 9-28.

-----. "Selling Fantasies at War: Production and Promotion Practices of the Shanghai Cinema, 1937-1941." Sherman Cochran, ed., Inventing Nanjing Road: Commerical Culture in Shanghai, 1900-1945. Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 187-206.

-----. "Eileen Chang, Woman's Film, and Domestic Shanghai in the 1940s." Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 97-113.

-----. Between Shanghai and Hong Kong: The Politics of Chinese Cinemas. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003.

Gao, Yunxiang. "Sex, Sports, and China's National Crisis, 1931-1945: The "Athletic Movie Star" Li Lili (1915-2005)." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 1 (Spring 2010): 96-161.

Ge, Congmin. "Photography, Shadow Play, Beijing Opera, and the First Chinese Film." Eras 3 (June 2002).

Hansen, Miriam Bratu. "Fallen Women, Rising Stars, New Horizions: Shanghai Silent Films as Vernacular Modernism." Film Quarterly 54, 1 (Fall 2000): 10-22.

-----. "The Gender of Vernacular Modernism: Chinese and Japanese Films of the 1930s." La Valle de l'Eden (Turin) IX.19 (Dec. 2007): 23-41.

Harris, Kristine. "Peach Blossom Dreams: Silent Chinese Cinema Remembered." Griffithiana 60/61 (October 1997): 126-179.

-----. "The New Woman: Image, Subject, and Dissent in 1930s Shanghai Film Culture." Republican China 20.2 (April 1995): 55-79. Rpt in Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

-----. Silent Speech: Envisioning the Nation in Early Chinese Cinema. Ph. D. diss. NY: Columbia University, 1997.

-----. "The Romance of the Western Chamber and the Classical Subject Film in 1920s Shanghai." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 51-73.

-----. "Ombres Chinoises: Split Screens and Parallel Lives in Love and Duty." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 39-61.

Hong, Guo-Juin. "Framing Time: New Women and the Cinematic Representation of Colonial Modernity in 1930s Shanghai." positions: east asian cultures critique 15, 3 (Winter 2007): 553-80.

Hsieh, Shu-fen. "A Nostaligic Look at Classic Chinese Films." Sinorama 18, 5 (My 1993): 44.

Hu, Jubin. 2000. "Yingxi (Shadow Play): The Initial Chinese Conception about Film." Screening the Past (Nov. 2000).

----. Projecting a Nation: Chinese Cinema Before 1949. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2003. [MCLC Resource Center review by Zhen Zhang]

Huang, Xuelei. "Looking through the Glass of Spatiality: Spatial Practice, Contact Relation, and the Isis Theater in Shanghai, 1917-1937." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 1-33.

-----. "From East Lynne to Konggu Lan: Transcultural Tour, Transmedial Translation." Transcultural Studies no. 2 (2012).

Huang, Xuelei and and Zhiwei Xiao. "Shadow Magic and the Early History of Film Exhibition in China." In Song Hwee Lim, and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute, 2011, 47-55.

Iovene, Paola. "Phony Phoenixes: Comedy, Protest, and Marginality in Postwar Shanghai." In Sherman Cochran and Paul Pickowicz eds., China on the Margins. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010, 267-287.

Johnson, Matthew. International and Wartime Origins of the Propaganda State: The Motion Picture in China, 1897-1955. Ph. D. diss. San Diego: University of California, San Diego, 2008.

[Abstract: This dissertation is a study of elite efforts to master new technologies of political communication in twentieth-century China. In particular, it focuses on an unlikely pair of topics--cinema and state formation. While motion pictures are not often included in discussions of the media, they too have played a role in the creation and exercise of political power. Numerous choices have been made throughout modern Chinese history concerning the proper role of culture in state affairs. A central argument here is that propaganda activities have shaped mass media production from the moment of China's own "communications revolution" onward. Cinematic technologies--like those of the telegraph, radio, and journalistic press--were instantly appreciated for their powers to enhance political efficacy and shape mass opinion. The relentless pursuit of state prerogatives in each of these areas, partly in response to decades of foreign threat and social crisis, has creating an enduring institutional basis for centralized media management which has survived to the present day.]

-----. "‘Journey to the Seat of War’: The International Exhibition of China in Early Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June 2009): 109-22.

[Abstract: Much about early Chinese cinema remains unknown. This article demonstrates that colonialism, war and cross-cultural contact were important to the emergence and growth of a national film industry. At the same time, they instilled in film-makers the belief that visual technologies and mass media exerted a significant influence over national sovereignty. By the 1920s, globally-circulating techniques of propaganda, as well as reinvented aesthetic traditions (e.g. yingxi, or shadowplay) shaped the cinema's form as well as its function. Yet like the Qing dynasty before it, Republican China was ensnared in an epistemological ‘net’ created by foreign interests and capital. Proto-national culture industries, such as those envisioned by the Commercial Press and patriotic overseas elites, provided one possible way out.]

Kangri zhanzheng shiqi de Chongqing dianying (Film in Chongqing during the War of Resistance Against the Japanese). Chongqing: Chongqing chubanshe, 1991.

Kapitanoff, Nancy. "Moving Pictures: Shadow Magic Explores the Burgeoning Film Industry of 1902 China." Pulse (April 2001): 79-80.

Kingman, Spencer. "China's First Moving Pictures." Asia (May 1933): 278-279.

Lee, Daw-ming. "How Cinema Came to China: Some Theories and Doubts." In Law Kar, ed., Early Images of Hong Kong and China: The 19th Hong Kong International Film Festival. HK: Urban Council, 1995, 33-36.

Law, Kar and Frank Bren. "The Enigma of Benjamin Brodsky." HK Film Archive Newsletter 14 (2000).

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "The Urban Milieu of Shanghai Cinema." In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999.

-----. "Face, Body, and the City: The Fiction of Liu Na'ou and Mu Shiying." In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 82-119.

-----. "The Urban Milieu of Shanghai Cinema, 1930-40: Some Explorations of Film Audience, Film Culture, and Narrative Conventions." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 74-96.

-----. "Eileen Chang and Cinema." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 2 (Jan. 1999): 37-60.

"Leftist Chinese Cinema of the Thirties." Cineaste 18, 3 (1990): 36-37.

Li Daoxin. Zhongguo dianying shi, 1937-1945 (History of Chinese film, 1937-1945). Beijing: Shoudu shifan daxue, 2000.

Li, Jie. "A National Cinema for a Puppet State: The Manchurian Motion Picture Association." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 79-97.

Li Suyuan and Hu Jubin. Zhongguo wusheng dianying shi (Chinese silent film history). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1996.

Li, Suyuan. Chinese Silent Film History. Tr. Wang Rui, et al. Beijing: China Film Press, 1997.

Liu, Lu. "Sorrow after the Honeymoon: The Controversy over Domesticity in Late Republican China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 1 (Spring 2001): 1-35.

Ma, Ning. "Symbolic Representation and Symbolic Violence: Chinese Family Melodrama of the Early 1980s." East-West Film Journal 4, 1 (Dec 1989): 79-112.

-----. "The Textual and Critical Difference of Being Radical: Recontructing Chinese Leftist Films of the 1930s." Wide Angle 11, 2 (1989): 28.

McGrath, Jason. "Acting Real: Cinema, Stage, and the Modernity of Performance in Chinese Silent Film." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 401-20.

Meyer, Richard J. Ruan Ling-yu: The Goddess of Shanghai. HK: HK University Press, 2005.

[Abstract: Tells the story of one of the greatest Chinese movie stars of the silent era, from her humble origins to her tragic death at the height of her career. Included with the book is a DVD of her most famous film The Goddess]

-----. Jin Shan: The Rudolf Valentino of China (with DVD of The Peach Girl). HK: HK University Press, 2009.

-----. Wang Renmei: The Wildcat of Shanghai (With DVD of Wild Rose). HK: HK University Press, 2013.

[Abstract: Wang Renmei was on a fast track to become one of China's leading film stars in the 1930s. Her early films were received with magnificent praise by audiences and critics alike, though she later lamented that she became famous too early and never had a chance to properly study acting. The film Song of the Fishermen in which she sang and played a major role was the first Chinese motion picture to win an International Award in Moscow in 1935. Wang's personal struggles reflected the turbulent period from the end of the Qing dynasty to the rise of Deng Xiaoping. This study explores her artistic achievements amid the prevalent anti-feminist and feudal society in China prior to the founding of the People's Republic in 1949--attitudes which contributed to the downturn of Wang's promising career and forced her to accept various bit parts among the more than twenty films in which she appeared. In addition, personal problems as well as the Anti-Rightist Movement and the Cultural Revolution led to her hospitalization for mental illness. Wang's life is emblematic of the experiences of many left-wing and Communist Party members from the Shanghai film community who were viewed with suspicion and enmity by the Yan'an clique headed by Mao and later the Gang of Four. Wang's performances in World War II for the Nationalist troops as well as her work with the US forces in China had a dire effect on her career after 1949. Yet today, her films are being discovered again.]

Motion Pictures in China. Trade Information Bulletin no. 722, US Department of Commerce. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1930.

Ng, Kenny K. K. "The Screenwriter as Cultural Broker: Travels of Zhang Ailing's Comedy of Love." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 131-84.

North, C. J. The Chinese Motion Picture Market. Washington, DC: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, US Department of Commerce, 1927.

Palmer, Augusta. "Scaling the Skyscraper: Images of Cosmopolitan Consumption in Street Angel (1937) and Beautiful New World (1998)." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 181-204.

Pang, Laikwan. The Chinese Left-Wing Cinema Movement, 1932-1937: History, Aesthetics, and Ideology. Ph.d. diss. St. Louis: Washington University, 1997.

-----. Building a New China in Cinema: The Chinese Left-Wing Cinema Movement, 1932-1937. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002. [MCLC Resource Center review by Shaoyi Sun]

-----. "The Making of a National Cinema: Shanghai Films of the 1930s." In Song Hwee Lim, and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute, 2011, 56-64.

Pickowicz, Paul. "Melodramatic Representation and the 'May Fourth' Tradition of Chinese Cinema." In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 295-326.

-----. "Sinifying and Popularizing Foreign Culture: From Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths to Huang Zuolin's Yedian." Modern Chinese Literature 7, 2 (Fall 1993): 7-31.

-----. "The Theme of Spiritual Pollution in Chinese Films of the 1930s." Modern China 17, 1 (January 1991):38-75.

-----. "Victory as Defeat: Postwar Visualizations of China's War of Resistance." In Wen-hsin Yeh, ed., Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 365-97.

-----. "Chinese Filmmaking on the Eve of the Communist Revolution." In Song Hwee Lim, and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute, 2011, 76-85.

Quiquemelle, Marie-Claire and Jean-Loup Passek. Le cinema chinois. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985. [contains 14 articles, a chronology, a filmography, and biographical sketches of directors; emphasis on republican era film]

Rayns, Tony. "Missing Links: Chinese Cinema in Shanghai and Hong Kong from the 1930s to the 1940s." In Law Kar, ed., Early Images of Hong Kong and China: The 19th Hong Kong International Film Festival. HK: Urban Council, 1995, 105-11.

Rist, Peter. "Visual Style in the Shanghai Films Made by the Lianhua Film Company (United Photoplay Service): 1931-37." The Moving Image: Journal of the Association of Moving Image Archivists 1, 1 (Spring 2001).

Robinson, David. "Return of the Phantom: Maxu Weibang's Ye Ban Ge Sheng." In Steven Jay Schneider, ed., Fear Without Frontiers: Horror Cinema Across the Globe. Goldaming, UK: FAB Press, 2003, 39-43.

Russell, Frances. "Hollywood in China." Vox Magazine (October 1935).

Shen, Jing. "Male Subjectivities: The Idealization of the Democractic Public Sphere: Crossroads (1937) and The Trouble Shooters (1988)." Asian Cinema 22, 1 (Spring/Summer 2011): 208-39.

Shen, Vivian. "From Xin nuxing to Liren xing: Chang Conceptions of the 'New Woman' in Republican Era Chinese Films." Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 114-130.

-----. The Origins of the Left-wing Cinema in China, 1932-37. New York and London: Routledge, 2005.

Stephenson, Shelley. "'Her Traces Are Found Everywhere': Shanghai, Li Xianglan, and the 'Greater East Asian Film Sphere.'" In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 222-45.

Sutcliffe, Brett. "A Spring River Flows East: Progressive Ideology and Gender Representation." Screening the Past 5 (Dec. 1998).

To, Li Cheuk. "Le Printemps d'une petite ville, un film qui renouvelle la traditin chinoise." In Marie-Claire Quiquemelle and Jean-Loup Passek, eds., Le Cinema Chinois. Paris: Centre George Pompidou, 1985, 73-76.

Toroptsev, Sergei. "Xia Yan and the Chinese Cinema." Far Eastern Affairs 4 (1985): 126-31.

Totaro, Donato. "The Golden Age of Chinese Cinema: Chinese Cinema 1933-1949." Off Screen (May 12, 1999).

Tuohy, Sue. "Metropolitan Sounds: Music in Chinese Films of the 1930s." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 200-21.

Wall, Michael C. Chinese Reaction to the Portrayal of China and Chinese in American Motion Pictures Prior to 1949. Ph.D. Diss. Washington, DC: Georgetown University, 2000.

Wang, Yiman. "The Phantom Strikes Back: Triangulating Hollywood, Shanghai, and Hong Kong." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 21 (2004): 317-26.

-----. "From Word to Word-image--Film Translation of a 'Sketchy' Chinese Short Story /Spring Silkworm." Literature/Film Quarterly 33, 1 (Jan. 2005): 41-50.

-----. "The Art of Screen Passing: Anna May Wong's Yellow Yellowface Performance in the Art Deco Era." Camera Obscura 60 (2005): 159-192.

-----. "Li Xianglan / Yamaguchi Yoshiko and Pan-Asianism." IIAS Newsletter 38 (Sept. 2005): 7.

-----. "To Write or to Act, That Is the Question: 1920s to 1930s Shanghai Actress-Writers and the Death of the 'New Woman." In Lingzhen Wang, ed., Chinese Women's Cinema: Transnational Contexts. NY: Columbia UP, 2011, 235-54.

-----. "Wartime Cinema: Reconfiguration and Border Navigation." In Song Hwee Lim, and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute, 2011, 65-75.

Way, E. I. Motion Pictures in China. Washington, DC: Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, US Department of Commerce, 1930.

Wilson, Patricia. "The Founding of the Northeast Film Studio 1946-1949." Semsel , Chinese Film, 15-33.

Xiang, Adrian Song. "Hollywood and Shanghai Cinema in the 1930s." CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 15, 2 (2013).

Xiao, Zhiwei. Film Censorship in China, 1927-1937. Ph. D. diss. San Diego: University of California, San Diego, 1994.

-----. "Anti-Imperialism and Film Censorship During the Nanjing Decade, 1927-1937." In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

-----. "Constructing a New National Culture: Film Censorship and the Issues of Cantonese Dialect, Superstition, and Sex in the Nanjing Decade." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 183-99.

-----. "Social Activism during the Republican Period: Two Case Studies of Popular Protests against Movies." Twentieth Century China 25, 2 (April 2000): 55-74.

-----. "Movie House Etiquette Reform in Early-Twentieth-Century China." Modern China 32, 4 (2006): 513-536.

-----. "American Films in China Prior to 1950." In Ying Zhu and Stanley Rosen, eds., Art, Politics, and Commerce in Chinese Cinema. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2010, 55-70.

-----. "Policing Film in Early Twentieth-Century China, 1905-1923." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 452-71.

Yeh, Yueh-yu. 2002. “Historiography and Sinification: Music in Chinese Cinema of the 1930s." Cinema Journal 41, no. 3 (Spring): 78-97.

Zhang, Yingjin. "Engendering Chinese Filmic Discourse of the 1930s: Configurations of Modern Women in Shanghai in Three Silent Films." Positions 2, 3 (Winter 1994): 603-28.

-----. "Introduction: Cinema and Urban Culture in Republican Shanghai." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 3-23.

-----. "Prostitution and Urban Imagination: Negotiating the Public and the Private in Chinese Films of the 1930s." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 160-80.

-----, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999.

-----. Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002.

-----. Chinese National Cinema. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

-----. "Zhao Dan: Spectrality of Martyrdom and Stardom." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 2 (July 2008): 103-111.

[Abstract: here is an uncanny link between martyrdom and stardom in Zhao Dan's film career. In real life he was twice incarcerated for multiple years, and on screen he appeared often as suffering martyrs. His stardom, based on ‘I play myself’ after Crossroads/Shizi jietou (1937), acquired an eerie dimension of spectrality as his self-performance was attuned to a ghostly mechanism engineered by precarious history more than individual subjectivity. Through Zhao's fated star performance of self as others, this study investigates spectrality as an irrational logic that integrated martyrdom and stardom in socialist China.]

-----. "Gender, Genre, and Performance in Eileen Chang's Films: Equivocal Contrasts Across the Print-Screen Divide." In Lingzhen Wang, ed., Chinese Women's Cinema: Transnational Contexts. NY: Columbia UP, 2011, 255-73.

Zhang, Zhen. An Amorous History of the Silver Screen: Film Culture, Urban Modernity, and the Vernacular Experience in China, 1896-1937. Ph. D. diss. University of Chicago, 1998.

-----. "Teahouse, Shadowplay, Bricolage: Laborer's Love and the Question of Early Chinese Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and Urban Culture in Shanghai, 1922-1943. Stanford: SUP, 1999, 27-50.

-----. "Bodies in the Air: Magic of Science and the Fate of the Early 'Martial Arts' Film in China." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 43-60. Rpt. in Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 52-75.

-----. "An Amorous History of the Silver Screen: The Actress as Vernacular Embodiment in Early Chinese Film." Camera Obscura [48] 16, 3 (2001): 229-63. [Project Muse link]

-----. An Amorous History of the Silver Screen: Shanghai Cinema, 1896-1937. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. [press blurb]

-----. "Transplanting Melodrama: Observations on the Emergence of Early Chinese Narrative Film." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 25-41.

Zhong, Dafeng, Zhen Zhang, and Yingjin Zhang. "From Wenmingxi (Civilized Play) to Yingxi (Shadowplay): The Foundation of Shanghai Film Industry in the 1920s." Asian Cinema 9, 1 (1997): 46-64.

Zhongguo dianying yishu zhongxin, ed. Zhongguo zuoyi dianying yundong (The Chinese leftist cinema movement). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1993.

Zhongguo dianying ziliao guan, ed. Zhongguo wusheng dianying (Chinese silent film). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1996.

Zhongguo zuoyi xijujia lianmeng shiliao ji (Historical materials of the Chinese left-wing dramatists association). Beijing: Zhongguo xiju, 1991.


1950s-1970s

Bao, Weihong. "The Politics of Remediation: Mise-en-scene and the Subjunctive Body in Chinese Opera Film." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 256-90.

Bao, Ying. "The Problematics of Comedy: New China Cinema and the Case of Lu Ban." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 185-228.

-----. "National Cinema, Local Language, Trans-regional Adaptation: Dialect Comedy in the Early People's Republic of China." Asian Cinema 21, 1 (Spring/Summer 2010): 124-38.

Berry, Chris. "Sexual Difference and the Viewing Subject in Li Shuangshuang and The In-laws." Berry, ed., Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. Ithaca: Cornell East Asia Papers, 1985. Rprt. London: British Film Institute, 1991.

-----. "Stereotypes and Ambiguities: An Examination of the Feature Films of the Chinese Cultural Revolution." Journal of Asian Culture 6 (1982): 37-72.

Braester, Yomi. "The Purloined Lantern: Maoist Semiotics and Public Discourse in Early PRC Film and Drama." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 106-27.

-----. "A Big Dying Vat: The Vilifying of Shanghai during the Good Eighth Company Campaign." Modern China 31, 4 (2005): 411-47.

[Abstract: This article demonstrates how the popular perception of Shanghai as a decadent city was heightened during the campaign for Emulating the Good Eighth Company of Nanjing Road and argues for the central role of cinema in shaping the symbolism of Shanghai’s locales. The campaign, which peaked in 1963, was linked to the Lei Feng campaign and was an important preamble to the Cultural Revolution. The Good Eighth Company campaign shifted the emphasis from Shanghai’s image as a revolutionary bastion to that of a reactionary stronghold, a "big dying vat" that might contaminate the revolutionary forces and that needed to be brought back into the socialist fold. Using internal Party documents, the author maps out the campaign; by examining films, culminating in Sentinels under the Neon Lights (1964), the author also traces the dynamics that made Nanjing Road into a metonym of Shanghai’s depravity and redefined the city’s revolutionary status.]

-----. "The Political Campaign as Genre: Ideology and Iconography during the Seventeen Years Period." Modern Languages Quarterly 69, 1 (March 2008): 119-140.

-----. "A Genealogy of Cinephilia in the Maoist Period." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 98-115.

Braester, Yomi and Tina Mai Chen. "Film in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1979: The Missing Years." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 1 (March 2011): 5-12.

Chan, Jessica Ka Yee. "Translating 'Montage': The Discreet Attractions of Soviet Montage for Chinese Revolutionary Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 3 (Nov. 2011): 197-218.

[Abstract: What happens when a film term such as 'montage' undergoes translation? This article looks at the theoretical permutations of 'montage' as it was translated and introduced into China beginning in the early 1930s and the resulting film practices as the term continued to be reread, redefined and reinvented during the communist era. As a result of the attraction to the revolutionary allure of Soviet montage in the 1930s, a mysterious aura was attached to the Chinese transliteration mengtaiqi, which literally means 'veil (is) too strange'. In a period of intense engagement with international film theory during the 'seventeen years' (1949-1966), Chinese filmmakers demystified the inscrutability of montage in an effort to broaden its scope to refer to all film editing methods, including Hollywood continuity editing and Soviet montage. Through close reading of selected films, I look at how montage was creatively reinvented to construct a collectivized subject cinematically. ]

Chen, Tina Mai. "Propagating the Propaganda Film: The Meaning of Film in Chinese Communist Party Writings, 1949-1965." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 154-93.

-----. "Internationalism and Cultural Experience: Soviet Films and Popular Chinese Understandings of the Future in the 1950s." Cultural Critique 58 (Fall 2004): 82-114.

-----. "Socialism, Aestheticized Bodies, and International Circuits of Gender: Soviet Female Film Stars in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1969." Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 18, 2 (2007): 53-80.

-----. "International Film Circuits and Global Imaginaries in the People's Republic of China, 1949–57." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June. 2009): 149-61.

[Abstract: This article analyses patterns of film export from the People's Republic of China (PRC) to socialist and non-socialist countries during the period from 1949 to 1957. By focusing on the types of films and the countries in which they are exhibited, the article argues for a multilateral and comparative approach to understanding the filmic geographies created, and the ways in which this international film exhibition and its dant filmic geographies participated in Maoist articulations of socialism and modernization as national and global projects. The focus on the first eight years of the PRC and the global circulation of PRC films during this time further encourages a reassessment of scholarship on world cinema that tends to locate socialist cinema and the films of Maoist China outside of global aesthetics, politics and cultural exhibition and production.]

Clark, Paul. "The Film Industry in the 1970s." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: UCP, 1984, 177-196.

-----. "Closely Watched Viewers: A Taxonomy of Chinese Film Audiences from 1949 to the Cultural Revolution Seen from Hunan." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 1 (March 2011): 73-90.

[Abstract: Who were watching films in China from 1949 to the Cultural Revolution Research on this question has been patchy and frustrated by the kinds of sources available. Box office statistics, viewers' polls and commentaries, and even fandom were open to manipulation to put a positive spin on the growth of audiences and the appropriate popularity of particular films. This article uses a provincial film distribution list of all Chinese and foreign films distributed nationwide in these years to tease out indirect indications of the nature of film audiences. The number of prints struck in 35-mm and 16-mm formats, the language used (in the case of foreign films) and the timing of release all indicate the importance of a differentiation of audiences. Not all film-goers were expected to watch all films: particular titles suited particular viewers. Comparisons are made with a useful profile of the readership of literature in these years.]

-----. "Artists, Cadres, and Audiences: Chinese Socialist Cinema, 1949-1978." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 42-56.

Dai, Jinhua. “Gender and Narration: Women in Contemporary Chinese Film.” Tr. Jonathan Noble. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 99-150.

Delmar, R. and M. Nash. "Breaking with Old Ideas: Recent Chinese Films." Screen 17, 4 (1976): 67-84.

Dong, Xinyu. "Meeting of the Eyes: Invented Gesture, Cinematic Choreography, and Mei Lanfang's Kun Opera Film." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 200-19.

Harris, Kristine. "Re-makes/Re-models: The Red Detachment of Women between Stage and Screen." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 31-42.

Hoare, Stephanie. "'The New Year's Sacrifice': Using Literary Adaptation in the Chinese Literature Classroom." Asian Studies Review 14, 3 (April 1991): 88-92.

Huang, Nicole. "Azalea Mountain and Late Mao Culture." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 402-25.

Johnson, Matthew D. "The Science Education Film: Cinematizing Technocracy and Internationalizing Development." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 1 (March 2011): 31-54.

[Abstract: An important chapter in the longer story of forgotten socialist cinemas, PRC film-making for scientific education (kexue jiaoyu, or ke-jiao) was distinguished by a persistent international orientation. Prior to 1949 elite enlightenment efforts, League of Nations-inspired educational reform and missionary institutions of higher learning had created a vibrant, though limited, web of institutions devoted to popularizing scientific education through cinema. Like the propaganda system itself, these intellectual and institutional initiatives expanded further following Chinese Communist Party takeover. Scientific educators not only hoped to raise national standards of production, behaviour and knowledge, but also to use images of scientific evidence and progress to bolster the PRC's reputation on the world stage. Despite deep geopolitical cleavages during the Cold War period, film-making for scientific education suggests the existence of a shared global culture technocratic, homogenizing and nationally directed which transcended nationally specific forms. The origins of this culture, however, lay not in the Cold War itself but rather in earlier, inter-war attempts to internationalize the uniform practices of state-led development and social management. In this sense, China's cinematic history sheds light on the origins and dissemination of scientific culture during the twentieth century.]

Karl, Rebecca E. "The Burdens of History: Lin Zexu (1959) and the Opium War (1997)." In Xudong Zhang, ed., Whither China? Intellectual Politics in Contemporary China. Durham: Duke UP, 2001.

Kuoshu, Harry H. "The White-Haired Girl and Li Shuangshuang: Female Visibility and the Socialist Feminism." In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 71-94.

Lam, Ling Hon. "Reading off the Screen: Toward Cinematic Il-literacy in Late 1950s Opera Film." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 291-315.

Lewis, Greg. "The History, Myth, and Memory of Maoist Chinese Cinema, 1949-1976." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 162-83.

-----. "New China's Forgotten Cinema, 1949-1966: More Than Just Politics." Education About Asia (Fall 2004): 57-64.

Liu, Alan P. L. The Film Industry in Communist China. Cambridge: Center for International Studies, MIT, 1965.

Liu, Lydia. “A Folksong Immortal and Official Popular Culture in Twentieth-Century China.” In Judith T. Zeitlin and Lydia Liu, with Ellen Widmer, eds., Writing and Materiality in China: Essays in Honor of Patrick Hanan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2003, 553-609. [deals with film “Liu Sanjie” and its folk roots]

Lu, Xiaoning. "Zhang Ruifang: Modelling the Socialist Red Star." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 2 (July 2008): 113-22.

[Abstract: Adopting a historical approach, this essay uses the concept of Red Star to examine the construction of the star in Chinese socialist cinema. Through a case study of Zhang Ruifang, this essay argues that a theoretical paradigm of modelling is crucial to comprehending the Red Star, one who embodies the ideal socialist person both on screen and off screen. As Zhang Ruifang's film stardom illustrates, the Red Star served as a model for the masses and was subject to remodelling by the socialist ideology.]

-----. "The Politics of Recognition and Constructing Socialist Subjectivity: Reexamining the National Minority Film (1949-1966)." Journal of Contemporary China 23 (March 2014): 372-486.

[Abstract:Adopting an historical approach, this essay reexamines the national minority films produced between 1949 and 1966 in socialist China with a focus on its role in the Chinese Communist Party's political project of building an ideal socialist citizenry. Shifting the critical anchoring of the national minority film from questions of representation to those of performance and spectatorship, it points out that cross-ethnic performance embedded within film narrative and discerned by historically situated audiences simultaneously constructs and deconstructs ethnicity, thus encouraging a transformative recognition across the ethnic boundary. Ultimately the national minority film models fraternity of citizenship essential to creating socialist subjectivity.]

Loh, Wai-fong. "From Romantic Love to Class Struggle: Reflections on the Film Liu Sanjie." In Bonnie McDougall, ed. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the PRC, 1949-1979. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984, 165-176.

Ma, Ning. "Satisfied or Not: Desire and Discourse in the Chinese Comedy of the 1960s." East-West Film Journal 2, 1 (Dec 1987): 32-49.

Marchetti, Gina. "Two Stage Sisters: The Blossoming of a Revolutionary Aesthetic." Jump Cut 34 (1988): 95-106. Rpt. In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997, 59-80.

McGrath, Jason. "Cultural Revolution Model Opera Films and the Realist Tradition in Chinese Cinema." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 343-76.

McGrath, Jason. "Communists Have More Fun! The Dialectics of Fulfillment in Cinema of the People's Republic of China." World Picture 3 (Summer 2009). [deals in part with Xie Jin's Red Detachment of Women and with Song of Youth]

Meek, Scott and Tony Rayns. "Before the Cultural Revolution" Sight and Sound 49 (Autumn, 1980).

Meng Liye. Xin Zhongguo dianying yishu shigao, 1949-1959 (Draft history of new China's film art, 1949-1959). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 2002.

Meng Liye, Zhang Sitao, and Li Jinsheng, eds. Zaijian geming lishi de yishu: geming lishi ticai dianying yanjiu lunwen ji (Goodbye to the art of revolutionary history: collection of essays on films wit revolutionary history themes). Beijing: Beijing dianying, 1993.

Mills, Ian. "Why Did Chiang Ching Close Down Chinese Film Production? Or, the Garden of Eden Re-Opened." Australian Journal of Screen Theory 15-16 (1983): 7-34.

Mittler, Barbara. "'Eight Stage Works for 800 Million People': The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in Music--A View from Revolutionary Opera." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 377-401.

Pang, Laikwan. "Between Will and Negotiation: Film Policy in the First Three Years of the People's Republic of China." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 472-89.

Pickowicz, Paul G. "Cinema and Revolotion in China: Some Interpretive Themes." American Behavioral Scientist 17 (Jan-Feb 1974): 328-59.

-----. "Acting Like Revolutionaries: Shi Hui, the Wenhua Studio, and Private-Sector Filmmaking, 1949-1952." In Jeremy Brown and Paul Pickowicz, eds., Dilemmas of Victory: The Early Years of the People's Republic of China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2008.

Qian, Ying. "Crossing the Same River Twice: Reenactment and the Founding of PRC Documentary Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 590-609.

Rayns, Tony. "Director: King Hu." Sight and Sound 45 (1976): 8-13.

Robinson, Lewis. "Family: A Study in Genre Adaptation." Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 12 (1984): 35-57.

Stephen Teo. "The Lin Shop Family: A Chinese Melodrama of Capitalist Existentialism." Senses of Cinema 28 (Sept.-Oct. 2003).

Tang, Xiaobing. "Rural Women and Social Change in New China Cinema: From Li Shuangshuang to Ermo." positions 11, 3 (Winter 2003): 647-74.

Tessier, Max. "Hsu Feng: Steel in Velvet." Cinemaya 15 (1992): 13-15.

Toroptsev, Sergei. "The Space of the Subjective: Pre-Fifth Generation Chinese Cinema." Cinemaya 16 (1992): 14-17.

Van Fliet Hang, Krista. "Creativity and Containment in the Transformations of Li Shuangshuang." In Van Fliet Hang, Literature the People Love: Reading Chinese Texts from the Early Maoist Period (1949-1966). NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 57-90.

Wang, Ban. "Art, Politics, and Internationalism: Korean War Films in Chinese Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 250-68.

Wang, Qi. "Those Who Lived in a Wall-papered Home: The Historical Space of the Socialist Chinese Counter-Espionage Film." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 1 (March 2012): 55-72.

[Abstract: This article seeks to engage socialist Chinese counter-espionage film beyond the frame of analysis dictated by state propaganda and film genre. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach that combines textual analysis and contextual research in history, architecture and interior design, the article travels between cinematic and historical spaces such as the homes of spies and socialist workers, the offices of official investigators, the urban as well as social landscape of the 1950s and in the process observes a dynamic incomplete alignment between cinema and history, representation and reality, politics and society.]

Wang, Yuejin. "Melodrama as Historical Understanding: The Making and the Unmaking of Communist Historry." In Wimal Dissanayake, ed., Melodrama and Asian Cinema. NY: Cambridge UP, 1993.

Wang, Zhuoyi. "From the Life of Wu Xun to the Career of Song Jingshi: Crisis and Adaptation of Private Studio Filmmaking Legacy, 1951-1956." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 1 (March 2011): 13-30.

[Abstract: Current literary studies frequently assume that early PRC cinema is monolithic and univocal. Historical research has started to reveal the complex and shifting divisions in both the cultural leadership and film-making ranks in early PRC, but offer little in-depth textual analysis to expand our understanding of the films beyond the prevailing assumption that all of them are identical. This study seeks to introduce a fluid understanding that departs from the conventional homogenization of this cinema. It calls for a turn to user-centered study of discursive cases, and analyzes the film Song Jingshi (1957) as a key case showing how conflicts and compromises among multiple agendas rendered early PRC films ambivalent and polysemous. The film Song Jingshi was meant to be a coherent part of the campaign against The Life of Wu Xun (1951) and other private studio productions. But because various groups had high, competing stakes in the outcomes of this production, the film was forced into a long and painful revision process, in which rival interests produced contradictory interpretations of and inserted contending voices into the text. When examining this multipartite struggle, I particularly focus on how former private studio artists, constituting most of the film crew, actively adjusted and strategically defended their private studio film-making legacy.]

Ward, Julian. "The Remodelling of a National Cinema: Chinese Films of the Seventeen Years (1949-66)." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 87-94.

Weakland, John. "Chinese Film Images of Invasion and Resistance." China Quarterly 47 (July-September, 1971): 439-70.

Xiao, Jiwei. "A Traveller's Glance: Antonioni in China." New Left Review 79 (Jan-Feb. 2013).

[Abstract: It is understandable that Michelangelo Antonioni, one of the few Western directors permitted to film in China during the Cultural Revolution, was able to catch only a 'quick glance' of the country, as he put it in his 1972 documentary, Chung Kuo-Cina; time constraints and the political situation did not allow him to do otherwise. But what a glance! The film galvanized the PRC in a mass campaign against the director and touched off diplomatic incidents across Europe; four decades later, it would again stir intense but very different responses among Chinese viewers. In between, Chung Kuo had become that intriguing oxymoron: a well-known obscure film. The least seen and least studied of Antonioni's works in the West, in China its notoriety was once inversely matched by the number of its viewers--it was the film that everybody deplored but almost nobody had watched.]

Xiao, Zhiwei. "The Expulsion of American Films from China, 1949-1950." Twentieth-Century China 30, 1 (Nov. 2004).

Xu, Gary. "Edification through Affection: The Cultural Revolution Films, 1974-1976." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 269-80.

Yau, Esther C.M. "Compromised Liberation: The Politics of Class in Chinese Cinema of the Early 1950s." In David James and Rick Berg, eds., The Hidden Foundation: Cinema and the Question of Class. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996, 138-71.

-----. Filmic Discourse on Women in Chinese Cinema (1949-65): Art, Ideology and Social Relations. Ph. D. diss. LA: University of California, Los Angeles.

Yu Lan. "Ertong dianying sanshiwu nian xunli" (An overiew of 35 years of children's film). In Zhonghua renmin gonghe guo dianying shiye sanshiwu nian, 1949-1984 (Thirty-five years of film industry in the People's Republic of China). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1985, 224-235.

Zeitlin, Judith T. "Operatic Ghosts on Screen: The Case of A Test of Love (1958)." The Opera Quarterly 26, 2-3 (Spring-Summer 2010): 220-55. [the film was adapted from the "ghost opera," written by Tian Han]

Zhelahovtsev, A. "A Soviet Reporter's View of Cinema in the Chinese People's Republic." Film Comment 5, 1 (1968): 28-32.

ZDX, ed. Zhonghua renmin gonghe guo dianying shiye sanshiwu nian, 1949-1984 (Thirty-five years of film development in the People's Republic of China). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1985.

Zhong, Xueping. "'Long Live Youth' and the Ironies of Youth and Gender in Chinese Films of the 1950s and 1960s." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 150-85.


Post-Mao

Berry, Chris. "Chinese 'Women's Cinema': Introduction." Camera Obscura 18 (Sept. 1988): 4-7.

-----. "China's New 'Women's Cinema.'" Camera Obscura 18 (Sept. 1988):8-19.

----- "Chinese Urban Cinema: Hyper-Realism Versus Absurdism." East-West Film Journal 3, 1 (1988): 76-88.

-----. "Market Forces: China's 'Fifth Generation' Faces the Bottom Line." First Published in Continuum 2, 1 (1988/89): 106-27.

-----. Postsocialist Cinema in the Post-Mao China: The Cultural Revolution After the Cultural Revolution. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

[Abstract: This book argues that the fundamental shift in Chinese Cinema away from Socialism and towards Post-Socialism can be located earlier than the emergence of the "Fifth Generation" in the mid-eighties when it is usually assumed to have occured. By close analysis of films from the 1949-1976 Maoist era in comparison with 1976-81 films representing the Cultural Revolution, it demonstrates that the latter already breaks away from Socialism.]

Berry, Chris and Mary Ann Farquhar. "Post-Socialist Stategies: An Analysis of Yellow Earth and Black Cannon Incident." In Linda Erlich and David Desser, eds., Cinematic Landscapes: Observations on the Visual Arts and Cinema of China and Japan. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994, 81-116.

Braester, Yomi. "A Blinding Red Light: The Displacement of Rhetoric in the Cinema of the Early 1980s." In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 131-45..

Chang, Hsien-Chen. "The Small Freedom of the Market: Chinese Cinema during the Period of Reform." In Noth, Jochen, et.al., eds. China Avant-garde: Counter-currents in Art and Culture. HK, New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, 60-62.

Chen Huangmei, ed. Dangdai Zhongguo dingying (Contemporary Chinese film). 2 vols. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1989.

Chen, Ming-May Jessie and Mazharul Haque. "The Chinese Fifth Generation Directors and Their Films." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 306-24.

-----. Representation of the Cultural Revolution in Chinese Films by the Fifth Generation Filmmakers: Zhang Yimou, Chen Kaige, and Tian Zhuangzhuang. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2007.

Chen, Xihe. The Major Developments and Their Ideological Implications of Chinese Film and Film Education since the Cultural Revolution. Ph.D. diss. Columbus: The Ohio State University, 1994.

Chen, Xiaoming. "The Mysterious Other: Postpolitics in Chinese Film." Trs. Liu Kang and Anbing Shi. In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 222-38.

Chong, Woei Lien. "Le mysticisme de la nature dans le cinéma chinois après la Révolution culturelle" (Nature mysticism in post-Cultural Revolution Chinese cinema). Critique internationale 20 (July 2003): 48-58.

Chong, W.L. and A. S. Keyser. "Director Zhang Zeming on His Film Swansong." China Information 4, 4 (1990): 37-43.

Clark, Paul. "Filmmaking in China: From the Cultural Revolution to 1981." The China Quarterly (June 1983): 304-22.

-----"Ethnic Minorities in Chinese Films: Cinema and the Exotic." East-West Film Journal 1, 2 (June 1987): 15-31.

----- "Reinventing China: The Fifth Generation Filmmakers." Modern Chinese Literature 5, 1 (Spring 1989): 121-36.

-----. "A Women's Cinema? The Films of Hu Mei, Peng Xiaolian and Liu Miaomiao." In Clark, Reinventing China: A Generation and Its Films. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2005, 122-36.

-----. "The Rise of Entertainment Film: Zhang Jianya and Jiang Haiyang." In Clark, Reinventing China: A Generation and Its Films. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2005, 137-45.

Cohen, Joan Leobld. "The Fifth Generation." Attention (July/Aug. 1988): 88-93.

Cornelius, Sheila (with Ian Haydn Smith). New Chinese Cinema: Challenging Representations. London and New York: Wallflower, 2002.

Dai, Jinhua. "Rewriting Chinese Women: Gender Production and Cultural Space in the Eighties and Nineties." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 191-206.

-----. "Invisible Women: Contemporary Chinese and Women's Film." positions 3, 1 (1995): 254-80.

-----. "Severed Bridge: The Art of the Sons' Generation." Trs. Lisa Rofel and Hu Ying. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 13-48.

-----. “Gender and Narration: Women in Contemporary Chinese Film.” Tr. Jonathan Noble. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 99-150.

-----. “’Human, Woman, Demon’: A Woman’s Predicament.” Tr. Kirk Denton. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 151-71. [on Huang Shuqin's film]

Donald, Stephanie. Chinese Cinema and Civil Society in the Post-Maoist Era. Ph.D. diss. University of Sussex, 1996.

-----. "Chinese Women and Chinese Film: Problems with History and Feminism." In Barbara Einhorn and Eileen Janes Yeo, eds., Women and Market Societies: Crisis and Opportunity. Aldershot, UK ; Brookfield, Vt., US : E. Elgar, 1995, 84-95.

-----. Public Secrets, Public Spaces: Cinema and Civility in China. Lanham, Md : Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

Eder, Klaus adn Deac Rossell, eds. New Chinese Cinema. London: National Film Theatre, 1993.

Gladney, Dru. "Tian Zhuangzhuang, the Fifth Generation, and Minorities Films in China." Public Culture 8 (1995): 161-75.

Hao, X. & Chen, Y. "Film and Social Change: The Chinese Cinema in the Reform Era." Journal of Popular Film and Television, 28 (2000): 36-45.

Hitchcock, Peter. "The Aesthetics of Alienation, or China's 'Fifth Generation.'" Cultural Studies (London) 6 (1992): 116-41.

Hoare, Stephanie. "'Hsiao-hsiao' and Girl from Hunan: Teaching Chinese Narrative, not just Chinese Literature." Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association 26, 2 (May 1991): 25-32.

Huot, Claire. "Colorful Folk of the Landscape: Fifth Generation Filmmakers and Roots Searchers." In Huot, China's New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 91-125..

Kaplan, Ann. "Problematising Cross-cultural Analysis: The Case of Women in the Recent Chinese Cinema" in Chris Berry, ed. Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. London: British Film Institute, 1991.

Kuoshu, Harry H. "Beyond the Yellow Earth: The Postsocialist City as a Cinematic Space of Anxiety." American Journal of Chinese Studies 4, 1 (April 1997): 50-72. [deals with Zhang Zeming's Sunshine and Shower, Huang Jianxin's Samsara, and Mi Jiashan's Troubleshooters]

-----. "Othering the National Minorities: Exoticism and Self-Reflexivity." In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 95-122.

-----. "Filming Marginal Youth: The 'Beyond' Syndrome in the Postsocialist City." In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 123-52.

-----. Metro Movies: Cinematic Urbanism in Post-Mao China. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Metro Movies takes readers on a comprehensive tour of the urbanization of Chinese cinema. Focusing primarily on movies from the end of the twentieth century, it is the first single-authored work to explore the relationship between the changes in Chinese society—caused in part by the advent of postsocialism, the growth of cities, and globalization—and the transformation of Chinese cinema. Kuoshu examines such themes as displacement, cinematic representation, youth subculture, the private emotional lives of emerging urbanites, raw urban realism, and the allegorical contrast of the city and the countryside to illustrate the artistic richness and cultural diversity of this cinematic genre. Kuoshu discusses the work of director Huang Jianxin, whose films follow and critique China’s changing urban political culture. He dedicates a chapter to filmmakers who followed Huang and attempted to redefine the concept of art films to regain the local audience. These directors address Chinese moviegoers’ disappointment with the international adoption of Chinese art films, their lack of interest in conventional Chinese films, and their fascination with emerging audio-video media. A considerable amount of attention is given to films of the 1990s, which focus on the social changes surfacing in China, from the trend of hooliganism and the Beijing rock scene to the arrival of an urban pop culture lifestyle driven by expansionist commerce and materialism. Kuoshu also explores recent films that confront the seedier aspects of city life, as well as films that demonstrate how urbanization has touched every fiber of Chinese living. Metro Movies illustrates how cinematic urbanism is no longer a genre indicator but is instead an era indicator, revealing the dominance of metropolitan living on modern Chinese culture. It gives new insight into contemporary Chinese politics and culture and provides readers with a better understanding of China’s urban cinema. This book will be an excellent addition to college film courses and will fascinate any reader with an interest in film studies or Chinese culture.

Lang, Miriam. "Swan Songs: Traditional Musicians in Contemporary China - Observations from a Film." East Asian History 5 (June 1993).

Larson, Wendy. "The Fifth Generation: A Reassessment." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 113-21.

Lau, Jenny Kwok Wah. "A Cultural Interpretation of the Popular Cinema of China and Hongkong" in Berry ed. Perspectives on Chinese Film. London: British Film Institute, 1991. 166-74.

Li, H.C. "Color, Character, and Culture: On Yellow Earth, Black Canon Incident, and Red Sorghum." Modern Chinese Literature 5, 1 (Spring 1989): 91-119.

Liu Shusheng. Zhongguo diwu dai dianying (China's fifth generation film). Beijing: Zhongguo guangbo dianshi, 1992.

Lo, Kwai-cheung. "Feminizing Technology: The object a in Black Cannon Incident." In William Burgwinkel, et.al., eds., Significant Others: Gender and Culture in Film and Literature East and West. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1993, 88-95.

Lu, Tonglin. Confronting Modernity in the Cinemas of Taiwan and Mainland China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.

Ma, Ning. "Notes on the New Filmmakers." In Semsel ed., Chinese Film: The State of the Art in the People's Republic. New York: Praeger, 1987, 63-93.

-----."New Chinese Cinema: A Critical Account of the Fifth Generation." Cinemaya 2 (1988-89): 32-35. [reprinted here on AsianFilms.org]

Mayo, Lewis. "Images of 'Feudal' Marriage in Recent Chinese Art Films." In Mabel Lee and A.D. Syrokomla-Stefanowska, eds., Modernization of the Chinese Past. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1993, 137-51.

McKibbens, Adrienne. "China's Studio System." Cinema Papers 4 (July 1989): 23-24.

Mi, Jiashan. "Discussing The Troubleshooters." Chinese Education and Society 31, 1 (1998): 8-14.

Nakajima, Seio. The Chinese Film Industry in the Reform Era: Its Genesis, Structure, and Transformation Since 1978. Ph.D. diss. University of California, Berkeley, 2007.

Ni, Zhen. Memoirs from the Beijing Film Academy: The Genesis of China's Fifth Generation. Tr. Chris Berry. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

Padgaonkar, Latika. "Xie Fei: Twixt Teaching and Shooting--Time for a Good Story." Cinemaya 32 (1996): 34-38.

Petitprez, Veronique. "Being a Woman in the Films of the Fifth Generation." Cinemaya 21 (1993): 32-36.

Pickowicz, Paul. "Popular Cinema and Political Thought in Post-Mao China." In Perry Link, et al. eds., Unofficial China: Popular Culture and Thought in the PRC. Boulder: Westview Press, 1989, 37-56.

-----. "Huang Jianxin and the Notion of Postsocialism." In Nick Browne et al., eds. New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Identities, Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994, 57-87.

-----. "The Theme of Spiritual Pollution in Chinese Films of the 1930s." Modern China 17, 1 (1991): 38-75.

-----. "Velvet Prisons and the Political Economy of Chinese Filmmaking." In Deborah Davis, et.al, eds., Urban Spaces in Contemporary China: The Potential for Autonomy and Community in Post-Mao China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1995, 193-220.

Pinsky, Mark. "Entering Middle Age: China's Urban Intellectuals" Jump Cut 31 (1986):50.

Rashkin, Elissa. "Rape as Castration as Spectacle: The Price of Frenzy's Politics of Confusion." In Lu Tonglin, ed., Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 107-21.

Rayns, Tony. "Bertolucci in Beijing." Sight and Sound 56, 1 (Winter 1986/87): 39.

-----. "The Fifth Generation: A New Cinema in China." Monthly Film Bulletin (Oct. 1986): 296-98.

-----. "The New Chinese Cinema: An Introduction." In Chen, Kaige and Wan Zhi. King of the Children. London: Faber, 1989.

-----. "The Sun and the Rain: The Next Stage for China's Fifth Generation." Monthly Film Bulletin (Mar. 1988): 69-71.

Reynaud, Berenice. "Glamour and Suffering: Gong Li and the History of Chinese Stars." Sight and Sound 3, 8 (1993): 13. Rpt. in Pam Cook and Philip Dodd, eds., Women and Film: A Sight and Sound Reader. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993, 21-29.

Shao Mujun. "Chinese Films Amidst the Tide of Reform." East-West Film Journal 1, 1 (Dec. 1986): 59-68.

Shen, Jing. "Male Subjectivities: The Idealization of the Democractic Public Sphere: Crossroads (1937) and The Trouble Shooters (1988)." Asian Cinema 22, 1 (Spring/Summer 2011): 208-39.

Silbergeld, Jerome. China into Film: Frames of Reference in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. London: Reaktion, 1999.

Stanbrook, Alan. "The Flowers in China's Courtyard." Sight and Sound 56, 3 (Summer 1987): 183-87.

Tam, Kwok-kan and Wimal Dissanayake. New Chinese Cinema. NY: Oxford UP, 1998.

Tang, Xiaobin. "Configuring the Modern Space: Cinematic Representations of Beijing and Its Politics." East-West Film Journal 8, 2 (1994): 47-69.

Wang Yuejin. "The Cinematic Other and the Cultural Self? Decentering the Cultural Identity on Cinema." Wide Angle 11, 2 (1989).

-----. "Melodrama as Historical Understanding: The Making and the Unmaking of Communist Historry." In Wimal Dissanayake, ed., Melodrama and Asian Cinema. NY: Cambridge UP, 1993.

Wei, Louisa S. "The Encoding of Female Subjectivity: Four Films by China's Fifth Generation of Women Directors." In Lingzhen Wang, ed., Chinese Women's Cinema: Transnational Contexts. NY: Columbia UP, 2011, 173-90. [deals with Hu Mei's Army Nurse, Liu Miaomiao's Women on the Long March, Li Shaohong's Blush, and Peng Xiaolian's Shanghai Women]

Yau, Ether C.M. "Is China the End of Hermeneutics? Or, Political and Cultural Usage of Non-Han Women in Mainland Chinese Films" Discourse 11, 2 (1989): 115-36.

-----. "Cultural and Economic Dislocations: Filmic Phantasies of Chinese Women in the 1980s" Wide Angle 11, 2 (1989).

-----. "International Fantasy and the 'New Chinese Cinema.'" Quarterly Review of Film and Video 14, 3 (1993): 95-107.

Young, Suzie Sau Fong. "Encountering (China, My) Sorrow." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 107-11.

Zhang, Dan. "The Great Mind Matures Slowly-A Introduction to Li Shaohong." China Screen 2 (1993): 14-15.

Zhang, Yingjin. "From 'Minority Film' to 'Minority Discourse': Questions of Nationhood and Ethnicity in Chinese Cinema." In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

-----. "The Idyllic Country and the (Post) Modern City: Cinematic Configurations of Family in Osmanthus Alley and Terrorizer." Tamkang Review 25, 1 (1994): 81-99.

-----. Screening China: Critical Interventions, Cinematic Reconfigurations, and the Transnational Imaginary in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002.

-----. "Directors, Aesthetics, Genres: Chinese Postsocialist Cinema, 1979-2010." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 57-74.

Zhang, Xudong. Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms: Cultural Fever, Avant-Garde Fiction and the New Chinese Cinema. Durham: Duke UP, 1997.

-----. "Generational Politics: What Is the Fifth Generation?" In Zhang, Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms. Durham: Duke UP, 1997, 215-231.

-----. "The Making of a Modernist Cinematic Language." In Zhang, Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms. Durham: Duke UP, 1997, 232-65.

-----. "Ramifications and Allegories." In Zhang, Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms. Durham: Duke UP, 1997, 267-81.

Zhao, Henry. "Seeking Roots on the Loess Plateau." China Now 128 (1989): 39.

Zheng, Yi. "Narrative Images of the Historical Passion: Those Other Women--On the Alterity in the New Wave Chinese Cinema." In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Zhou, Xuelin. Young Rebels in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2007.

[Abstract: In the 1980s, a new type of central character emerged in contemporary Chinese films - angry and alienated youth. Filmmakers treated youth as a separate category and showed them in urban situations behaving in unconventional and socially rebellious ways. Young Rebels in Contemporary Chinese Cinema looks for evidence in films that exemplify this trend.]

Zhu, Ying. Chinese Cinema During the Era of Reform: The Ingenuity of the System. NY: Praeger Publishers, 2003.

-----. "Cinematic Modernization and Chinese Cinema's First Art Wave." Quarterly Review of Film & Video 18, 4 (2001).

-----. "From New Wave to Post New Wave: Chinese Fifth Generation's Cinematic Transition." Asian Culture Quarterly 2 (Summer 2000).

-----. "Commercialism and Nationalism: Chinese Cinema's First Wave of Entertainment Films." CineAction 47 (Summer 1998).


Post-1989

A.C. "Chinese Cinema Since the June Fourth Tiananmen Square Incident." Metro 87 (1991): 3-5.

Bao, Ying. "Remembering the Invisible: Soundscape and the Memory of 1989." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 7, 3 (Oct. 2013): 207-224.

[Abstract: This article intends to draw attention to the strategic exploitations of cinematic soundscape as a powerful affective tool to reflect personal and social memory, loss and trauma in three exemplary films, Yangguang canlan de rizi/In the Heat of the Sun (Jiang, 1994), Zhantai/Platform (Jia, 2000), and Dongci bianwei/Conjugation (Tang, 2001). Taking a semiotic approach to film sound, I scrutinize how the post-1989 trauma makes its presence as an acoustic and psychologically-penetrating experience. While the June Fourth Crackdown remains a taboo in cultural representations in the PRC, Chinese filmmakers have responded to the psychological, ideological, and socio-economic impacts of the event in various creative ways. Cinematic soundscape, in particular, constitutes powerful acts of remembering, recognizing, and critically reflecting the unspeakable and the invisible.

Berry, Chris. "Outrageous Fortune: China's Film Industry Takes a Roller-Coaster Ride." Cinemaya 33 (1996): 17-19.

-----. "Seeking Truth from Fiction: Feature Films as Historiography in Deng's China." Film History 7 (1995): 87-99.

-----. "If China Can Say No, Can China Make Movies? Or, do Movies Make China? Rethinking National Cinema and National Agency." Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 129-50. Rpt in Rey Chow ed., Modern Chinese Literary and Cultural Studies in the Age of Theory: Reimagining a Field. Durham: Duke UP, 2000. 159-80.

-----. Postsocialist Cinema in the Post-Mao China: The Cultural Revolution After the Cultural Revolution. NY: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

[Abstract: This book argues that the fundamental shift in Chinese Cinema away from Socialism and towards Post-Socialism can be located earlier than the emergence of the "Fifth Generation" in the mid-eighties when it is usually assumed to have occured. By close analysis of films from the 1949-1976 Maoist era in comparison with 1976-81 films representing the Cultural Revolution, it demonstrates that the latter already breaks away from Socialism.]

-----. "Ten Years Young: The Shanghai International Film Festival." Senses of Cinema 45 (Oct.-Dec. 2007).

Berra, John and Liu Yang. "Cheap Laughs: The Mass-Production of Low-Budget Chinese Comedies from Fengkuang de shitou/Crazy Stone (Ning Hao, 2006) to Gao Xing (Agan, 2009)." Asian Cinema 23, 1 (2012): 45-58.

[Abstract: This article will focus on the burgeoning production of low-budget feature film comedies in Mainland China. A number of these productions have achieved considerable success at the local box office since 2006. The popularity of these swiftly-produced features is the result of rapid industrialization and the increasing emphasis on genre in the Mainland China market. It also suggests a worrying trend in terms of the mass-production of films for local audiences; these films are manufactured in a rough manner with little regard for aesthetic quality or tonal consistency, leading to concerns about malformed genre product. This article outlines the definition, origins and variations of the low-budget comedies produced in China. Based on data gathered through several large-scale industry studies of the local audience, it will show that a relationship exists between the cultural mind-set of young cinemagoers and the styles of low-budget comedy films. To chart the success of this genre, and its evolution from low-budget production to mid-budget production due to consistent box office returns, the article will examine two industrially significant examples: Crazy Stone and Gao Xing. The former arguably started the genre, leading to a host of imitators, of which the latter has been particularly well-attended, despite evidencing a decline in quality as satirical humour is replaced by vulgarity. In this respect, it will be argued that the Mainland China production cycle of the low-budget comedy is an example of 'ShanZhai' culture as this is a form of commercial film-making that is largely based on imitation.]

Bertozzi, Eddie. "A Still Life of the Wildest Things: Magic(al) Realism in Contemporary Chinese Cinema and the Reconfiguration of the Jishizhuyi Style." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 6, 2 (2012): 153-72.

[Abstract: By considering a number of films produced in Mainland China since 2000, this article seeks to illustrate a specific form of cinematic realism that can be interpreted within the framework of magic(al) realism. Directors such as Jia Zhangke, Lou Ye and Jiang Wen have challenged previous cinematic practices, in particular the jishizhuyi style (on-the-spot realism) of the 1990s, by engaging disorienting tones and unusual visual elements in their films. Breaking and re-tracing the borders of cinematic realism, these works privilege a 'feeling of the real' over the 'documentary real' to express authenticity through the director's individual sensibility. To investigate the main features of such a new aesthetics, this analysis critically applies the theories of magic(al) realism to contemporary Chinese cinema to illustrate how the jishizhuyi style has been reconfigured. Finally, Jia Zhangke's Still Life is closely examined to illustrate the arguments outlined above.]

Braester, Yomi. "From Real Time to Virtual Reality: Chinese Cinema in the Internet Age." Journal of Contemporary China 13, 38 (Feb. 2004): 89-104. Rpt. in Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 139-54.

Abstract: What has become of the collective memory in the years between the Tian'anmen incident of 1989 and the PRC joining the WTO in 2001, a period that witnessed the proliferation of McDonalds restaurants and Internet bars in Chinese cities? This paper explores the changing values through three works that take the World Wide Web as their subject, namely Love in the Internet Age, also known as Love in Cyberspace (Wanglu shidai de aiqing, 1999), Q3 (1999), and First Intimate Encounter, also known as Flyin' Dance (Diyici de qinmi jiechu, 2001). The films do not offer a single vision of cyberspace, nor do they ascribe to the same filmic aesthetics or genre. Yet as a whole they provide a glimpse of China in the Internet age. They suggest that from a repository of collective memory, cyberspace has become the arena for an alternative existence free of the limitations of time and space. They trace the trajectory from a culture insistent on collective commemoration to a society willing to suspend its consciousness outside historical memory.

-----. "Chinese Cinema in the Age of Advertisement: The Filmmaker as a Cultural Broker." The China Quarterly 183 Sept. 2005): 549-564

-----. "Tracing the City's Scars: Demolition and the Limits of the Documentary Impulse in the New Urban Cinema." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 161-80.

-----. "Contemporary Mainstream PRC Cinema." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 176-84.

-----. "From Urban Films to Urban Cinema: The Emergence of a Critical Concept." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 346-58.

Chen, Lora. "Breaking the Silence: Sun Zhou." [review] Cinemaya 50 (Winter 2000).

Chen, Mo and Zhiwei Xiao. "Chinese Underground Films: Critical Views from China." In Paul Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006,143-60.

Chen, Xiaoming. "The Mysterious Other: Postpolitics in the Narrative of Chinese Film." Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997): 123-41. Rpt. in Arif Dirlik and Xudong Zhang eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 1997, 222-38.

Chong, Woei Lien. "The Quest for Happiness: Chinese Cinema at the 2000 International Rotterdam Film Festival." China Information 14, 2 (2000): 194-218. [treats 7 films screen at the festival: Darkness and Light, Paper, The Longest Summer, Suzhou River, So Close to Paradise, Shower, Not One Less].

-----. "Le mysticisme de la nature dans le cinéma chinois après la Révolution culturelle" (Nature mysticism in post-Cultural Revolution Chinese cinema). Critique internationale 20 (July 2003): 48-58.

Clark, Paul. "Beyond the Fifth Generation." In Clark, Reinventing China: A Generation and Its Films. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2005, 187-204.

Cohen, Herve and Renaud Cohen, dirs. Electric Shadows. First Run Icarus Films, 1993.

Corliss, Richard. "Bright Lights." Time Asia 157, 12 (March 26, 2001). [on Sixth Generation films]

Cui, Shuqin. "Working from the Margins: Urban Cinema and Independent Directors in Contemporary China." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 77-92. Rpt. in Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 96-119.

Clark, Paul. "Distance and Memory: Chinese Film in 1990." 1990 Hawaii International Film Festival Viewer's Guide. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1990.

-----. Reinventing China: A Generation and Its Films. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2005.

Cornelius, Sheila (with Ian Haydn Smith). New Chinese Cinema: Challenging Representations. London and New York: Wallflower, 2002.

Cui, Shuqin. "Negotiating In-Between: On New-Generation Filmmaking and Jia Zhangke's Films." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 98-130.

Curtin, Michael. Playing to the World's Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

[Abstract: In this provocative analysis of screen industries in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, Michael Curtin delineates the globalizing pressures and opportunities that since the 1980s have dramatically transformed the terrain of Chinese film and television, including the end of the cold war, the rise of the World Trade Organization, the escalation of democracy movements, and the emergence of an East Asian youth culture. Reaching beyond national frameworks, Curtin examines the prospect of a global Chinese audience that will include more viewers than in the United States and Europe combined. He draws on in-depth interviews with a diverse array of media executives plus a wealth of historical material to argue that this vast and increasingly wealthy market is likely to shake the very foundations of Hollywood's century-long hegemony.]

Dai, Jinhua. "The Criss-Cross Visions: Multi-Identification in the Artistic Film in Post-1990 Mainland China." Seminar paper in Chinese (Lingnan University; February 1998).

-----. "Rewriting Chinese Women: Gender Production and Cultural Space in the Eighties and Nineties." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 191-206.

-----. “Postcolonialism and Chinese Cinema of the Nineties.” Tr. Harry H. Kuoshu. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 49-70.

-----. “A Scene in the Fog: Reading the Sixth Generation Films.” Tr. Yiman Wang. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 71-98.

-----. “Gender and Narration: Women in Contemporary Chinese Film.” Tr. Jonathan Noble. In Dai, Cinema and Desire: Feminist Marxism and Cultural Politics in the Work of Dai Jinhua. Eds. Jing Wang and Tani Barlow. London: Verso, 2002, 99-150.

Dauncey, Sarah. "Screening Disability in the PRC: The Politics of Looking Good." China Information 21, 3 (Nov. 2007): 481-506.

Davis, Darrell William. "Marketization, Hollywood, Global China." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 1 (Spring 2014): 193-241.

Davis, Darrell William and Emily Yueh-yu Yeh. "Re-nationalizing China's Film Industry: Case Study on the China Film Group and Film Marketization." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 37-52.

[Abstract: In the mid 1990s ‘transnational’ meant a pan-Chinese universalism trying to reconcile the differences and conflicts among the mainland, colonial Hong Kong, KMT Taiwan and the Chinese diaspora. But since the rise of the new China market and the centralization of Chinese blockbusters, the transnational currency may have been replaced by an intra-national, if not hyper-national tender. The essay addresses the tension and dialectics between marketization and protectionism of the national screen industry in China. A political-economic approach analyzes the rise of the China Film Group (CFG) and its attempt to re-nationalize and transnationalize Chinese cinema. Accounting for recent developments of pan-Asian strategy, and CEPA, this case study will explain tensions inherent in China's integration to global media. CFG presents marketization as liberalization but this is part of a scheme to utilize the market to consolidate state power.]

Donald, Stephanie. "Symptoms of Alienation: The Female Body in Recent Chinese Film." Continuum (April 1998): 9-103.

Gallagher, Mark and Julian Stringer. "Reshaping Contemporary Chinese Film Sound: Dolby Laboratories and Changhing Industrial Practices." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 7, 3 (Oct. 2013): 263-76.

[Abstract: The recent growth of mainland China's commercial film industry has been accompanied by the transformation of its production cultures, exhibition arrangements and audience experiences. This article provides an analysis of the complex role Chinese film sound has played in these developments. Taking as its focus the work of Dolby Laboratories in China, the article investigates how and why complex international dynamics underpin both high-end commercial Chinese sound designs and the audio tracks of foreign films released in the country. By considering audio post-production personnel's mediating role and their professional contributions to a range of industrial developments as well as specific films, the article demonstrates how different stakeholders manage the changing needs (at the level of film sound) of producer and consumer alike. It therefore develops a critical perspective of workflows in Chinese screen industries where local and global investments merge.]

Gladwin, Derek. "No Country for Young Men: Chinese Modernity, Displacement, and Initiatory Ritual in Chinese Sixth Generation Cinema." Asian Cinema 23, 1 (2012): 31-44.

[Abstract:This article examines youth initiation in two Chinese Sixth Generation films, Wang Xiaoshuai's Shiqi sui de dan che/Beijing Bicycle (2001) and Li Yang's Mang jing/Blind Shaft (2003). It addresses the broader issue of the 'floating population' in China and the impact that rapid modernization has on the social fabric of Chinese society. It also suggests that in light of such social injustices and cinematic representation in the post-socialist China of today, under the guise of modernity and economic progress, there exists a dislocated and disconnected transition into adulthood for youth populations. This article argues that Wang and Yi directly investigate one of the consequences of Chinese modernity: disrupted youth initiatory ritual. Beijing Bicycle and Blind Shaft depict in a narrative documentary form an entire generation of Chinese youth who have been geographically and psychologically displaced as they lose their family connections and education opportunities, move from job to job, and fail to experience appropriate initiation into adulthood, all of which have contributed to a fractured social system.]

Hao, Xiaoming, and Y. Chen. "Film and Social Change: The Chinese Cinema in the Reform Era." Journal of Popular Film and Television, 28 (Spring 2000): 36-45.

Harding, James. "China's Cultureless Revolution." Prospect (Jan. 1998).

He, Donghui. "'Reconstructing the God-Fearing Community': Filming Tibet in the Twenty-First Century." In Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009, 271-86.

Jeffreys, Elaine. "Zhang Ziyi and China's Celebrity--Philanthropy Scandals." Portal: Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies 8, 1 (Jan. 2011).

[Abstract: In January 2010, the internationally acclaimed Chinese actor, Zhang Ziyi, became a focus of public criticism for allegedly defaulting on a pledge to donate one million yuan to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake disaster-relief fund. That earthquake not only killed 70,000 people and left five million homeless, but also produced a dramatic rise in individual and corporate philanthropy in China. Philanthropic donations in 2008 amounted to a total figure of 100 billion yuan, exceeding the documented total for the preceding decade. Zhang's 'failed pledge' led fans and critics to accuse her in interactive media forums of both charity fraud and generating a nationwide crisis of faith in the philanthropic activities of the rich and famous. Dubbed 'donation-gate', the ensuing controversy obliged Zhang Ziyi to hire a team of USA-based lawyers, to give an exclusive interview to the China Daily, and to engage in renewed philanthropic endeavours, in an effort to clear her name. Hence, contrary to claims that celebrity philanthropy is an apolitical mode of philanthropy, an examination of the Zhang Ziyi scandal and its disaster-relief precursors demonstrates that celebrity philanthropy in the People's Republic of China is a political affair.]

Jia, Zhangke. "Irrepressible Images: New Films in China from 1995." China Perspectives 1 (2010): 46-51.

Jian, Pu. "Modern Chinese Cinema: Box Office Boom in Full Swing." Tr. Yang Yichen, with Lennet Daigle. Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 78-81.

Jiang, Hong, ed. "The Cultural Configuration of Literature and Film in the 1990s China: A New Perspective," a special issue of The China Review 3, 1 (Spring 2003).

Johnson, Ian. "True Grit: You Won't See China's Sixth Generation of Film Directors at Cannes." Far Eastern Economic Review (July 11, 1996): 46-47.

Karl, Rebecca E. "The Burdens of History: Lin Zexu (1959) and the Opium War (1997)." In Xudong Zhang, ed., Whither China? Intellectual Politics in Contemporary China. Durham: Duke UP, 2001.

Keyser, Anne Sytske and Han The. "Recent Developmentss in Chinese Cinema: An Interview with Film Critic Tony Rayns." China Information 7, 4 (Spring 1993): 39-47.

Knight, Deirdre Sabina. “Madness and Disability in Contemporary Chinese Film.” Journal of Medical Humanities 27, 2 (Summer 2006): 93-103.

[Abstract: This article draws on recent research in the medical humanities to analyze two contemporary Chinese films: Zhang Yuan’s Sons (1996) and Zhou Xiaowen’s The Common People (1998). By portraying psychic and physical anguish in ways that refuse to divorce biology from culture, such films offer rare moral dialogues on biomedical issues and contribute a cross-cultural perspective invaluable to the task of responding to illness and suffering.]

Kong, Shuyu. “Big Shot from Beijing: Feng Xiaogang’s He Sui Pian and Contemporary Chinese Commercial Film.” Asian Cinema 14, 1 (Spring/Summer 2003): 175-87.

Kraicer, Shelly. "Man, Woman and Everything in Between." [review of Man, Man, Woman, Woman]. Virtual China.

-----. "Chinese Language Films at the 2004 Toronto International Film Festival." MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2004. [reviews films from mainland China and Hong Kong]

----. "Lost in Time, Lost in Space: Beijing Film Culture in 2004." Cinemascope 21 (Winter 2004).

Kuoshu, Harry. "Beyond the Yellow Earth: The Postsocialist City as a Cinematic Space of Anxiety." American Journal of Chinese Studies 4, 1 (1997): 50-72.

-----. Metro Movies: Cinematic Urbanism in Post-Mao China. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Metro Movies takes readers on a comprehensive tour of the urbanization of Chinese cinema. Focusing primarily on movies from the end of the twentieth century, it is the first single-authored work to explore the relationship between the changes in Chinese society—caused in part by the advent of postsocialism, the growth of cities, and globalization—and the transformation of Chinese cinema. Kuoshu examines such themes as displacement, cinematic representation, youth subculture, the private emotional lives of emerging urbanites, raw urban realism, and the allegorical contrast of the city and the countryside to illustrate the artistic richness and cultural diversity of this cinematic genre. Kuoshu discusses the work of director Huang Jianxin, whose films follow and critique China’s changing urban political culture. He dedicates a chapter to filmmakers who followed Huang and attempted to redefine the concept of art films to regain the local audience. These directors address Chinese moviegoers’ disappointment with the international adoption of Chinese art films, their lack of interest in conventional Chinese films, and their fascination with emerging audio-video media. A considerable amount of attention is given to films of the 1990s, which focus on the social changes surfacing in China, from the trend of hooliganism and the Beijing rock scene to the arrival of an urban pop culture lifestyle driven by expansionist commerce and materialism. Kuoshu also explores recent films that confront the seedier aspects of city life, as well as films that demonstrate how urbanization has touched every fiber of Chinese living. Metro Movies illustrates how cinematic urbanism is no longer a genre indicator but is instead an era indicator, revealing the dominance of metropolitan living on modern Chinese culture. It gives new insight into contemporary Chinese politics and culture and provides readers with a better understanding of China’s urban cinema. This book will be an excellent addition to college film courses and will fascinate any reader with an interest in film studies or Chinese culture.

Lai, Linda Chiu-Han. "Whither the Walker Goes: Spatial Practices and Negative Poetics in 1990s Chinese Urban Cinema." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 205-39.

Lam, Adam. Identity, Tradition and Globalism: Post-Cultural Revolution Chinese Feature Films 1977-1996. VDM Verlag, 2008.

Lau, Jenny Kwok Wah. “Globalization and Youthful Subculture: The Chinese Sixth Generation Films at the Dawn of the New Century.” In Jenny Kwok Wah Lau, ed., Multiple Modernities: Cinemas and Popular Media in Transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2003, 13-27.

-----. "Chinese Cinema Revisits the City: Beijing Trilogy and Global Urbanism in the 1990s." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 220-33. [deals with Good Morning Beijing, Beijing Bastards, and City Paradise]

Li, Cheuk-to, Wong Ain-Ling and Jacob Wong. "New Chinese Cinema at HKIFF: A Look Back at the Last 20 Years." China Perspectives 1 (2010): 78-84.

Li, Jie. "From Auto-Ethnography to Autobiography: Representations of the Past in Contemporary Chinese Cinema." Senses of Cinema 45 (Oct.-Dec. 2007).

Lim, Song Hwee. "Celluloid Comrades: Male Homosexuality in Chinese Cinema in the 1990s." China Information 16, 4 (2002): 68-88.

Lin, Mu. "A Great Media Wall--China's Film Policy and Its Impact on U.S. Film Exporters." Asian Cinema 18, 1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 91-103.

Lin, Sylivia Li-chun. "The Politics of Filmmaking and Movie Watching." In Lional M. Jensen and Timothy B. Weston, eds., China's Transformations: The Stories beyond the Headlines. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.

Lin, Xiaoping. Children of Marx and Coca-Cola: Chinese Avant-garde Art and Independent Cinema. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2010.

[Abstract: ... affords a deep study of Chinese avant-garde art and independent cinema from the mid-1990s to the beginning of the twenty-first century. Informed by the author’s experience in Beijing and New York—global cities with extensive access to an emergent transnational Chinese visual culture—this work situates selected artworks and films in the context of Chinese nationalism and post-socialism and against the background of the capitalist globalization that has so radically affected contemporary China. It juxtaposes and compares avant-garde artists and independent filmmakers from a number of intertwined perspectives, particularly in their shared avant-garde postures and perceptions.]

Liu, Jin. "The Rhetoric of Local Languages as the Marginal: Chinese Underground and Independent Films by Jia Zhangke and Others." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 2 (Fall 2006): 163-205.

Liu, Lihsing. "The Chinese Cinema in the 1980s: Toward a Systematic Study of Its Socialist Realism." PhD dissertation. Brigham Young University.

-----. "Return to Commonality-About Director He Qun." China Screen 3 (1994): 24-25.

Liu, Xinmin. "Play and Being Playful: The Quotidian in Cinematic Remembrance of the Mao Era." Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring 2004): 73-89.

-----. "'Place' Construction: Innovative Reworking of Fiction in Recent Chinese Films." Journal of Contemporary China 57 (Nov. 2008): 699-716.

-----. "In the Face of Development Ruins: Place Attachment and Its Ethical Claims." In Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009, 217-34.

Lo, Kwai-Cheung. "When China Encounters Asia Again: Rethinking Ethnic Excess in Some Recent Films from the PRC." The China Review 10, 2 (2010).

[Abstract: The essay deals with ethnic excess through the dynamism of self-other relationships in China's films about ethnic minorities. As the notion of social harmony becomes the defining discourse of Chinese policy in the 21st century, its repercussions can be found in the cinematic treatments of the ethnic other. A different handling of the ethnic or foreign other in some recent productions could be related to China's consciousness of its new social relations. Those films reveal a strategy of othering in which recognition and alienation of oneself in the other is always in play. The focus, however, is on Zhang Yimou's Riding Alone for Thousands of Miles, which depicts a Japanese visitor being offered the greatest hospitality from his Chinese hosts during his trip to Yunnan. On the surface, the film resonates with China's harmonizing foreign policy, but it implicitly gives voice to the alterity within nationhood by functioning as the internal re-marking of the disturbing excess in China's capitalization project.]

Lu, Hongwei. "From Roots to Routes or Vice Versa: Transformation of Urban Space and Familial Intimacy--On New Urban Cinema." Asian Cinema 19, 2 (Fall 2008): 102-134.

Lu, Sheldon H. "Tear Down the City: Reconstructing Urban Space in Contemporary Chinese Popular Cinema and Avant-Garde Art." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 137-60.

Lu, Tonglin. Confronting Modernity in the Cinemas of Taiwan and Mainland China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.

-----. "Trapped Freedom and Localized Globalism." In Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 123-42.

Mak, Monica. "East West Movie Magic: Shadow Magic as Hybrid Art with Third Space." Yishu: Journal of Contemporary Chinese Art 1, 1 (Spring 2002): 68-82.

Marchetti, Gina. From Tian'anmen to Times Square: Transnational China and the Chinese Diaspora on Global Screens, 1989-1997. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2006. [press blurb]

Martin, Fran. Situating Sexualities: Queer Representation in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2003. [reviewed by Kam Louie in Intersections 10 (Aug. 2004)].

McGrath, Jason. "The New Formalism Mainland Chinese Cinema at the Turn of the Century." In Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. London: Routledge, 2008, 207-22.

-----. Postsocialist Modernity: Chinese Cinema, Literature, and Criticism in the Market Age. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2008.

-----. "The Urban Generation: Underground and Independent Films from the PRC." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 167-75.

Nakajima, Seio. "Film Clubs in Beijing: The Cultural Consumption of Chinese Indepedent Films." In Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 161-.

-----. The Chinese Film Industry in the Reform Era: Its Genesis, Structure, and Transformation Since 1978. Ph.D. diss. University of California, Berkeley, 2007.

-----. "Film as Cultural Politics." In Ching Kwan Lee and You-tien Hsing, eds. Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism. London: Routledge, 2009, 159-183. [discusses the field of cultural production and consumption of contemporary Chinese cinema.]

Ni, Zhen. "Reflections on Chinese Cinema in the Context of Globalization." Tr. Lingling Pan. Asian Cinema 18, 1 (Spring/Summer 2007): 248-52.

Nie, Jing. "A City of Disappearance: Trauma, Displacement, and Spectral Cityscape in Contemporary Chinese Cinema." In Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009, 195-213.

Noble, Jonathan. "Titanic in China: Transnational Capitalism as Official Ideology?" Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 12, 1 (Spring 2000): 164-97.

Ouyang Jianghe and Cui Weiping, ed. Zhongguo duli dianying: Fangtanlu (Chinese independent film: interviews). HK: Oxford, 2007. [interviews with Jia Zhangke, Wang Chao, Li Yang, Li Yu, Zhang Ming, Lou Ye, Zhu Wen, Wanma Caidan, Li Hongqi, and Han Jie]

Palmer, Augusta. "Scaling the Skyscraper: Images of Cosmopolitan Consumption in Street Angel (1937) and Beautiful New World (1998)." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 181-204.

Pang, Laikwan . "Piracy/Privacy: The Despair of Cinema and Collectivity in China."boundary 2 31, 3 (Fall 2004): 101-124.

Pickowicz, Paul G. and Yingjin Zhang, eds. From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006. [publisher's blurb]

Pickowicz, Paul G. "Social Dynamics of Underground Filmmaking in China." In Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 1-22.

-----. "Independent Chinese Film: Seeing the Not-Usually-Visible in Rural China," in Catherine Lynch, Robert C. Marks, and Paul G. Pickowicz, eds., Radicalism, Revolution, and Reform in Modern China. New York: Lexington Books, 2011, 161-184.

Qian, Kun. "Love or Hate: The First Emperor on Screen--Three Movies on the Attempted Assasination of the First Emperor Qin Shihuang." Asian Cinema 20, 2 (Fall/Winter 2009): 39-67.

Rayns, Tony. "China: Censors, Scapegoats and Bargaining Chips." Index on Censorship 6 (1995): 69-81.

Reynaud, Berenice. Nouvelles Chines, Nouveaux Cinémas. Paris: Cahiers du cinéma, 1999.

-----. "Modern Times." Film Comment 39, 5 (Sept./Oct. 2003). [overview of recent Chinese film]

-----. "Chinese Women Directors: Strong Voices from the Margins." Cinemaya 58 (2003).

Robinson, Bruce. " Chinese Mainland New Era Cinema and Tian'anmen." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 37-56.

Rosen, Stanley. "The Wolf at the Door: Hollywood and the Film Market in China from 1994-2000." Published in Eric J. Heikkila and Rafael Pizarro, eds., Southern California in the World and the World in Southern California. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, 49-78.

-----. "China Goes Hollywood." Foreign Policy (January/Feb., 2003): 94-98.

-----, ed., "The China Film Market." Chinese Education and Society. 32, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1999).

----. "Hollywood, Globalization and Film Markets in Asia: Lessons for China?" 2nd Chinese Advanced Forum on Visual Arts (Shanghai: Nov. 2002). [downloadable pdf version from Asian Film Connections]

-----. "Film and Society in China: The Logic of the Market." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 197-217.

Rosen, Stanley, ed. "'The Troubleshooters,' by Wang Shuo." Chinese Education and Society 31, 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1998). [translation of the filmscript with an editorial introduction]

Schein, Louisa. "Ethnographic Representation across Genres: The Culture Trope in Contemporary Mainland Media." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 507-25.

Shi, Yaohua. "Maintaining Law and Order in the City: New Tales of the People's Police." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 316-43/.

"Special Chine." special segment devoted to contemporary Chinese film. Cahiers du Cinema 586 (January 2004): 10-41. [essays on: Tian Zhuangzhuang's Springtime in a Small Town; an interview with Tian Zhuanzhuang; on Jia Zhangke; independent film; Wang Bing's Tiexi Qu; the fever for documentary; the San Yuan Li project in Guangdong; and Li Yang's Blind Shaft]

Sun, Shaoyi. "Under the Shadow of Commercialization: The Changing Landscape of Chinese Cinema." Presented at "Filmic Text and Media Production in Transnational China" Conference (Los Angeles); published in Celluloid (April 1999).

-----. "Global Image Consumption and Chinese Cinema: Random Thoughts on Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl." Unpublished manuscript on the Asian Connections website.

Sun, Shaoyi and Li Xun, eds. Lights! Action! Kai shi!: In Depth Interviews with China's New Generation of Move Directors. Norwalk, CT: Eastbridge, 2008.

[Contents: includes interviews with Guan Hu, Jia Zhangke, Jiang Wen, Jin Chen, Li Xin, Liu Binjian, Lou Ye, Lu Chuan, Lu Xuecheng, Ma Liwen, Meng Qi, Shi Runjiu, Tang Danian, Wang Chao, Wang Guangli, Wang Quanan, Wang Xiaoshuai, Xu Jinglei, Zhang Ming, Zhang Yang, and Zhang Yuan]

Stephen Teo [interviews with Li Yang]. "There is No Sixth Generation: Director Li Yang on Blind Shaft and His Place in Chinese Cinema." Senses of Cinema 27 (July/Aug. 2003).

Tang, Xiaobing. "Why Should 2009 Make a Difference? Reflections on a Chinese Blockbuster." MCLC Resource Center Publication (December 2009).

Wang, Yiman. "Remade in China: Cinema with 'Chinese Elements' in the Dapian Age." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 590-609.

Vanderstaay, Lara. "Female Consciousness in Contemporary Chinese Women Directors' Films: A Case Study of Ma Xiaoying's Gone is the One Who Held Me Dearest in the World." Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 16 (Feb. 2008).

Veg, Sebastian, ed. "Independet Chinese Cinema: Filming in the 'Space of the People.'" Special feature of China Perspectives 1 (2010).

-----. "Opening Public Spaces." China Perspectives 1 (2010): 4-10.

Visser, Robin. "Spaces of Disappearance: 1990s Beijing Art, Film, and Fiction in Dialogue with Urbanization." In Jie Lu, ed., China's Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 223-56.

Voci, Paula. China on Video: Small Screen Realities. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: China On Video is the first in-depth study that examines smaller-screen realities and the important role they play not only in the fast-changing Chinese mediascape, but also more broadly in the practice of experimental and non-mainstream cinema. At the crossroads of several disciplines—film, media, new media, media anthropology, visual arts, contemporary China area studies, and cultural studies--this book reveals the existence of a creative, humorous, but also socially and politically critical "China on video", which locates itself outside of the intellectual discourse surrounding both auteur cinema and digital art. By describing smaller-screen movies, moviemaking and viewing as light realities, Voci points to their "insignificant" weight in terms of production costs, distribution size, profit gains, intellectual or artistic ambitions, but also their deep meaning in defining an alternative way of seeing and understanding the world. The author proposes that lightness is a concept that can usefully be deployed to describe the moving image, beyond the specificity of recent new media developments and which can, in fact, help us rethink previous cinematic practices in broad terms both spatially and temporally.]

Wang, Eugene. "Film and Contemporary Chinese Art: Mediums and Remediation." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 566-89.

Wang, Shujen. Framing Piracy: Globalization and Film Distribution in Greater China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Wang, Ting. "Hollywood's Crusade in China prior to China's WTO Accession." Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

Ward, Julian. "Serving the People in the Twenty-first Century: Zhang Side and the Revival of the Yan'an Spirit." Screening the Past 22 (Dec. 2007).

Wedell-Wedellsbord, Anne. "Chinese Literature and Film in the 1990s." In Robert Benewick and Paul Wingrove, eds., China in the 1990s. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, 1995, 224-33.

Williams, Louise. "Troubled Masculinities: Questionning Gender and Sexuality in Liu Bingjian's Nannan Nunu (Men and Women). In Stephanie Dennison and Song Hwee Lim, eds., Remapping World Cinema: Identity, Culture and Politics in Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2007.

Wu, Guo. "Subversion of the Feminist Myth in Chinese Film and Its Dilemma." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 325-33. [looks at the representation of women in Sixth Generation films such as Green Tea, Unknown Pleasures, Beijing Bicycles, etc.]

Wu, Xianggui. The Chinese Film Industry Since 1977. PhD dissertation. Eugene: University of Oregon.

Xiao, Hui. "Chinese Melodrama, Japanese Nostalgia." Asian Cinema 16, 2 (Fall/Winter 2005): 63-84. [deals mostly with Huo Jianqi's film Nuan, an adaptation of a Mo Yan short story]

-----. "Cross-Cultural Nostalgia and Visual Consumption: On the Adaptation and Japanese Reception of Huo Jianqi's 2003 Film Nuan." Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 2 (July 2005): 227-48.

Xie, Fei. "Art Film is Immortal and National Film Lives Forever." Tr. Chen Xiaoling. Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 86-92.

Xu, Gary G. Sinascape: Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007. [publisher's blurb; including discussion of films like Hero, House of Flying Daggers, Kung Fu Hustle, Devils on the Doorstep, Suzhou River, Beijing Bicycle, Millennium Mambo, Goodbye Dragon Inn, and Hollywood Hong Kong, the book emphasizes the transnational nature of contemporary Chinese cinema.]

Xu, Ying. "Animation Film Production in Beijing." Asian Cinema 11, 2 (Fall/Winter 2000): 60-66.

-----. "Impact of Globalization on the Cinema in China." Asian Cinema (Spring/Summer 2002): 39-43.

Xu, Ying and Xu Zhongquan. "A 'New' Phenomenon of Chinese Cinema: Happy-New-Year Comic Movie." Asian Cinema (Spring/Summer 2002): 112-27.

Yang, Haosheng. "Myths of Revolution and Sensual Revisions: New Representations of Martyrs on the Chinese Screen." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 24, 2 (Fall 2012): 179-208.

Yeh, Emily Yueh-yu and Darrell William Davis. "Re-nationalizing China's Film Industry: Case Study on the China Film Group and Film Marketization." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 37-51.

[Abstract: In the mid 1990s ‘transnational’ meant a pan-Chinese universalism trying to reconcile the differences and conflicts among the mainland, colonial Hong Kong, KMT Taiwan and the Chinese diaspora. But since the rise of the new China market and the centralization of Chinese blockbusters, the transnational currency may have been replaced by an intra-national, if not hyper-national tender. The essay addresses the tension and dialectics between marketization and protectionism of the national screen industry in China. A political-economic approach analyzes the rise of the China Film Group (CFG) and its attempt to re-nationalize and transnationalize Chinese cinema. Accounting for recent developments of pan-Asian strategy, and CEPA, this case study will explain tensions inherent in China's integration to global media. CFG presents marketization as liberalization but this is part of a scheme to utilize the market to consolidate state power.]

Yu, Hongmei. The Politics of Images: Chinese Cinema in the Context of Globalization. Ph.d. diss. Eugene: University of Oregon, 2008.

-----. "Visual Spectacular, Revolutionary Epic, and Personal Voice: The Narration of History in Chinese Main Melody Films." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 2 (Fall 2013): 166-218.

Yun, Duo. "Liu Miaomiao-A Fervent Director." China Screen 3 (1994): 22-23.

Zhang, Benzi. "Re-Siting the Global/Re-Sighting the Local: The Politics of Cultural Diaspora." In Kwok-kan Tam et al., eds., Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2002, 35-56.

Zhang, Jia-xuan and Pat Duffy. "China: After the Crackdown." Sight and Sound 60 (1990/91): 3-4.

Zhang, Yingjin. "Chinese Cinema and Transnational Cultural Politics: Reflections on Film Festivals, Film Productions, and Film Studies." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 2, 1 (July 1998): 105-32.

-----. "My Camera Doesn't Lie?: Truth, Subjectivity, and Audience in Chinese Independent Film and Video." In Pickowicz and Yingjin Zhang eds., From Underground to Independent: Alternative Film Culture in Contemporary China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2006, 23-46.

-----. "Rebel Without a Cause? China's New Urban Generation and Postsocialist Filmmaking." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 49-80.

-----. Cinema, Space, and Polylocality in a Globalizing China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2009.

[Abstract: Yingjin Zhang proposes “polylocality” as a new conceptual framework for investigating the shifting spaces of contemporary Chinese cinema in the age of globalization. Questioning the national cinema paradigm, Zhang calls for comparative studies of underdeveloped areas beyond the imperative of transnationalism. The book begins by addressing theories and practices related to space, place, and polylocality in contemporary China before focusing on the space of scholarship and urging scholars to move beyond the current paradigm and explore transnational and comparative film studies. This is followed by a chapter that concentrates on the space of production and surveys the changing landscape of postsocialist filmmaking and the transformation of China’s urban generation of directors. Next is an examination of the space of polylocality and the cinematic mappings of Beijing and a persistent “reel” contact with polylocality in hinterland China. In the fifth chapter Zhang explores the space of subjectivity in independent film and video and contextualizes experiments by young directors with various documentary styles. Chapter 6 calls attention to the space of performance and addresses issues of media and mediation by way of two kinds of playing: the first with documentary as troubling information, the second with piracy as creative intervention. The concluding chapter offers an overview of Chinese cinema in the new century and provides production and reception statistics.]

-----. "Directors, Aesthetics, Genres: Chinese Postsocialist Cinema, 1979-2010." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 57-74.

Zhang, Zhen, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007.

[Abstract: Since the early 1990s, while mainland China’s state-owned movie studios have struggled with financial and ideological constraints, an exciting alternative cinema has developed. Dubbed the “Urban Generation,” this new cinema is driven by young filmmakers who emerged in the shadow of the events at Tiananmen Square in 1989. What unites diverse directors under the “Urban Generation” rubric is their creative engagement with the wrenching economic and social transformations underway in China. Urban Generation filmmakers are vanguard interpreters of the confusion and anxiety triggered by the massive urbanization of contemporary China. This collection brings together some of the most recent original research on this emerging cinema and its relationship to Chinese society. Contributors: Chris Berry, Yomi Braester, Shuqin Cui, Linda Chiu-han Lai, Charles Leary, Sheldon H. Lu, Jason McGrath, Augusta Palmer, Bérénice Reynaud, Yaohua Shi, Yingjin Zhang, Zhang Zhen, Xueping Zhong] [Duke UP blurb]

-----. "Urban Dreamscape, Phantom Sisters, and the Identity of an Emergent Art Cinema." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 344-88.

Zhao, Wentao. "Huang Jun and his Triology." China Screen 4 (1994): 30-31.

Zhong, Xueping. "Mr. Zhao On and Off the Screen: Male Desire and Its Discontents." In Zhen Zhang, ed., The Urban Generation: Chinese Cinema and Society at the Turn of the 21st Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2007, 295-315.

Zhou, Xuelin. Young Rebels in Contemporary Chinese Cinema. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2007.

[Abstract: In the 1980s, a new type of central character emerged in contemporary Chinese films - angry and alienated youth. Filmmakers treated youth as a separate category and showed them in urban situations behaving in unconventional and socially rebellious ways. Young Rebels in Contemporary Chinese Cinema looks for evidence in films that exemplify this trend.]

Zhu, Ying. Chinese Cinema During the Era of Reform: The Ingenuity of the System. NY: Praeger Publishers, 2003

-----. "Commercialization and Chinese Cinema's Post-Wave." Consumption, Markets, and Culture 5, 3 (Sept. 2002): 187-209.

-----. "Chinese Cinema's Economic Reform from the mid 1980s to the mid 1990s." Journal of Communication 52, 4 (2002): 905-921.

-----. "Cinematic Modernization and Chinese Cinema's First Art Wave." Quarterly Review of Film & Video 18, 4 (2001).

-----. "From New Wave to Post New Wave: Chinese Fifth Generation's Cinematic Transition." Asian Culture Quarterly 2 (Summer 2000).

-----. "Commercialism and Nationalism: Chinese Cinema's First Wave of Entertainment Films." CineAction 47 (Summer 1998).

-----. "Chinese Underground Filmmaking." In David Gerstner, ed., International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture – Contemporary Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transexual Cultures. London: Routledge: 2006.

-----. “Chinese Cinema’s Commercial Wave." In Luis Miranda, ed., Contemporary Chinese Cinema. Granada, Spain: Festival Cines del Sur, 2007, 157-92.

Zhu, Ying and Bruce Robinson. "Cross-Fertilization in Chinese Cinema and Television: A Strategic Turn in Cultural Policy." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 429-48.

Zhu, Ying and Stanley Rosen, eds. Art, Politics, and Commerce in Chinese Cinema. HK: HK University Press, 2010.

[Abstract: Art, politics and commerce are intertwined everywhere, but in China the interplay is explicit, intimate and elemental, and nowhere more so than in the film industry. Understanding this interplay in the era of market reform and globalization is essential to understanding mainland Chinese cinema. This interdisciplinary book provides a comprehensive reappraisal of Chinese cinema, surveying the evolution of film production and consumption in mainland China as a product of shifting relations between art, politics, and commerce. Within these arenas, each of twelve chapters treats a particular history, development, genre, filmmaker or generation of filmmakers, adding up to a distinctively comprehensive rendering of Chinese cinema. The book illuminates China's changing state-society relations, the trajectory of marketization and globalization, the effects of China's stark historical shifts, Hollywood's role, the role of nationalism, and related themes of interest to scholars of Asian studies, cinema and media studies, political science, sociology, comparative literature, and Chinese language. Contributors include Ying Zhu, Seio Nakajima, Zhiwei Xiao, Shujen Wang, Paul Clark, Stephen Teo, John Lent, Ying Xu, Yingjin Zhang, Bruce Robinson, Liyan Qin, and Shuqin Cui.]


Taiwan

Berry, Chris. "Betelnut Beauty." Cinemaya (Autumn 2001): 29-30.

-----. "Haunted Realisms: Postcoloniality and the Cinema of Chang Tso-chi." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 33-50.

-----. "Re-writing Cinema: Markets, Languages, Cultures in Taiwan." In Shih, Fang-long, Stuart Thompson, and Paul-Francois Tremlett, eds., Re-Writing Culture in Taiwan. London and NY: Routledge, 2009, 140-153.

Berry, Chris and Feii Lu, eds., Island on the Edge: Taiwan New Cinema and After. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2005.

Braester, Yomi. "Shards of Memory: Papa Can you Hear Me Sing? and the Demolished Spaces of Taiwan Urban Cinema." Conference Paper, Remapping Taiwan (UCLA, Oct. 13-15, 2000).

-----. "The Dream of Flying: Taipei and Beijing Cinematic Poetics of Demolition." Tamkang Review (Summer 2000).

-----. "If We Could Remember Everything, We Would Be Able to Fly: Taipei's Cinematic Poetics of Demolition." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 1 (Spring 2003): 29-62.

-----. "Tales of a Porous City: Public Residences and Private Streets in Taipei Films." In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 157-70.

-----. "The Impossible Task of Taipei Films." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 51-59.

Braeester, Yomi and Nicole Huang, geust editors. Special issue on Taiwan cinema of Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 1 (Sping 2003).

Chang, Chia-ju. "Putting Back the Animals: Woman-Animal Meme in Contemporary Taiwanese Ecofeminist Imagination." In Sheldon Lu and Jiayan Mi, eds., Chinese Ecocinema: In the Age of Environmental Challenge. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2009, 255-70.

Chang, Hsiao-hung. "The Unbearable Lightness of Globalization: On the Transnational Flight of Wuxia Films." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 95-107.

Chang, Hsiao-hung and Chih-hung Wang. "Mapping Taipei's Landscape of Desire: Deterritorialization and Reterritorialization of the Family Park." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 115-25.

Chang, Jinn-Pei. "The Mind Space of Taipei's Adolescents." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 101-103.

Chen Feibao, ed. Taiwan dianying shihua (A history of Taiwan cinema). Beijing: Zhongguo dianying, 1988.

Chen, Kuan-hsing. "Taiwanese New Cinema." In John Hill and Pamela Gibson, eds. World Cinema: Critical Approaches. NY: Oxford UP, 2000, 173-77.

-----. "A Borrowed Life in Banana Paradise: De-Cold War/Decolonization, or Modernity and Its Tears." In Chris Berry and Feii Lu, eds., Island on the Edge: Taiwan New Cinema and After. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2005, 39-54.

Chen, Ru-shou Robert. "Focus on Taipei: An Introduction." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 17-19.

Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 138-43. [articles in both Chinese and English]

Cheng, Pei-kai. "From Shanghai to Taipei: Metropolis in Spatial, Cultural, and Existential Consciousness in Chinese Cinema, 1930-1990." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 138-43.

Chiao, Hsiung-ping, ed. Taiwan xin dianying (New Taiwan cinema). Taibei: Shibao, 1988.

-----. "The Emergence of the New Cinema of Taiwan." Asian Cinema 5, 1 (1990): 9-11.

-----. "The Distinct Taiwanese and Hong Kong Cinemas." In Chris Berry, ed., Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. London: British Film Institute, 1991, 155-65.

-----. "Second Wave from Taiwan: Three Interviews." Cinemaya 34 (1996): 4-13.

Chiu, Kuei-fen. "Taiwan and Its Spectacular Others: Aesthetic Reflexivity in Two Documentaries by Women Filmmakers from Taiwan." Asian Cinema 16, 1 (Spring/Summer 2005): 98-107.

-----. "The Vision of Taiwanese New Democracy." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 17-32.

-----. "The Subaltern Woman's Voice and the (Film)making of Modern Taiwan." In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong: HK: The Chinese University Press, 2009, 165-183.

-----. "The Question of Translation in Taiwanese Colonial Cinematic Space." Journal of Asian Studies 70, 1 (2011): 77-97.

[Abstract: This essay studies the practice of cultural translation in colonial Taiwanese cinematic space. Just as the Japanese translation of Western cinema brings into play traces of Japanese otherness, the Taiwanese translation of the Japanese translation disrupts the Japanese monopoly on the meaning of cinematic experience in colonial Taiwan. A key figure in this complex cultural translation was the benshi, a translator who performed alongside the screen to interpret the film for the audience. This study argues that an overemphasis on the interventional power of the benshi's word does not do justice to the complex role of the benshi as a translator. In spite of its inscription of the cultural specific in the cinematic space, the presence of the benshi is also a reminder of an unfulfilled desire: the desire for the (foreign) image and the desire for the other. Insofar as the act of translation is a critical engagement with the challenges posed by the other, a simplistic celebration of local resistance does not help us fully address the complexity of cultural translation that defines the mediascape of the modern age.]

Chong, Woei Lien, "Taiwan Cinema at the 1997 International Rotterdam Film Festival: Comedy and Small-Scale Family Drama." China Information 11, 4 (Spring 1997): 105-116.

"Cinema." The Repubic of China Yearbook--Taiwan, 2001.

Davis, Darrell William. "Trendy in Taiwan: Problems of Popularity in the Island's Cinema." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 146-57.

-----. "Second Coming: The Legacy of Taiwan New Cinema." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 133-50.

Davis, Darrel William and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007.

Deslandes, Jeanne (with Penny Lin, Kelly Chu-Chun Fan, and Lucia Tai-Yun Cheng). "Dancing Shadows of Film Exhibitions: Taiwan and the Japanese Influence." Screening the Past (Nov. 2000).

Duan, Chen-Su. "A Sociological Study of Taipei Through Films, 1960-1990." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 72-77.

Eberhard, Wolfram. The Chinese Silver Screen: Hong Kong and Taiwanese Motion Pictures in the 1960s. Taibei: Orient Culture Service, 1972.

Ho, Aaron K. H. "The Lack of Chinese Lesbians: Double Crossing in Blue Gate Crossing." Genders 49 (2009).

Hong, Guo-Juin. "Historiography of Absence: Taiwan Cinema before New Cinema 1982." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 4, 1 (2010) : 5-14.

[Abstract: The introduction traces the history of Taiwan cinema before the New Cinema of the 1980s. By sketching the much under-studied periods of Taiwan under Japanese occupation and after restoration in 1945, I provide the context within which this special issue on Taiwan's missing years may be understood. While the featured articles focus mostly on the Mandarin-language Healthy Realism of the 1960s and 1970s, I describe in some detail its Taiwanese-dialect counterpart to highlight the questions of nation at the core of Taiwan's pursuit of modernization. My goals are to bring to light the absent history of Taiwan cinema during the missing years, to the study of which this special issue collectively contributes.]

-----. Taiwan Cinema: A Contested Nation on Screen. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

[Abstract: A groundbreaking study of Taiwan cinema, this is the first English language book that covers its entire history. Hong revises how Taiwan cinema is taught and studied by taking into account not only the auteurs of New Taiwan Cinema, but also the history of popular genre films before the 1980s. This work will be essential reading for students and scholars of Taiwan and Chinese-language cinemas and of great value to those interested in the larger context of East Asian cultural history as well as film and visual studies in general.]

-----. "Healthy Realism in Taiwan, 1964-80: Film Style, Cultural Policies and Mandarin Cinema." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 95-102.

-----. "Voices and Their Discursive Dis/Content in Taiwan Documentary." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 2 (2013): 183-193.

[Abstract: Instead of attempting to provide a survey of Taiwan documentary, this article focuses on a few critical moments in its long and uneven history and proposes a potentially productive site for understanding its formal manifestations of representational politics. By honing in on the uses of sounds and words, I show that the principle of a unitary voice--voice understood both as the utterances of sound and the politico-cultural meaning of such utterances--organizes the earlier periods of the colonial and authoritarian rules and shapes later iterations of and formal reactions to them. Be it voice-over narration or captions and inter-titles, this article provides a historiographical lens through which the politics of representation in Taiwan documentary may be rethought. Furthermore, this article takes documentary not merely as a genre of non-fiction filmmaking. Rather, it insists on documentary as a mode, and indeed modes, of representation that do not belong exclusively to the non-fiction. Notions of "documentability" are considered together with the corollary tendency to "fictionalize" in cinema, fiction and non-fiction. Taiwan, with its complex histories in general and the specific context within which the polyglossiac practices of New Taiwan Documentary have blossomed in recent decades in particular, is a productive site to investigate the questions of "sound" in cinematic form and "voice" in representational politics.]

Horng, Menghsin C. "Domestic Dislocations: Healthy Realism, Stardom, and the Cinematic Projection of Home in Postwar Taiwan." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 4, 1 (March 2010): 27-44.

[Abstract: Healthy Realism was created under the auspices of the Nationalist Party (KMT) to project the party's domestic legitimacy and establish the place of Mandarin-language cinema in the international market. I ascribe the success of Healthy Realism less to its privileged origins within the state-run studio or propagandistic authority, but more to the semiotic work of its stars as key vectors in the transmission of film ideology. As long as the on- and off-screen images of its stars cohered, the genre could maintain its claims to realism. I examine Beautiful Duckling (1965), Lonely Seventeen (1967), and Execution in Autumn (1972), tracking changes to the trope of home as expressed primarily through the star image of Tang Pao-yun. Changes to the genre and Tang's image responded to geopolitical shifts, eventually exceeding both the formal and narrative constraints of Healthy Realism and exposing the ideological dissolution of 'home' under the preexisting authoritarian figurations.]

Hu, Brian. "Formula 17: Testing a Formula for Mainstream Cinema in Taiwan." Senses of Cinema 34 (Jan.-Mar. 2005)

Huang Ren. Beiqing Taiyu pian (The tragedy of Taiwanese language film). Taibei: Wanxiang tushu, 1994. [history of Taiwanese language film]

Huang, Yu-shan and Chun-chi Wang. "Post-Taiwan New Cinema Women Directors and Their Films: Auteurs, Images, Language." Trs. Robin Visser and Thomas Moran. In Lingzhen Wang, ed., Chinese Women's Cinema: Transnational Contexts. NY: Columbia UP, 2011, 132-53.

Kellner, Douglas. "New Taiwan Cinema in the 1980s." Jump Cut 42 (1998): 101-15.

Kowallis, Jon. "The Diaspora in Postmodern Taiwan and Hong Kong Film: Framing Stan Lai's The Peach Blossom Land with Allen Fong's Ah Ying." In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Kramer, Stefan. "Transcultural Narrations of the Local: Taiwanese Cinema Between Utopia and Heterotopia." In Natascah Gentz and Stefan Kramer, eds., Globalization, Cultural Identities, and Media Representations. Albany: SUNY Press, 2006, 45-58.

Lee, Daw-Mng. "A Preliminary Study of the Market for Documentaries in Taiwan." Asian Cinema 20, 2 (Fall/Winter 2009): 68-82.

Lee, Ching-Chih. "The Construct and Transformation of Taipei's City Image." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 27-33.

Lee, Tai-Dow. "Rereading the Cultural Significance of Taiwan's Cinema of the 1990s." Asian Cinema 7, 1 (1995): 3-11.

Li, Yongwei and Peng, Xiaofen. "Taiwan 'Xindianying' shiqi wei gongzouahe fangwenlu" (An interview with seventeen filmmakers in the Taiwanese new cinema movement). Dianying xinshang 5, 2 (1987): 5-16.

Li, Youxin. Gangtai liu da daoyan (Six great directors in Hong Kong and Taiwan). Taiwan: Zili wanbao, 1986.

Liao, Chao-yan. "Borrowed Modernity: History and the Subject in A Borrowed Life." In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 275-93.

Liao, Gene-Fon. "The Vanished Feature: A Comparison in Cinematic Practice between Taiwanese and Mandarin Films in the 1960s." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 51-55.
69.
Liao, Ping-hui. "Rewriting Taiwanese National History: The February 28 Incident as Spectacle." Public Culture 5 (1993): 281-296.

Lim, Song Hwee. "Celluloid Comrades: Male Homosexuality in Chinese Cinema in the 1990s." China Information 16, 4 (2002): 68-88.

-----. "Taiwan New Cinema: Small Nation with Soft Power." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 152-

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. Representing Atrocity in Taiwan: The 2/28 Incident and White Terror in Fiction and Film. NY: Columbia UP, 2007. [publisher's blurb]

-----. "Between Past and Future: Documentary Films on the 2/28 Incident in Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 21, 1 (Spring 2009): 46-71.

Lin, Sylvia Li-chun and Tze-Lan Deborah Sang, eds. Documenting Taiwan on Film: Issues and Methods in New Documentaries. NY: Routledge, 2012.

[Abstract: To date, there is but a handful of articles on documentary films from Taiwan. This volume seeks to remedy the paucity in this area of research and conduct a systematic analysis of the genre. Each contributor to the volume investigates the various aspects of documentary by focusing on one or two specific films that document social, political and cultural changes in recent Taiwanese history. Since the lifting of martial law, documentary has witnessed a revival in Taiwan, with increasing numbers of young, independent filmmakers covering a wide range of subject matter, in contrast to fiction films, which have been in steady decline in their appeal to local, Taiwanese viewers. These documentaries capture images of Taiwan in its transformation from an agricultural island to a capitalist economy in the global market, as well as from an authoritarian system to democracy. What make these documentaries a unique subject of academic inquiry lies not only in their exploration of local Taiwanese issues but, more importantly, in the contribution they make to the field of non-fiction film studies. As the former third-world countries and Soviet bloc begin to re-examine their past and document social changes on film, the case of Taiwan will undoubtedly become a valuable source of comparison and inspiration. These Taiwanese documentaries introduce a new, Asian perspective to the wealth of Anglo-American scholarship with the potential to serve as exemplar for countries undergoing similar political and social transformations.]

Lin, Wenchi. "The Representation of Taipei in Taiwan Films." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 86-89.

-----. "Taipei at the Turn of the Century in Taiwan Cinema." In Corrado Neri and Kirstie Gormley. eds., Taiwan Cinema/Le cinéma taiwanais. Lyon: Asiexpo Edition, 2009.

-----. "More than Escapist Romantic Fantasies: Revisiting Qiong Yao Films in the 1970s." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 4, 1 (March 2010): 45-50.

[Abstract: Qiong Yao films of the 1970s are thought to provide nothing but escapist romantic fantasies. This misconception prevents scholars from perceiving a strong link to the social reality of the 1970s in some of Qiong Yao's popular films. By examining the positive images of working girls in two Qiong Yao films Lee Hsing directed in 1973, The Young Ones and The Heart with a Million Knots and Bai Jingrui's 1976 The Autumn Love Song, this essay argues that Qiong Yao films provide 'realistic' dreams of social mobility, making the romantic love even more appealing to the working-class females, the main body of Qiong Yao's audience.]

Lo, Dennis. "Emergent National Discourses: Mythmaking and the National Story in Taiwanese Roadtrip Films." Asian Cinema 21, 1 (Spring/Summer 2010): 86-112.

Lu Feiyi. Taiwan dianying: zhengzhi, jingji, meixue (1994-1994) (Taiwanese cinema: politics, economics and aesthetics). Taipei: Yuanliu 1998.

----- [Lu, Feii]. "Another Cinema: Darkness and Light." In Chris Berry and Feii Lu, eds., Island on the Edge: Taiwan New Cinema and After. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2005, 137-48.

Lu, Sheldon H. China, Transnational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002. [examines film, television, avant-garde art, literature, critical theory, and intellectual history]

Lü Sushang. Taiwan dianying xiju shi (History of Taiwan cinema and drama). Taipei: Dongfang, 1961.

Lu, Tonglin. Confronting Modernity in the Cinemas of Taiwan and Mainland China. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002.

-----. "Taiwan New Cinema and Its Legacy." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 122-30.

Marchetti, Gina. "Video Frames, Cinemascapes, and Cyberspace: Exploring Shu Lea Cheang's Fresh Kill." positions 9, 2 (Fall 2001): 401-22. [Project Muse link]

Martin, Fran. Situating Sexualities: Queer Representations in Taiwanese Fiction, Film and Public Culture. HK: University of Hong Kong Press, 2003.

-----. "Taiwan (Trans)national Cinema: The Far-flung Adventures of a Taiwanese Tomboy." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 95-107. [focuses on Yee Chih-yen's Blue Gate Crossing, 2002]

New Films from Taiwan. Washington, D.C.: American Film Institute, 1988.

Nornes, Mark Abe and Yueh-yu Yeh. "Taiwanese Cinema." A City of Sadness webproject.

Ou, Alice, ed. Taiwan Films. Taipei: Variety Publishing, 1993. (contains six booklets on Wang Tong, Hou Hsiao-hsien, Edward Yang, Taiwan film and literature, the second wave, and film and social change).

Park, Seung Hyun. "New Taiwanese Cinema and Its Historical Meanings." Asian Cinema 14, 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 123-44.

Riep, Steven. "Piecing Together the Past: The Notion of Recovery in Fiction and Film from Taiwan." Modern China 38, 2 (March 2012): 199-232.

[Abstract: Writers and filmmakers in Taiwan have sought to use the narrative techniques of classic detective fiction to recover events of the Nationalist government-imposed White Terror of the early 1950s to bring the once-concealed past to light. Fiction writer Chen Yingzhen (Ch'en Ying-chen) pioneered this technique in short fiction written in 1983 to bring before the public the events of the White Terror and to consider how guilt for the atrocities should be affixed. Wan Jen's (Wan Ren) 1995 feature film Super Citizen Ko explores possibilities for memorialization and the notion of victimhood in its recovery of the Nationalist repression of progressive political movements and its impact on a former political prisoner and his family. Finally, Tseng Wen-Chen (Zeng Wenzhen) in her documentary Spring: The Story of Xu Jinyu offers a portrait of a woman White Terror survivor turned political activist living in an era when the White Terror has been commemorated but remains poorly understood by the younger generation.]

Sato, Tadao. "A Passage to Taiwan." Cinemaya 15 (1992): 4-8.

Scruggs, Bert M. "The Postcolonial Appearance of Colonial Taiwan: Film and Memory." Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 2 (2013): 194-213.

[Abstract: This preliminary consideration of genre and memory explores the appearance of colonial Taiwan in the work of Japanese and Taiwan filmmakers. Visuality and identification in cinema, the pragmatic and affective dimensions of memory, and the colonial and postcolonial viewing subject are discussed. Also noted in this essay are the apparatuses of recording and reproducing music and the human voice, ideologies, and time in Taiwan during the twentieth century. The examination of postcolonial and colonial documentaries and postcolonial fiction films suggests that colonial filmmakers often demonstrate a utopian outlook, while postcolonial cinema tends to adopt a dystopian, retrospective gaze. These examinations, in turn, comprise a reflection, on multiple levels, of diegetic register and on the uniquely Taiwanese visual and aural aspects of these multi-lingual films. In summary, this article is an attempt to highlight the powerful and sometimes subversive uses of film in the propagation and circulation of a postcolonial Taiwanese identity which transcends national boundaries, and the polarizing, moribund research that they engender, so that scholars might better understand the postcolonial condition.]

Shen, Shiao-Ying. "Where Has All the Capital Gone? The State of Taiwan's Film Investment." Cinemaya 30 (Aut. 1995): 4-12.

-----. "Locating Feminine Writing in Taiwan Cinema: A Study of Yang Hui-shang's Body and Sylvia Chang's Siao Yu." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 115-23. Rpt. in Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 267-79.

-----. "A Morning in Taipei: Bai Jingrui's Frustrated Debut." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 4, 1 (March 2010): 51-56.

[Abstract: This short essay introduces Taibei zhi chen/A Morning in Taipei, Bai Jingrui's filmic debut made for the Central Motion Picture Corporation (CMPC) in 1964. This article probes the background of this 'long-lost' short, analyzes the film's style in relation to the aesthetic preference of CMPC's executive Gong Hong, and evaluates the film in the context of the director's later stylistic evolution. Through an examination of this short film, this study shows Bai's penchant for stylistic experimentation and fondness for cinematic representation of Taiwan's urban life.]

Sheng, Virginia. "The Father Figure of Taiwan Film." Free China Review (Feb. 1995): 20-23.

Shiau, Hong-Chi. "Marketing Boys' Love: Taiwan's Independent Film, Eternal Summer, and Its Audiences." Asian Cinema 19, 1 (Spring/Summer 2008): 157-71.

Shih, Evelyn. "Getting the Last Laugh: Opera Legacy, Comedy, and Camp as Attraction in the Late Years of Taiyupian." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 7, 3 (Oct. 2013): 241-62.

[Abstract: This article looks at the re-emergence of a cinema of attraction in the last years of taiyupian, a Hoklo topolect cinema created in Taiwan. Why were these years the 'last', and who was watching? This article makes use of newspaper articles, advertisements, and the numbers, but focuses on questions of style. The 1969 film Zhang Di Seeks A-Zu, featuring pop singer Zhang Di and opera star Yang Lihua, well articulates the comedic and camp aesthetics of this period, as well as the renewed importance of opera culture across different media. These aesthetics gesture towards a particular audience and viewing culture, while offering alternative values to classical realist cinema.]

Shih, Shu-mei. "Gender and a Geopolitical Desire: The Seduction of Mainland Women in Taiwan and Hong Kong Media." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 278-307.

Significant Others: A Celebration of Cinema by Taiwanese Women (NY, August 2000).

Tan, See-Kam and Annette Aw. "The Love Eterne: Almost a (Heterosexual) Love Story." In Berry, ed., Chinese Films in Focus II. Basingstoke: BFI/Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, 160-66.

A Survey of the Motion Picture Industry in the Republic of China. Taipei: Kwang Hwa, n.d.

Tweedie, James. "Morning in the New Metropolis: Taipei and the Gobalization of the City Film." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 116-30.

Udden, James. "Taiwan New Cinema: A Movement of Unintended Consequences." Frontier of Literary Studies in China 7, 2 (2013): 159-82.

[Abstract: Taiwan New Cinema movement that began in the 1980s is arguably one of Taiwan's greatest cultural breakthroughs; the movement eventually led to numerous awards for Taiwanese filmmakers at the biggest festivals, such as Venice, Berlin and Cannes. This implies that the New Cinema movement was ultimately the result of a carefully orchestrated policy on the part of the Taiwan authority. In truth, however, the New Cinema was more accidental than planned. The initial factors behind the movement were more domestic in orientation than foreign; the movement represented a makeshift attempt to save a domestic film industry that was slowly dying. The multiple awards received by Taiwanese filmmakers were thus unexpected benefits, which the authority and others were slow to recognize. Regardless of its origins, however, the New Cinema's lasting impact is undeniable. To this day, many of the controversies first raised about the New Cinema remain core issues for Taiwan cinema.]

Wang, Shujen. Framing Piracy: Globalization and Film Distribution in Greater China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Wang, Tung. "Banana Paradise." Cinemaya 12 (1991): 52-53.

Wang, Wei. "Taipei in Transformation: Taiwanese Cinema from the 80s to the 90s." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 62-63.

Wicks, James. "Two Stage Brothers: Tracing a Common Heritage in Early Films by Xie Jin and Li Xing." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 12, 1 (Spring 2009): 174-212.

-----. "Projecting a State that Does Not Exist: Bai Jingrui's Jia zai Taibei/Home Sweet Home." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 4, 1 (March 2010): 15-26.

[Abstract: The opening sequence of Bai Jingrui's Jia zai Taiei/Home Sweet Home (1970) introduces the film's central concern: the politics, both aesthetically and ideologically, of depicting migration within a narrative film. More specifically, Home Sweet Home provides an insight into the official position that the Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang, KMT) held with regard to Taiwanese students who studied abroad in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This article presents a schematic historical contextualization of the film and Bai Jingrui's biographical background. I then focus on potential discrepancies between the projection of state policy and the formal elements of editing, setting and representations of psychological turmoil among the film's primary characters. My goal is to offer a preliminary inquiry into how the structural components of the film work in both conjunction and disjunction with the ideology of the Taiwanese state government in 1970.]

-----. "Gender Negotiation in Song Cunshou's Story of Mother and Taiwan Cinema of the Early 1970s." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 118-32.

Williams, Tony. "The Road to Invincible Asia: Brigitte Lin Ching-hsia's Taiwanese Films." Asian Cinema 19, 1 (Spring/Summer 2008): 1-31.

Wilson, Flannery. "Filmming Disappearance or Renewal? The Ever-Changing Representations of Taipei in Contemporary Taiwanese Cinema." Senses of Cinema 59 (2011).

-----. New Taiwanese Cinema in Focus: Moving Within and Beyond the Frame. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014.

[Abstract: In the Taiwanese film industry, the dichotomy between 'art-house' and commercially viable films is heavily emphasized. However, since the democratization of the political landscape in Taiwan, Taiwanese cinema has become internationally fluid. As the case studies in this book demonstrate, filmmakers such as Hou Hsiao-hsien, Edward Yang, Tsai Ming-liang, and Ang Lee each engage with international audience expectations. New Taiwanese Cinema in Focus therefore presents the Taiwanese New Wave and Second Wave movements with an emphasis on intertextuality, citation and trans-cultural dialogue. Wilson argues that the cinema of Taiwan since the 1980s should be read emblematically; that is, as a representation of the greater paradox that exists in national and transnational cinema studies. She argues that these unlikely relationships create the need for a new way of thinking about 'transnationalism' altogether, making this an essential read for advanced students and scholars in both Film Studies and Asian Studies.]

Wu, Chia-Chi. "Festivals, Criticism and International Reputation of Taiwan New Cinema." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 75-91.

Wu, Meiling. "Postsadness Tawain New Cinema: Eat, Drink, Everyman, Everywoman." In Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 76-95.

Yang, Jeff. Once Upon a Time in China: A Guide to Hong Kong, Taiwanese, and Mainland Chinese Cinema. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Ye Longyan. Guangfu chuqi Taiwan dianying shi (A history of Taiwan cinema in the early postwar period). Taipei: Guojia dianying ziliaoguan, 1995.

Yeh, Emily Yueh-yu. "The Road Home: Stylistic Renovations of Chinese Mandarin Classics." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 203-16.

Yeh, Emily Yueh-yu and Darrell Davis. Taiwan Film Directors: A Treasure Island. NY: Columbia UP, 2005. [Columbia UP abstract] [MCLC Resource Center review by James Tweedie]

Yeh, Long-Yann. "Historical Analysis of 'Taipei Experience' in Taiwanese-language Cinema." In Chen Ruxiu, ed., Xunzhao dianying zhong de Taibei (Focus on Taipei through Cinema). Taipei: Wanxiang, 1995, 42-43.

Yip, June. "Taiwanese New Cinema." In Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ed., The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995, 711-13.

-----. Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction, Cinema, and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham: Duke UP, 2004.

-----. "Toward the Postmodern: Taiwanese New Cinema and Alternative Visions of Nation." In Yip, Envisioning Taiwan: Fiction Cinema and the Nation in the Cultural Imaginary. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2004, 49-48.

Yue, Ming-Bao. "There Is No Place like Home: The Politics of Diasporic Identification in and around Taiwan Films of the 60s and 70s." Postcolonial Studies 6, 2 (2003).

Zhang, Yingjin. "Cinematic Remapping of Taipei: Cultural Hybridization, Heterotopias, and Postmodernity." Conference Paper, Remapping Taiwan (Oct. 13-15, 2000).

-----. "Articulating Sadness, Gendering Space: The Politics and Poetics of Taiyu Films from 1960s Taiwan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 1-46.


Hong Kong

Abbas, Ackar. "The New Hong Kong Cinema and the Deja Disparu." Discourse 16, 3 (1994): 65-77.

-----. "Dialectics of Deception." Public Culture 11, 2 (1999): 347-63. [Project Muse link]

Anderson, D. Aaron. "Violent Dances in Martial Arts Films." Jump Cut 44 (Fall 2001).

-----. "Asian Martial-Arts Cinema, Dance, and the Cultural Languages of Gender." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 190-202.

Baird, David. "Hongkong's Theatre and Motion Picture Industry." Far Eastern Economic Review, 14 Oct. 1954: 497-501.

Barnard, Timothy P. "The Shaw Brothers' Malay Films." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 154-73. l.l

Berry, Chris. "Heterogeneity as Identity: Hybridity and Transnationality in Hong Kong and Taiwanese Cinema." Metro 91 (1992): 48-51.

Bettinson, Gary. "The Shaw Brothers Meet Hammer: Coproduction, Coherence, and Cult Film Criteria." Asian Cinema 22, 1 (Spring/Summer 2011): 122-37.

Bordwell, David. Planet Hong Kong: Popular Cinema and the Art of Entertainment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2000. [reviewed by Shelley Kraicer]

-----. "Aesthetics in Action: Kungfu, Gunplay, and Cinematic Expression." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 73-94.

Bren, Frank. "A Century Of Chinese Cinema: The 25th Hong Kong International Film Festival and Beyond." Senses of Cinema 14 (2001).

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." In Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 294-322.

Chan, Joseph M, Anthony Y. H. Fung, and Chun Hung Ng. Policies fro the Sustainable Development of the Hong Kong Film Industry. HK: Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2010.

Chan, Kenneth. "The Contemporary Wuxia Revival: Genre Remaking and the Hollywood Transnational Factor." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 150-57.

Chan, Natalia Sui Hung. "Rewriting History: Hong Kong Nostalgia Cinema and Its Social Practice." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. NY: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Chan, Stephen Ching-kiu. "Figures of Hope and the Filmic Imaginary of Jianghu in Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema." Cultural Studies 15, 3/4 (July 2001): 486-514.

Abstract: Through an extensive allegorical reading of films, this paper attempts to capture a certain cultural form of imagination in Hong Kong during the transitional period leading up to the historical handover of power in 1997. Dwelling on the world of signification conjured up through what I call the jianghu filmic imaginary,the analysis focuses on the ideological and utopian impulses registered in relation to a whole emotional complex of anxiety, bewilderment and despair in the works of some highly creative local filmmakers of the genre: Ching Siu-Tong, Ann Hui, Tsui Hark and Wong KarWai. The study draws theoretically from Castoriadis's notion of the social imaginary and Bloch's aesthetics of hope, to focus on the textual and contextual re-constructions of a number of very unconventional martial arts swordplay (wuxia) films made in Hong Kong in the last two decades: namely, Tsui's Butterfly Murders (1979), Hui's Romance of Book and Sword (1987), Ching/Tsui's Swordsman II (1992), and Wong's Ashes of Time (1994). By identifying the ideological and affective moments in the filmic imaginary,I want to trace what has been left in a ruined culture for utopian longings, and point to the presence/absence of 'hope' as the cultural imagination for an unknown and unknowable future (beyond 1997). It is my contention that an understanding of that peculiar form of popular imaginary at the unusual juncture of Hong Kong's history can begin with a critical attempt to cope with this subtle practice of hope, so as to recognize (or reject) it as mediation in the process of our collective cultural crisis, anticipation and identification.

Chang, Li-Mei. "Whose Fatal Ways: Mapping the Boundary and Consuming the Other in Border Crossing Films." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 177-89.

Charles, John. The Hong Kong Filmography, 1977-1997: A Complete Reference to 1,100 Films Produced by British Hong Kong Studios. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 2000.

Cheng, Pei-Pei. "Reminiscences of the Life of an Actress in Shaw Brothers' Movietown." Trs. Jing Jing Chang and Jeff McClain. In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Brothers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 246-54.

Cheuk, Pak-Tong. "The Beginning of the Hong Kong New Wave: The Interactive Relationship Between Television and the Film Industry." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 10-27.   

-----. Hong Kong New Wave Cinema (1978-2000). Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 2008. [see press blurb]

[maps the birth and eventual decline of celebrated 'New Wave' in a fascinating and thorough manner. Tong relates the movement to a wider historical context of the developing society and culture of Hong Kong at that time. His study of the celebrated golden age of Hong Kong film contextualises 'New Wave' and describes its wide-reaching effects upon contemporary cinema in Hong Kong, the greater China region and far beyond. ]

Cheung, Esther M.K. and Chu Yiu-wai, eds. Between Home and World: A Reader in Hong Kong Cinema. New York: Oxford UP, 2004.

Chi, Robert. "Hong Kong Cinema Before 1980." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 75-94.

Chiao, Hsiung-ping. Xianggang dianying fengmao (Style of Hong Kong cinema). Taipei: Shibao, 1987.

-----. "The Distinct Taiwanese and Hong Kong Cinemas." In Chris Berry, ed., Perspectives on Chinese Cinema. London: British Film Institute, 1991.

The China Factor in Hong Kong Cinema (Xianggang dianying di Zhongguo mailuo). Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1990.

Cho, Allan. The Hong Kong Wuxia Movie: Identity and Politics, 1966-1976. Saarbrucken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010.

[Abstract: In examining the production and reception of the wuxia movie in Hong Kong during the 1960s and 1970s, this book argues that the popularity of the genre was more than just entertainment value. Its warm reception by audiences not only in Hong Kong, but in large parts of the Chinese diaspora, was because the wuxia pian -- known as the martial arts movie to the West -- had belonged to a long historical literary and political culture that traces back to China's imperial past. Far from a novelty, the wuxia pian was a modernized visual medium with themes and characters that were already familiar to people who read and watched plays, operas, and wuxia novels. Moreover, wuxia filmmakers were not mere imitators of the latest cinematic advances from Hollywood, but instead were innovators interested in recreating the splendor of the past through cinema, drawing inspiration from traditional stories, music, and fighting techniques while experimenting with western film technology and theory. Through the looking glass of popular culture, this book explores what defined Chineseness in one of the most chaotic and fractious periods of Chinese history.]

Chong, Woei Lien, "Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Fruit Chan's Little Cheung: Two Chinese Highlights at the 2001 International Rotterdam Film Festival." China Information 15, 1 (2001):166-196.

Choy, Howard Y.F. "Schizophrenic Hong Kong: Postcolonial Identity Crisis in the Infernal Affairs Trilogy." Transtexts(e)s transcultures: Journal of Global Cultural Studies 3 (2007).

Chu, Blanche. "The Ambivalence of History: Nostalgia Films Understood in the Post-Colonial Context." Hong Kong Cultural Studies Bulletin 8/9 (Spring/Summer 1998): 41-54.

Chu, Rolanda. "Swordsman II and The East is Red: The 'Hong Kong Film,' Entertainment, and Gender." Bright Lights Film Journal 13 (1994): 30-35, 46.

Chu, Yingchi. Hong Kong Cinema and National Cinema: Coloniser, Motherland and Self. Ph.d diss. Perth: Murdoch University, 2000.

-----. Hong Kong Cinema: Coloniser, Motherland and Self. New York, London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Chu, Yiu-wai. "(In)authentic Hong Kong: The '(G)local' Cultural Identity in Postcolonial Hong Kong Cinema." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 147-56.

Chute, David, ed. "Midsection: Made in Hongkong." Film Comment 24, 3 (June 1988): 34-56.

Ciecko, Anne T. "Transnational Action: John Woo, Hong Kong, Hollywood." In Sheldon Lu, ed., Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

----- and Sheldon Lu. "The Heroic Trio: Anita Mui, Maggie Cheung, Michelle Yeoh: Self-Reflexivity and the Globalization of the Hong Kong Action Heroine." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999).

Collier, Joelle. "A Repetition Compulsion: Discontinuity Editing, Classical Chinese Aesthetics, and Hong Kong's Culture of Disappearance." Asian Cinema 10, 2 (Spring/Summer 1999): 67-79.

Coogan, Pat. "Smoking Dragon." bcmagazine 13 (Jan. 17, 2002). [overview of HK film in the year 2001]

Curry, Ramona. "Bridging the Pacific with Love Eterne." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 174-98.

Curtin, Michael. "Industry on Fire: The Cultural Economy of Hong Kong Media." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 28-51.

Dancer, Greg. "Film Style and Performance: Comedy and Kung Fu from Hong Kong." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 42-50.

Dannen, Fredric and Barry Long. Hong Kong Babylon: An Insider's Guide to the Hollywood of the East. NY: Hyperion, 1997.

De Seife, Ethan. "Chang Che." Senses of Cinema--Great Directors, a Critical Database.

Desslandes, Jeanne. "They Programmed Her to Kill: Black Cat, a Hong Kong Remake of Nikita." Tamkang Review (Winter 2002): 107-26.

Desser, David. "The Kung Fu Craze: Hong Kong Cinema's First American Reception." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 19-43.

-----. "Diaspora and National Identity: Exporting 'China' through the Hong Kong Cinema." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 124-36.

-----. "Fists of Legend: Constructing Chinese Identity in the Hong Kong Cinema." In Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 280-97.

Eberhard, Wolfram. The Chinese Silver Screen: Hong Kong and Taiwanese Motion Pictures in the 1960s. Taibei: Orient Culture Service, 1972.

Eng, Michael. "Reforming Vengeance: Kung Fu and the Racial Melancholia of Chinese Masculinity." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 269-300.

Feng, Lin. "Star Endorsement and Hong Kong Cinema: The Social Mobility of Chow Yun-fat, 1986-1995." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 5, 3 (Nov. 2012): 269-.

[Abstract: Cinema has long been connected with the mass consumption in our society. This article uses Chinese star Chow Yun-fat as a case study to investigate the construction of a male star's image as fashion and lifestyle icon in Hong Kong's consumer culture between 1986 and 1995. In addition to examining the Chow's star image in local advertisements released during the period of time, this article also explores the complex interaction of Chow's cinematic persona with his extra-cinematic image in Hong Kong's consumer culture. This article argues that the interaction between Chow's on-screen images and his presence in consumer commercials creates a public space for Hong Kong's new middle-class citizens to articulate the rise of their political and economic power, and to openly express their emerging sense of self.]

Feng, Peter X. "False Consciousness and Double Conscioiusness: Race, Virtual Reality, and the Assimiliation of Hong Kong Action Cinema in The Matrix." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 9-21.

Fonfrède, Julien. Cinéma de Hong-Kong. Montréal: Île de la tortue, 1999.    
 
Fonoroff, Paul. "A Brief History of the Hong Kong Cinema." Renditions 29.30 (1988): 293-308.

-----. "King of the Island: Chow Yun-Fat." Cinemaya 10 (1990/91): 58-59.

-----. Silver Light: A Pictorial History of Hong Kong Cinema, 1920-1970. HK: Joint Publishing, 1997.

-----. At the Hong Kong Movies: 600 Reviews from 1988 Till the Handover. Odyssey Publications, 1999.

Ford, Stacilee. Mabel Cheung Yuen-Ting's An Autumn's Tale. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2008.

Fore, Steve. "Golden Harvest Films and the Hong Kong Movie Industry in the Realm of Globalization." The Velvet Light Trap 34 (Fall 1994): 40-58.

-----. “Home, Migration, Identity: Hong Kong Film Workers Join the Chinese Diaspora.” In Law Kar and Stephen Teo, eds., Fifty Years of Electric Shadows. Hong Kong: Urban Council, 1997, 126-135. (Chinese and English versions). Rpt. in Esther M.K. Cheung and Chu Yiu-wai, eds., Between Home and World: A Reader in Hong Kong Cinema. New York: Oxford UP, 2004, 85-100.

-----. "Introduction: Hong Kong Movies, Critical Time Warps, and Shapes of Things to Come." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 2-9. 

-----. guest ed. Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999).

Fu, Poshek and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. NY: Cambridge UP, 2000.

Fu, Poshek. "Patriotism or Profit: Hong Kong Cinema During the Second World War." In Law Kar, ed., Early Images of Hong Kong and China: Program of the 19th Hong Kong International Film Festival. HK: Urban Council, 1995, 73-79.

-----. "The 1960s: Modernity, Youth Culture, and Hong Kong Cantonese Cinema." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 71-89.

-----. "Between Nationalism and Colonialism: Mainland Emigres, Marginal Culture, and Hong Kong Cinema 1937-1941." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 199-226.

-----. Between Shanghai and Hong Kong: The Politics of Chinese Cinemas. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003.

-----. "Modernity, Diasporic Capital, and 1950s Hong Kong Mandarin Cinema." Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

-----. "Cold War Politics and Hong Kong Mandarin Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 116-33.

-----, ed. China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Gan, Wendy. "The Hong Kong Local on Film: Re-imagining the Global." Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

Garcia, Roger. "Alive and Kicking: The Kung-fu Film Is a Legend." Bright Lights Film Journal 31 (January 2001).

Gateward, Frances. "Wong Fei-hung in Da House: Hong Kong Martial-Arts Films and Hip-Hop Culture." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 51-67.

Grossman, Andrew. "The Rise of Homosexuality and the Dawn of Communism in Hong Kong Film: 1993-1998." In Grossman, ed., Queer Asian Film: Shadows in the Shade. NY: Harrington Press, 2000, 149-86.

-----. "Homosexual Men (and Lesbian Men) in a Heterosexual Genre: Three Gangster Films from Hong Kong." In Grossman, ed., Queer Asian Film: Shadows in the Shade. NY: Harrington Press, 2000, 237-72.

Hall, Ken. "Hong Kong, 1997; Mexico, 1917. Motifs and Historical Perspective." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 51-57.

Hammond, Stefan and Mike Wilkins. Sex and Zen and a Bullet in the Head: The Essential Guide to Hong Kong's Mind-Bending Films. NY: Fireside/Simon and Schuster, 1996.

Hastie, Amelie. "Fashion, Femininity, and Historical Design: The Visual Texture of Three Hong Kong Films." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 52-69. 

Ho, Sam. "The Hong Kong Indie: New Times, New Art." Cinemaya 61/62 (Winter/Spring 2003). 4-10.

Hoover, Michael and Lisa Stokes. "A City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema as Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 25-31.

-----. City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. London: Verso, 1999.

The Hong Kong Filmography. 3 vols. [vol. I: 1913-1941, vol. II: 1941-1949, vol. III: 1950-1952]. HK: HK Film Archive.

Huang, Michelle Tsung-yi. "Hong Kong Blue: Flaneurie with the Camera's Eye in a Phantasmagoric Global City." Journal of Narrative Theory (Winter 2000).

-----. "Conceiving Cross-Border Communities: Mobile Women in Recent Hong Kong Cinema." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 134-51.

Hung, Natalia Chan Sui. "Rewriting History: Hong Kong Nostaligia Cinema and Its Social Practice." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 252-72.

Hunt, Leon. "Dragons Forever: Chinese Martial Arts Stars." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 141-49.

Glaessner, Verina. Kungfu: Cinema of Vengeance. London: Lorimer, 1974.

Jarvie, I.C. Window on Hongkong: A Sociological Study of the Hongkong Film Industry and its Audience. Hongkong: University of Hongkong Center for Asian Studies, 1977.

Kato, M. T . From Kung Fu to Hip Hop: Globalization, Revolution and Popular Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2007. [publisher's blurb]

Kei, Sek. "Acheivement and Crisis: Hong Kong Cinema in the 80s." Bright Lights Film Journal 31 (Jan. 2001).

Kei, Sek, Roland Chu, and Grant Foerster. "A Brief History of the HK Martial Arts Film." Bright Lights Film Journal 31 (Jan. 2001).

Kleinhans, Chuck. "Becoming Hollywood? Hong Kong Cinema in the New Century." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 109-21.

Kong, Kam Yoke. "In Profile: Tony Leung Chiu-Wai, Playing the Role, Living the Part." Cinemaya 49 (2000): 28-35.

Kong, Lily. "Shaw Cinema Enterprise and Understanding Cultural Industries." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 27-56.

Kowallis, Jon. "The Diaspora in Postmodern Taiwan and Hong Kong Film: Framing Stan Lai's The Peach Blossom Land with Allen Fong's Ah Ying." In Sheldon Lu, ed. 1997.

Kraicer, Shelly. "Help!!! (Lashou huichen, Hong Kong 2000)." Senses of Cinema 12 (2001).

-----. "Chinese Language Films at the 2004 Toronto International Film Festival." MCLC Resource Center Publication, 2004. [reviews films from mainland China and Hong Kong]

Lai, Linda Chiu-han. "Film and Enigmatization: Nostalgia, Nonsense, and Remembering." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 231-50.

Law, Kar. "The American Connection in Early Hong Kong Cinema." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 44-71.

-----. "Crisis and Opportunity: Crossing Borders in Hong Kong Cinema, Its Development form th 40s to th 70s." In Kar Law ed., Border Crossing in Hong Kong Cinema. HK: Leisure and Cultural Services Department, 2000, 116-122.

-----. "An Overview of Hong Kong's New Wave Cinema." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 31-50.

-----. "Shaw's Cantonese Productions and Their Interactions with Contemporary Local and Hollywood Cinema." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 57-73.

-----, ed. Cinema of Two Cities: Hong Kong-Shanghai. The 18th Hong Kong International Film Festival. HK: Urban Council, 1994.

-----, ed. Border Crossing in Hong Kong Cinema. HK: Leisure and Cultural Services Department, 2000.

----- and Frank Bren. Hong Kong Cinema: A Cross Cultural View. Scarecrow Press, 2004.

Lau, [Jenny] Kwok Wah. A Cultural Interpretation of the Popular Cinema of China and Hong Kong, 1981-1985. Ph.D. diss. Evanston: Northwestern University, 1989.

-----. "A Cultural Interpretation of the Popular Cinema of China and Hongkong" in Berry ed. Perspectives on Chinese Film. London: British Film Institute, 1991. 166-74.

-----. "Besides Fists and Blood: Hong Kong Comedy and Its Master of the Eighties." Cinema Journal 37, 2 (Winter 1998): 18-34.

-----. "Besides Fists and Blood: Michaeil Hui and Cantonese Comedy." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 158-75.

Law, Wing-Sang. "The Violence of Time and Memory Undercover: Hong Kong's Infernal Affairs." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 7, 3 (Sept. 2006): 383-402.

Lau, Shing-hon, ed. A Study of the Hong Kong Martial Arts Filmm. HK: Fourth International Film Festival, 1980.

-----. A Study of the Hong Kong Swordplay Film 1945-80. HK: Fifth International Film Festival, 1981.

Leary, Charles. “Internal Affairs: High Concept in Hong Kong.” Senses of Cinema 26 (May-June 2003). [review of 2002 film Internal Affairs]

-----. "Electric Shadows of an Airplane: Hong Kong Cinema, World Cinema." In Leon Hunt and Wing-fai Leung, eds., East Asian Cinemas: Exploring Transnational Connections on Film. NY: I. B. Taurus, 2008, 57-69.

Lee, Amy. "Narratives As Tools for Interpretation: Hong Kong Life through the Lens of 1970s' Cinema." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 11, 3 (2010): 470-77.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. "Two Films from Hong Kong: Parody and Allegory." In Nick Browne, Paul Pickowicz, Vivian Sochack, and Esther Yau, eds., New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Identities, Politics. NY: Cambridge UP, 1994, 202-15.

-----. "Tales from the 'Floating City." Harvard Asia Pacific Review (Winter 1996/97).

-----. "Hong Kong Movies in Hollywood." Harvard Asia Pacific Review (Winter 1998/99).

Lee, Susie J. "Theorizing Intervention: The Presence of Hong Kong Cinema in Asian America." Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring 2004): 248-64.

Lee, Vivian P. Y. Hong Kong Cinema since 1997: The Post-Nostaligic Imagination. NY: PalgraveMcMillan, 2009.

[TOC: Introduction: Nostalgia, Memory and Local Histories in Hong Kongs Post-1997 Cinescape. PART I: TIME AND MEMORY: Post-Nostalgia: In the Mood for Love and 2046; Cinematic Remembrances: Ordinary Heroes and Little Cheung; Allegory, Kinship, and Redemption: Fu Bo and Isabella. PART II: SCHIZOPHRENIA, AMNESIA AND CINEPHILIA: Lost in the Cosmopolitan Crime Zone: Johnnie Tos Urban Legends; The Kung Fu Hero in the Digital Age: Stephen Chows Glocal Strategies; Karmic Redemption: Memory and Schizophrenia in Hong Kong Action Films. PART III: IN AND OUT: Migrants in a Strange City: (Dis-)locating the China Imaginary; Outside the Nation: the Pan-Asian Trajectory of Applause Pictures]

-----. "Migrants in a Strange City: (Dis-)locating the China Imaginary in Post-1997 Hong Kong Films." Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 10, 1 (Summer 2010).

-----. "The Hong Kong New Wave: A Critical Re-appraisal." In Song Hwee Lim, ed., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute, 2011, 131-39.

Leong, Toh Hai. "Erotic Cinema of Li Han Hsiang and Chu Yuan at the SIFF." Kinema (Fall 2004): 113-115.

Leung, Grace and Joseph Chen. "The Hong Kong Cinema and Its Overseas Market: A Historical Review, 1950-1995." In Law Kar and Stephen Teo, ed., Fifty Years of Electric Shadows. HK: Urban Council, 1997.

Leung, Helen Hok-sze. "Queerscapes in Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema." positions 9, 2 (Fall 2001): 423-447. [Project Muse link]

-----. "Uncertain Triangles: Lesbian Desire in Hong Kong Cinema." In Tineke Hellwig and Sunera Thobani, eds, Asian Women: Interconnections. Toronto: CSPI/Women's Press, 2005, 185-202.

-----. "Disappearing Fences: Bisexuality and Cross-Dressing in Two Hong Kong Comedies." In Gina Marchetti, See Kam Tan, and Peter Feng, eds., Chinese Connections: Film, Diaspora, and Identities. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, forthcoming.

-----. "Unsung Heroes: Reading Transgender Subjectivities in Hong Kong Action Cinema." In Laikwan Pang and Day Wong Kit-mui, eds., Masculinities and Hong Kong Cinema. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2005. 81-98. Reprinted in Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle, eds, The Transgender Studies Reader. New York: Routledge, 2006, 685-697.

-----. "Disappearing Faces: Bisexuality and Transvestism in Two Hong Kong Comedies." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 152-64.

Leung, N.K. "Hong Kong Cinema: China and 1997." In John Hill and Pamela Gibson, eds. World Cinema: Critical Approaches. NY: Oxford UP, 2000, 170-72.

Leung, Ping-kwan. "Urban Cinema and the Cultural Identity of Hong Kong." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 227-51.

Leung, Wing-fai. "Infernal Affairs and Kung-fu Hustle: Panacea, Placebo, and Hong Kong Cinema." In Leon Hunt and Wing-fai Leung, eds., East Asian Cinemas: Exploring Transnational Connections on Film. NY: I. B. Taurus, 2008, 71-87.

Li, Cheuk-to, ed. A Study of Hong Kong Cinema in the Seventies. HK: Eighth International Film Festival, 1984.

-----. "Popular Cinema in Hong Kong." In Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ed., The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996, 704-11.

-----. "The Return of the Father: Hong Kong New Wave and Its Chinese Context in the 1980s." In Nick Browne, Paul G. Pickowicz, Vivian Sobchack, and Esther Yau, eds., New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Indentities, Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994, 160-179.

Li, Ding-Tsann. "A Colonized Empire: Reflections on the Expansion of Hong Kong Films in Asian Countries." In Kuan-Hsing Chen, ed., Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 1998, 122-41.

Li Hanxiang. Sanshinian xishuo congtou (Detailed account of my thirty-year career). 3 vols. Hong Kong: Tiandi tushu, 1984.

Li, Siu Leung. "Kung Fu: Negotiating Nationalism and Modernity." Cultural Studies 15, 3/4/ (July 2001): 515-42.

Abstract: 'Kung fu', as a cultural imaginary consecrated in Hong Kong cinema since the 1970s, was constituted in a flux of nationalism. This paper argues that the kung fu imaginary found in Hong Kong kung fu cinema is imbued with an underlying self-dismantling operation that denies its own effectiveness in modern life, and betrays an 'originary' moment of heterogeneity, an origin of itself as already 'impurely Chinese'. Having been British-colonized, westernized, capitalist-polluted and culturally hybrid, Hong Kong's relation with 'Chineseness' is at best an ambivalent one. This ambivalence embodies a critical significance of Hong Kong as a defusing hybrid other within a dominant centralizing Chinese ideology, which is itself showing signs of falling apart through complex changes imposed by global capital. Hong Kong's kung fu imaginary, which operates in a self-negating mode, is instructive when read as a tactic of intervention at the historical turn from colonial modernity to the city's reluctant return to the fatherland. The kung fu imaginary enacts a continuous unveiling of its own incoherence, and registers Hong Kong's anxious process of self-invention. If Hong Kong's colonial history makes the city a troublesome supplement, then the 'Hong Kong cultural imaginary' will always be latently subversive, taking to task delusive forms of 'unitary national imagination'.

-----. "Embracing Glocalization and Hong Kong-made Musical Film." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 74-94.

Li Youxin, ed. Gang Tai liu da daoyan (Six major directors in Hong Kong and Taiwan). Taipei: Zili wanbao she, 1986.

Liang Bingjun (Leung Ping-kwan). "Minzu dianying yu Xianggang wenhua shenfen: cong Bawang bieji, Qiwang, Ruan Lingyu kan wenhua dingwei" (National film and Hongkong cultural identity). Jintian 3 (1994): 193-204.

Lin, Niantong, ed. Cantonese Cinema Retrospective, 1950-59. HK: Second International Film Festival, 1978.

-----. Hong Kong Cinema Survey 1946-68. HK: Third Internation Film Festival, 1978.

Lo, Kwai-Cheung. Chinese Face/Off: The Transnational Culture of Hong Kong. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2005. [examines film, newspaper culture, theme parks, and kung-fu comics, as well as the interaction of the HK film industry with Hollywood, Lo uncovers HK's "transnational" identity defined in terms of complex relationships with mainland Chna, other diasporic communities (like Taiwan), and the West]

-----. "There Is No Such Thing as Asia: Racial Particularities in the 'Asian' Films of Hong Kong and Japan." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005): 133-58.

Logan, Bey. Hong Kong Action Cinema. New York: Overlook Press, 1996.

Lu, Sheldon H.. "Filming Diaspora and Identity: Hong Kong and 1997." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 273-88.

-----. "Hong Kong Diaspora Film and Transnational TV Drama: From Homecoming and Exile to Flexible Citizenship." Post Script 20, 2/3 (Winter/Spring 2001): 137-46. Rpt. in Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 298-311.

-----. "Diaspora, Citizenship, Nationality: Hong Kong and 1997." In Lu, ed., China, Trannational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002. 104-21.

Lu, Sheldon H. and Anne T. Ciecko. "The Heroic Trio: Anita Mui, Maggie Cheung, Michelle Yeoh--Self Relexivity and the Globalization of the Hong Kong Action Heroine." In Lu, ed., China, Trannational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2002. 122-38.

"Made in Hong Kong." Special issue of Cahiers du Cinema (September, 1984).

Marchetti, Gina. "Buying American, Consuming Hong Kong: Cultural Commerce, Fantasies of Identity, and the Cinema." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 289-314.

-----. "Transnational Exchanges, Questions of Culture, and Global Cinema: Defining the Dynamics of Changing Relationships." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 251-76.

-----. "The Hong Kong New Wave." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 95-117.

Mintz, Marilyn D. The Martial Arts Film. South Brunswick: Barnes, 1978.

Morris, Meaghan, Siu Leung Li, and Stephen Chan Ching-kiu, eds. Hong Kong Connections: Transnational Imagination in Action Cinema. HK: Hong Kong UP, 2005.

Needham, Benjamin. "Fashioning Modernity: Hollywood and the Hong Kong Musical, 1957-64." In Leon Hunt and Wing-fai Leung, eds., East Asian Cinemas: Exploring Transnational Connections on Film. NY: I. B. Taurus, 2008, 41-56.

Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming. "Japanese Elements in Hong Kong Erotic Films." Asian Cinema 15, 1 (Spring/Summer 2004): 217-24.

-----. "When Sadako Meets Mr. Vampire: The Impact of Ringu on Hong Kong Ghost Films." Asian Cinema 19, 1 (Spring/Summer 2008): 143-56.

Ng, Kenny K. K. "Romantic Comedies of Cathay-MP&GI in the 1950s and 60s: Language, Locality, and Urban Character." Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

-----. "Inhibition vs. Exhibition: Political Censorship of Chinese and Foreign Cinemas in Postwar Hong Kong." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 23-36.

[Abstract: This article traces clandestine film censorship in colonial Hong Kong during the Cold War. Based on film studio records, press coverage, historical accounts, and recently declassified government documents, albeit limited and incomplete, the article examines sample cases and controversial foreign and Chinese films to throw light on the predicament of cross-border film exhibition in a distinctively politicized period. The evidence and arguments in this study point to a different conceptualization of transnationality and boundary-crossing of cinema grounded in its specific historical and geopolitical configuration. It is less about the easy traffic of capital, human resources, commodities, and ideas across the border than the dangerous trafficking of movie images, ideologies, human actions and propagandas that could destabilize the territorial boundary and its political status quo. Film screening and viewing in the colony are subject to strict official surveillance to quarantine the visuality of politics in the shadow of Cold War paranoia.]

Ng, Kenny K. K. "The Screenwriter as Cultural Broker: Travels of Zhang Ailing's Comedy of Love." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 131-84.

Ono, Yoko. "Lost Heroes: A Comparative Study of Contemporary Japanese and Hong Kong Gangster Films." Asian Cinema 16, 2 (Fall/Winter 2005): 147-54.

Palmer, August Lee and Jenny Kwok Wah Lau. “Of Executioners and Courtesans: The Performance of Gender in Hong Kong Cinema of the 1990s.” In Jenny Kwok Wah Lau, ed., Multiple Modernities: Cinemas and Popular Media in Transcultural East Asia. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2003, 203-21.

Pang, Laikwan.  "The Distribution and Reception of Hong Kong Films in Mainland China." In Stephanie Donald, Michael Keane, and Yin Hong, eds., Media Futures in China: Consumption, Content and Crisis. London: Curzon Press, 2001.

-----. "Masculinity in Crisis: Films of Milkyway Image and Post 1997 Hong Kong Cinema." Feminist Media Studies 2, 3 (Fall 2002): 325-40.

Pang, Laikwan and Day Kiu-miu Wong, eds. Masculinities and Hong Kong Cinema. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2005.

Pickowicz, Paul G. "Three Readings of Hong Kong Nocturne." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 95-114.

Reynaud, Berenice. "Hong Kong." Cinemaya 33 (1996): 53-54.

-----. "The Book, the Goddess and the Hero: Sexual Politics in the Chinese Martial Arts Film." Senses of Cinema 26 (May-June, 2003).

Rist, Peter. "Neglected 'Classical' Periods: Hong Kong and Korean Cinemas of the 1960s." Asian Cinema 12, 1 (Spring/Summer 2001): 49-66.

Rodriguez, Hector. "Hong Kong Popular Culture as an Interpretive Arena: The Huang Feihong Film Series." Screen 38, 1 (1997): 1-24.

-----. "The Emergence of the Hong Kong New Wave." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 53-69.

-----. "Organizational Hegemony in the Hong Kong Cinema." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 107-19.

Rojas, Carlos. "Specular Failure and Spectral Returns in Two Films with Maggie Cheung (and one without)." Sense of Cinema 12 (2001).

Roosen-Runge, Lisa. "The 25th Annual Hong Kong International Film Festival (April 6-21 2001): A Report." Senses of Cinema 14 (2001).

-----. "The 26th Annual Hong Kong International Film Festival--A Report." Senses of Cinema 20 (May-June 2002).

Ryan, Barbara. "Blood, Brothers, and Hong Kong Gangster Movies: Pop Culture Commentary on 'One China'." In John A. Lent, ed., Asian Popular Culture. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995, 61-77.

Sarkar, Bhaskar. "Hong Kong Hysteria: Martial Arts Tales from a Mutating World." In Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001, 159-76.

Schroeder, Andrew. "All Roads Lead to Hong Kong: Martial Arts, Digital Effects and the Labour of Empire in Contemporary Action Film." EHHCSS 1 (Jan. 2002).

Shih, Shu-mei. "Gender and a Geopolitical Desire: The Seduction of Mainland Women in Taiwan and Hong Kong Media." In Mayfair Mei Hui Yang, ed. Spaces of Their Own: Women's Public Sphere in Transnational China. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999, 278-307.

Shu, Kei, ed. Cantonese Cinema Retrospective, 1960-69. HK: Sixth International Film Festival, 1982.

-----. A Comparative Study of Post-war Mandarin and Cantonese Cinema. Hong Kong: Seventh International Film Festival, 1983.

Singer, Michael. "Chow Must Go On." Film Comment 24 (1988): 46-47.

Stockbridge, Sally. "Sexual Violence and Hong Kong Films: Regulation and Cultural Difference." Media Information Australia 74 (1994): 86-92.

Stokes, Lisa Odham and Michael Hoover. City on Fire: Hong Kong Cinema. London; New York: Verso, 1999.

-----. "Like Father, Like Son: Yuen Wo-ping's Iron Monkey and the Evolution of Wong Fei-hung." Asian Cinema 12, 2 (Fall/Winter 2001): 110-18.

-----. "Food Fight, Food Fight: Culture and Economy in Chicken and Duck Talk." Asian Cinema 14, 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 170-79.

Stringer, Julian. "Category 3: Sex and Violence in Postmodern Hong Kong." In Christopher Sharrett, ed., Mythologies of Violence in Postmodern Media. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1998.

-----. "Cultural Identity and Disaspora in Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema." In Darrell Hamamoto and Sandra Liu, eds., Asian American Screen Cultures. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.

-----. "Problems with the Treatment of Hong Kong Cinema as Camp." Asian Cinema 8, 2 (Winter 1996-97): 44-65.

-----. Blazing Passions: Contemporary Hong Kong Cinema. London: Wallflower Press, 2007. [press blurb]

Sun, Shaoyi. "Women and The Labyrinth of History: Reflections on The Soong Sisters." Unpublished manuscript on the Asian Connections website.

Szeto, Kin-Yan. "Specters of Capital: Hong Kong Cinema in a Border/less World." Jump Cut 45 (Fall 2002). [review of Esther Yau, ed., At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2001)].

-----. "Jackie Chan's Cosmopolitical Consciousness and Comic Displacement." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 229-60.

-----. The Martial Arts Cinema of the Chinese Diaspora: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan in Hollywood. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: Kin-Yan Szeto critically examines three of the most internationally famous martial arts film artists to arise out of the Chinese diaspora and travel far from their homelands to find commercial success in the world at large: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan. Positing the idea that these filmmakers' success is evidence of a "cosmopolitical awareness" arising from their cross-cultural ideological engagements and geopolitical displacements, Szeto demonstrates how this unique perspective allows these three filmmakers to develop and act in the transnational environment of media production, distribution, and consumption...]

Szeto, Mirana M. and Yun-Chung Chen. "Mainlandization or Sinophone Translocality? Challenges for Hong SAR New Wave Cinema." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 6, 2 (2012): 115-34.

[Abstract: The seeming revival of Hong Kong cinema through Hong Kong-China co-productions catered increasingly to the China market allowing major Hong Kong creative talents to prosper and even influence industry conventions and infrastructure in China. However, Hong Kong below-the-line jobs are increasingly replaced by those from China, making such careers unsustainable. Such 'mainlandized' co-productions find the more liberal Sinophone communities of Hong Kong and South East Asia harder to penetrate. Mainlandization and Hollywoodization in all Sinophone markets threatens Hong Kong film with ontological crisis. In this context, the Special Administrative Region (SAR) New Wave and their new generation of post-1980s audience make us wonder if cultural articulations that go beyond vertically imagined colonial/national identity politics are still possible; whether sensitive portrayals of inter-local Sinophone dialogues, the kind of creole translocality from below that has characterized much Hong Kong film productions are still viable, without giving up a decent China market.]

Tan, See Kam. "The Hongkong Cantonese Vernacular as Cultural Resistance." Cineyama 20 (1993); 12-15.

-----. "Hong Kong Cinema: Double Marginalization and Cultural Resistance." Southeast Asian Journal of Social Sciences 22 (1994): 53-71.

-----. "The Cross-Gender Performances of Yam Kim-Fei, or The Queer Factor in Postwar Hong Kong Cantonese Opera/Opera Films." In Andrew Grossman, ed., Queer Asian Film: Shadows in the Shade. NY: Harrington Press, 2000, 201-12.

-----. "Huangmei Opera Films, Shaw Brothers and Ling Bo: Chaste Love Stories, Genderless Cross-dressers and Sexless Gender-plays?" Jump Cut 49 (Spring 2007).

Tan, See Kam and Annette Aw. "Love Eterne: Almost a (Heterosexual) Love Story." In Chris Berry, ed., Chinese Films in Focus: 25 New Takes. London: BFI Publishing, 2003, 137-43.

Tateishi, Ramie. "Jackie Chan and the Reinvention of Tradition." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 78-84.

Taylor, Jeremy. Rethinking Transnational Chinese Cinema: The Amoy-dialect Film Industry in Postwar Asia. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: The Amoy-dialect film industry thrived in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia in the 1950s. Film in Amoy dialect, a dialect of Chinese, reflects a particular period in the history of the Chinese diaspora, and has been little studied due to its ambiguous place within the wider realm of Chinese and East Asian film history. This book represents the first full length, critical study of the origin, the significant rise and the rapid decline of the Amoy-dialect film industry in post-war Asia. Rather than examining the industry for its own sake, it focuses on its broader cultural, political and economic significance in the region. In particular, it questions many of the assumptions that are currently being made about the ‘recentness’ of transnationalism in Chinese cultural production, as well as the prominence given to ‘the nation’ and ‘nation-building’ in studies of Chinese cinemas and of the Chinese Diaspora. By examining a cinema that was not ‘national’, not grounded in any particular national tradition, and largely unconcerned with the ‘nation-building’ project in post-war Asia, this book challenges the very terms of reference within which many studies of film have been conducted.]

Teng, Sue-Feng. "From Bruce Lee to Jackie Chan-The Kungfu Film Carries On." Sinorama (Jun. 1996): 28-35.

Teo, Stephen. "Hong Kong Cinema: Discovery and Prediscovery." In John Hill and Pamela Gibson, eds. World Cinema: Critical Approaches. NY: Oxford UP, 2000, 166-70.

-----. "Hong Kong Cinema: Hearing Asian Voices." In 1990 Hawaii International Film Festival Viewer's Guide. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1990.

-----. Hong Kong Cinema: The Extra Dimensions. London: British Film Institute, 1997.

-----. "Local and Global Identity: Wither Hong Kong Cinema?" Senses of Cinema 7 (2000).

-----. "The 1970s: Movement and Transition." In Poshek Fu and David Desser, eds., The Cinema of Hong Kong: History, Arts, Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000, 90-110.

-----. Director in Action: Johnnie To and the Hong Kong Action Film. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2007.

-----. Chinese Martial Arts Cinema: The Wuxia Tradition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2009.

[Abstract: The traditional martial arts genre known as wuxia (literally "martial chivalry") became popular the world over through the phenomenal hit Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000). This book unveils the rich layers of the wuxia tradition as it developed in the early Shanghai cinema of the late 1920s and in the Hong Kong and Taiwan film industries of the 1950s and beyond. Stephen Teo follows the tradition from its beginnings in Shanghai cinema to its rise as a serialized form in silent cinema and its prohibition in 1931. He shares the fantastic characteristics of the genre, their relationship to folklore, myth, and religion, and their similarities and differences with the kung fu sub-genre of martial arts cinema. He maps the protagonists and heroes of the genre, in particular the figure of the lady knight-errant, and its chief personalities and masterpieces. Directors covered include King Hu, Chu Yuan, Zhang Che, Ang Lee, and Zhang Yimou, and films discussed are Come Drink With Me (1966), The One-Armed Swordsman (1967), A Touch of Zen (1970-71), Hero (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004), The Promise (2005), The Banquet (2006), and Curse of the Golden Flower (2006).]

-----. "The Hong Kong Cantonese Cinema: Emergence, Development and Decline." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 103-11.

Tobias, Mel C. Flashbacks: Hong Kong Cinema after Bruce Lee. Hong Kong: Gulliver Books, 1979.

Tong, Cheuk Pak. Hong Kong New Wave Cinema (1976-2000). Bristol, UK: Intellect Books, 2005.

Tsai, Eva. "Kaneshiro Takeshi: Transnational Stardom and the Media and Culture Industries in Asia Global/Postcolonial Age." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1, (Spring 2005): 100-132.

Wai, Chu Yiu. "Hybridity and (G)local Identity in Postcolonial Hong Kong Cinema." In Sheldon Lu and Yueh-Yu Yeh, eds., Chinese-Language Film: Historiography, Poetics, Politics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2005, 312-28.

Wald, Gayle. "Same Difference: Racial Masculinity in Hong Kong and Cop-Buddy Hybrids." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 68-81.

Wang, Shujen. Framing Piracy: Globalization and Film Distribution in Greater China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

Wang, Yiman. "The ‘Transnational’ as Methodology: Transnationalizing Chinese Film Studies through the Example of The Love Parade and its Chinese Remakes." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 9-22.

[Abstract: This essay critiques unreflective celebration of transnational Chinese cinema and proposes the ‘transnational’ as methodology. By examining the dual modes of address in a Hong Kong remake of a Lubitsch musical comedy, I demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing border politics and the ‘foreignization’ of Chinese cinema in its transnational production and reception.]

Weisser, Thomas. Asian Cult Cinema. New York: Boulevard Books, 1997.

Williams, Tony. "Kwan Tak-Hing and the New Generation." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 71-77.

-----. "Hong Kong Cinema, the Boat People, and To Liv(e)." Asian Cinema 11, 1 (Spring/Summer 2000): 131-43.

-----. "Under 'Western Eyes': The Personal Odyssey of Huang Fei-Hong in Once Upon a Time in China." Cinema Journal 40, 1 (2000): 3-24.

-----. "Michelle Yeoh: Under Eastern Eyes." Asian Cinema 12, 2 (Fall/Winter 2001): 119-31.

-----. "Transnational Stardom: The Case of Maggie Cheung Man-yuk." Asian Cinema 14, 2 (Fall/Winter 2003): 180-96.

-----. "Bridgit Lin Ching Hsia: Last Eastern Star of the Late Twentieth Century." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 2 (July 2008): 147-57.

[Abstract: This article aims to explore the star status of Brigitte Lin according to the concepts pioneered by Richard Dyer in his Stars and Heavenly Bodies monographs. In contrast to most works that examine Lin's star phenomenon exclusively in terms of her Hong Kong films and ‘Invincible Asia’ role in particular, this study emphasizes the importance of her early Taiwan films made during 1972–84 as well as the transitional Taiwan films of the 1980s directed by Chu Yen Ping when the star sought to change her earlier image. It suggests that Lin was a much more active agent in this process than Tsui Hark. It concludes by noting the significance of the star's off-screen presence as commentator in two post-retirement films, one of which parallels her well-known Hong Kong star image.]

Willis, Andy. "Painted Skin: Negotiating Mainland China's Fear of the Supernatural." Asian Cinema 22, 1 (Spring/Summer 2011): 20-30.

Wood, Miles. Cine East: Hong Kong Cinema through the Looking Glass. Guildford: FAB, 1998.

Wong, Ain-ling. "The Black-and-White Wenyi Films of Shaws." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 115-32.

Wong, Cindy Hing-Yuk. "Cities, Cultures and Cassettes: Hong Kong Cinema and Transnational Audiences." Post Script: Essays in Film and the Humanities. Special issue on HK Cinema. 19, 1 (Fall 1999): 87-106.   

Wong, Lily. "Moving Serenades: Hearing the Sinophonic in MP and GI's Longxiang Fengwu." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 7, 3 (Oct. 2013):

[Abstract: As the first full-coloured film-musical produced in Hong Kong, Longxiang fengwu/Calendar Girl (Tao Qin, 1959) is known for its restaging of 1930s Shanghai oldies and its resulting box office success. This article traces the transpacific and trans- medial meaning-making processes the restaged tunes (lyric and sound) offer so to hear the social spaces, geographies and identities that the intersection of music and cinema can enable, reflect and prophecy. In particular, it discusses the ways the restaged Shanghai oldies in the film 'move' technologically, spatially and affectually. That is, in addition to tracking the geopolitics of the musical numbers' audiospatiality, I listen closely to the 'structures of feeling' that shift and mutate through the songs' travels through time, place and medium. Gesturing towards a 'Sinophone Geography of Affect', I argue that it is precisely through these 'movements' that the tunes are able to create spaces in which discourses of national and cultural nativity get both contested and consolidated, both sounded and silenced. As such, I submit that it is precisely through these movements that we find openings to complicate both the films' geopolitical rendering of Cold War-era Sinophone identities, and the disciplinary boundaries that govern past studies of the text in the academy.]

Wu Hao. Xianggang dianying minsuxue (Ethnography of Hong Kong film). Hong Kong: Ci wenhua, 1993.

Xianggang dianying de Zhongguo mailuo (The China factor in Hong Kong cinema). HK International Film Festival, 1990. HK: Shicheng ju, 1997.

Yang, Jeff. Once Upon a Time in China: A Guide to Hong Kong, Taiwanese, and Mainland Chinese Cinema. NY: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Yang, Mingyu. "China: Once Upon A Time / Hong Kong: 1997: A Critical Study of Contemporary Martial Arts Films." PhD dissertation. University of Maryland, 1995.

Yau, Ching. Filming Margins: Tang Shu Shuen, a Forgotten Woman Film Director. HK: HK University Press, 2004.

Yau, Esther C.M. "Border Crossing: Mainland China's Presence in Hong Kong Cinema." In Nick Browne, Paul Pickowicz, Vivian Sochack, and Esther Yau, eds., New Chinese Cinemas: Forms, Identities, Politics. New York: Cambridge, 180-201.

-----, ed. At Full Speed: Hong Kong Cinema in a Borderless World. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2001.

-----. "The Spirits of Capital and Haunting Sounds: Translocal Historicism in Victim (1999)." In See-kam Tan, Peter X. Feng, and Gina Marchetti, eds., Chinese Connections: Critical Perspectives on Film, Identity, and Diaspora. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009, 249-62.

Yau, Ka-fai. "3rdness: Filming, Changing, Thinking Hong Kong." positions 9, 3 (Winter, 2001): 535-558. [Project Muse link]

-----. "Cinema 3: Towards a 'Minor Hong Kong Cinema.'" Cultural Studies 15, 3/4 (July 2001): 543-63.

Abstract: This article canvasses the way Hong Kong cinema became modern, at the moment and the place when/where it had to come up with new cinematic images in response to new geo-historical situations. I call it a 'minor Hong Kong cinema' in the sense that it is a cinema that deterritorializes within the heart of what is considered major. This minor cinema is not at all just a cinema at the margin. It is rather a strategy to conceptualize and develop certain suggestive examples in order to respond to specific geo-historical situations. While this minor cinema cannot represent the whole of Hong Kong cinema, it also highlights the potentialities of Hong Kong cinema that cannot be covered by dominant discourses on Hong Kong. This article focuses upon the films of Fruit Chan. In Fruit Chan's 'Hong Kong 1997 Trilogy', 1997 is neither the beginning of recollections nor the end of Hong Kong. These films dwell upon the failed, the vanished, and the underrepresented to make Hong Kong appear at the intriguing moment of 1997. They explore new perspectives for re-channelling Hong Kong and its histories.

Yau, Shuk-ting Kinnia. "A Study of the Post-Handover Hong Kong Action Cinema, 1997-2007." Asian Cinema 20, 2 (Fall/Winter 2009): 114-30.

Yip, Man-Fung. "The Difficulty of Difference: Rethinking the Woman Warrior Figure in Hong Kong Martial Arts Cinema." Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 82-87.

Yue, Audrey. "Preposterous Hong Kong Horror: Rouge's (be)hindsight and a (sodomitical) Chinese Ghost Story." In Ken Gelber, ed., The Horror Reader. NY: Routledge, 2000, 364-73.

Yung, Sai-shing. "Territorialization and the Entertainment Industry of the Shaw Brothers in Southeast Asia." In Poshek Fu, ed., China Forever: The Shaw Borthers and Diasporic Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008, 133-53.

Zhang, Zhen. "The 'Shanghai Factor' in Hong Kong Cinema: A Tale of Two Cities in Historical Perspective." Asian Cinema 10, 1 (1998): 146-59.

Zhou, Xuelin. "On the Rooftop: A Study of Marginalized Youth Films in Hong Kong Cinema." Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 8, 2 (Oct. 2008): 163-78.


Diaspora/Transnational

Berry, Chris and Mary Farquhar. “From National Cinemas to Cinema and the National: Rethinking the National in Transnational Chinese Cinemas.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 2 (2001): 109-22.

Chan, Kenneth. "The Contemporary Wuxia Revival: Genre Remaking and the Hollywood Transnational Factor." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 150-57.

Chang, Hsiao-hung. "The Unbearable Lightness of Globalization: On the Transnational Flight of Wuxia Films." In Darrell William Davis and Ru-Shou Robert Chen, eds., Cinema Taiwan: Politics, Popularity and State of the Arts. NY: Routledge, 2007, 95-107.

Ciecko, Anne. "Contemporary Meta-Chinese Film Stardom and Transnational Transmedia Celebrity." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 185-93.

Lee, Mabel. "Contextualizing Gao Xingjian's Film Silhouette / Shadow." MCLC Resource Center Publication (January 2008).

Lo, Kwai-Cheung. "The Idea of (Asia)nism and Trans-Asian Productions." In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-Yin Chow, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Cinemas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 548-565.

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng. China, Transnational Visuality, Global Postmodernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. [reviewed by David Leiwei Li in Jump Cut, no. 47 (Fall 2004).

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-peng, ed. Transnational Chinese Cinema: Identity, Nationhood, Gender. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1997.

Marchetti, Gina. From Tiananmen to Times Square: Transnational China and the Chinese Diaspora on Global Screens, 1989-1997. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 2006.

-----. "Cinemas of the Chinese Diaspora." In Song Hwee Lim and Julian Ward, eds., The Chinese Cinema Book. London: BFI, 2011, 26-34.

Sze-Lorrain, Fiona, ed. Silhouette/Shadow: The Cinematic Art of Gao Xingjian. Paris: Contours, 2007.

[this book will contain new and translated essays written by the 2000 Nobel Prize Laureate in Literature, Gao Xingjian and his film collaborators, Alain Melka and Jean-Louis Darmyn, all addressing their film completed in 2005, Silhouette/Shadow (La Silhouette sinon l'ombre). With a preface written by the editor Fiona Sze-Lorrain, this book is the first documentation that focuses exclusively on Gao Xingjian's artistic expression in the film world.]

Szeto, Kin-Yan. "Jackie Chan's Cosmopolitical Consciousness and Comic Displacement." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 229-60.

-----. The Martial Arts Cinema of the Chinese Diaspora: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan in Hollywood. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2011.

[Abstract: Kin-Yan Szeto critically examines three of the most internationally famous martial arts film artists to arise out of the Chinese diaspora and travel far from their homelands to find commercial success in the world at large: Ang Lee, John Woo, and Jackie Chan. Positing the idea that these filmmakers' success is evidence of a "cosmopolitical awareness" arising from their cross-cultural ideological engagements and geopolitical displacements, Szeto demonstrates how this unique perspective allows these three filmmakers to develop and act in the transnational environment of media production, distribution, and consumption...]

Stephen Teo [interviews with Li Yang]. "There is No Sixth Generation: Director Li Yang on Blind Shaft and His Place in Chinese Cinema." Senses of Cinema 27 (July/Aug. 2003).

Taylor, Jeremy. Rethinking Transnational Chinese Cinema: The Amoy-dialect Film Industry in Postwar Asia. NY: Routledge, 2010.

[Abstract: The Amoy-dialect film industry thrived in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia in the 1950s. Film in Amoy dialect, a dialect of Chinese, reflects a particular period in the history of the Chinese diaspora, and has been little studied due to its ambiguous place within the wider realm of Chinese and East Asian film history. This book represents the first full length, critical study of the origin, the significant rise and the rapid decline of the Amoy-dialect film industry in post-war Asia. Rather than examining the industry for its own sake, it focuses on its broader cultural, political and economic significance in the region. In particular, it questions many of the assumptions that are currently being made about the ‘recentness’ of transnationalism in Chinese cultural production, as well as the prominence given to ‘the nation’ and ‘nation-building’ in studies of Chinese cinemas and of the Chinese Diaspora. By examining a cinema that was not ‘national’, not grounded in any particular national tradition, and largely unconcerned with the ‘nation-building’ project in post-war Asia, this book challenges the very terms of reference within which many studies of film have been conducted.]

Tsai, Eva. "Kaneshiro Takeshi: Transnational Stardom and the Media and Culture Industries in Asia's Global/Postcolonial Age." Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 1 (Spring 2005): 100-32.

Wang, Yiman. "The Phanton Strikes Back: Triangulating Hollywood, Shanghai, and Hong Kong." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 21 (2004): 317-26.

-----. "Anna May Wong: A Border-crossing 'Minor' Star Mediating Performance." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 2 (2008): 91-102.

-----. "The ‘Transnational’ as Methodology: Transnationalizing Chinese Film Studies through the Example of The Love Parade and its Chinese Remakes." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 2, 1 (May 2008): 9-22.

[Abstract: This essay critiques unreflective celebration of transnational Chinese cinema and proposes the ‘transnational’ as methodology. By examining the dual modes of address in a Hong Kong remake of a Lubitsch musical comedy, I demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing border politics and the ‘foreignization’ of Chinese cinema in its transnational production and reception.]

-----. "Made in China, Sold in the United States, and Vice Versa–Transnational ‘Chinese’ Cinema between Media Capitals." Journal of Chinese Cinemas 3, 2 (June. 2009): 163-76.

-----. "Alter-centering Chinese Cinema: The Diasporic Formation." In Yingjin Zhang, ed. A Companion to Chinese Cinema. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, 535-51.

 

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